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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING NHA TRANG UNIVERSITY HO TRUNG PHUOC RESEARCH TO USE CATFISH FAT BIODIESEL FOR DIESEL ENGINES OF FISHING SHIP Mayor: Mechanical Power Engineering Major code: 9520116 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION SUMMARY KHANH HOA - 2019 Research was accomplished at Nha Trang university Supervisor: Prof Phan Van Quan Prof Tran Gia Thai Reviewer 1: Prof Vu Ngoc Khiem Reviewer 2: Prof Nguyen Hoang Vu Reviewer 3: Prof Nguyen Le Duy Khai Thesis title: “Research to Use Catfish Fat Biodiesel for Diesel Engines of Fishing Ship” Mayor: Mechanical Power Major code: Engineering PhD Cadidate: 9520116 Supervisor: Ho Trung Phuoc Prof Phan Van Quan Education Prof Tran Gia Thai Institution: Nha Trang University Key Findings: (1) Defined some properties of B5, B10, B100 fuel (catfish fat biodiesel) used to research (2) The thesis used KIVA-3V software to build and adjust the Cummins NTA 855 engine simulation model, which used to investigate the effect of fuel on some thermodynamic parameters in combustion chamber, NOx, PM emissions and some cycle parameters of engine when using B10 fuel (3) Estimate the influence of B10 fuel on some basic operating parameters of Cummins NTA 855 engine by experiment and promote a suitable fuel mixing technology for diesel engines of fishing ship PhD Cadidate Ho Trung Phuoc INTRODUCTION THE RATIONALE Use biofuels as alternative fuel have been in the countries research, application Currently, in the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Netherlands and some other European countries (EU) had to use successfully biofuels for engines in the industry and transport In Vietnam, if using catfish fat biodiesel produced for fishing ship will save a large amount of foreign currency for the country and reduced environmental pollution So "Research to use catfish fat biodiesel for engines of fishing ship" is very urgent in present context RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Research of the effect of catfish fat biodiesel (B10) mixture fuel on the main parameters of diesel engine of fishing ship, shown possibility to use B10 and design suitable adaptive fuel system RESEARCH OBJECTS AND SCOPE 3.1 Research objects Catfish fat biodiesel and the main parameters of diesel engine of fishing ship 3.2 Research scope - Catfish fat biodiesel B10 (10% Biodiesel B100, 90% Diesel) - Power, specific fuel consumption, exhaust emission of diesel engine used of fishing ship when using B10 and DO RESEARCH CONTENTS - Overview and theoretical studies using catfish fat biodiesel B10 as fuel for diesel engines; - Select the mathematical model and simulate of the effect of B10 fuel on the main parameters of diesel engine of fishing ship; - Determined the main parameters of diesel engine using B10 fuel THE MEANING OF SCIENCE AND PRACTICAL OF THESIS 5.1 The meaning of science - Building a theoretical basis of the effect of catfish fat biodiesel fuel on the main parameters of diesel engines; - Determined of adjusting parameters of catfish fat biodiesel fuel to simulation: heat, viscosity and density; - Show results of experiment study to use B10 fuel on diesel engines 5.2 The practical meaning - Suggestion solutions to use B10 mixed fuel for diesel engines; - Suggestion technology of adaptive fuel system to use B10 mixed fuel; - Complete the manual using biodiesel exactly, prevent spoiled of engine RESEARCH METHODS 6.1 Study of theory - Theories study of fuel injection, mixture formation and combustion in diesel engines using biodiesel fuel; - Analysis and selection of rational mathematical models, applied to study the change of working parameters of diesel engines using B10 fuel; - Simulation of the effects of B10 fuel on the main parameters of diesel fishing ship 6.2 Experimental study - Determine the thermal parameters of B10 fuel; - Determine the main parameters of diesel engine when using B10 THESIS STRUCTURE The thesis includes chapters and conclusions, recommendation part: Chapter Overview Chapter Theoretical basis and mathematical model describing the effect of biodiesel fuel on main working parameters of diesel engines Chapter Evaluate working parameters of diesel engine when using B10 fuel by numerical simulation Chapter Experiment research to use catfish fat biodiesel fuel for Cummins NTA855 engine of fishing ship Conclusions and recommendations LIMITATIONS OF THESIS The thesis has not researched the effect of the rule of fuel supply, experiment to measure NOx and soot emissions of diesel engine when using catfish fat biodiesel Chapter Overview 1.1 Overview of biofuels and biodiesel Biofuels made from vegetable oils and animal fats, which have a potential as alternative fuel for traditional fuels Have function addition oxygen for combustion process, decrease exhaust emissions, blend easy with traditional fuels and a renewable source of fuel Biofuels such as biogasoline, biodiesel and biogas, where only biogasoline and biodiesel are interested to research application for internal combustion engines In 2007, Vietnam has issued technical commitTCVN 7717: 2007 (table 1.1) with 20 basic technical parameter of Biodiesel B100 and become one of the countries is development biofuels Table 1.1 The basic technical parameter of Biodiesel B100 follow TCVN 7717 Parameter Terms of ester, Density at 150C, kg/m3 Flash point, 0C, Water and sedimentation, % volume max Kinematic viscosity at 400C, cSt Ash, sulphate, % mass, max Sulfur, % mass, ppm, max Copper corrosion Cetan number, Carbon sedimentation, % mass, max Acid, mgKOH/g, max Temperature of distillation, 90% max Na and Ka, mg/kg, max Level 96,5 860-900 13,0 Test method EN 14103 TCVN 6594 TCVN 2693 0,05 ASTM D2709 1,9-6 0,02 0,05 No1 47 TCVN 3171 TCVN 2689 ASTM D5453 TCVN 2694 TCVN 7630 0,05 ASTM D4530 120 EN 1411 360 ASTM D1160 5,0 EN 1408 Based on TCVN 7717: 2007, in 2009, Vietnam issued national technical regulation of gasoline, diesel fuel (DO) and biofuel - NTR 1: 2009 / Ministry of science and technology (MOSAT) with 11 basic technical parameter of biodiesel B100 (Table 1.2) Table 1.2 The basic technical parameter of Biodiesel B100 follow NTR 1: 2009 / MOSAT Parameter Terms of ester (FAME), % mass Water and sedimentation, % volume Kinematic viscosity at 400C, mm2/s Ash, sulphate, % mass Level 96,5 Test method TCVN 7868 (EN 14103) 0,050 TCVN 7757 (ASTM D 2709) 1,9 – TCVN 3171 6,0 (ASTM D 445) 0,020 TCVN 2689 (ASTM D 874) 0,05 TCVN 7760 (ASTM D 5453) 47 TCVN 7630 (ASTM D 613) 0,50 TCVN 6325 (ASTM D 664) TCVN 7895 (EN 14112) 0,020 TCVN 7867 (ASTM D 6584) 0,240 TCVN 7867 (ASTM D 6584) 0,001 TCVN 7866 (ASTM D 4951) Sulfur, % mass Cetan number Acid, mgKOH/g Oxidation stability at 1100C, h free glycerin, % mass Total glycerin, % mass Phospho, % mass Speed: 1200 (rpm) Crank angle (deg) Figure 3.10 NOx formation of B10 and DO fuel DO B10 Figure 3.11 NOx distribution of B10 and DO fuel in champer Figure 3.12 shows the soot formation of B10 fuel and DO, Figure 3.13 shown distributes of soot in combustion chamber 19 Speed: 1200 (rpm) Crank angle (deg) Figure 3.12 Soot formation of B10 and DO fuel DO B10 Figure 3.13 Soot distribution of B10 and DO fuel in champer 3.4 Conclusion of chapter The simulation results show the effect of catfish fat biodiesel fuel on combustion pressure, temperature, power, specific fuel consumption and emission of diesel engine Where, main working parameters of diesel engine when using B10 equivalent with DO fuel 20 Chapter EXPERIMENT RESEARCH TO USE CATFISH FAT BIODIESEL FUEL FOR CUMMINS NTA855 ENGINE OF FISHING SHIP 4.1 Blending method On line blending method on pipe to determine the ratio between B100 and DO shown in Figure 4.1 B100 Tank Control flow Control blending DO Tank To engine Control flow Figure 4.1 On Line Blending method The fuel tanks of the blending system for Cummins NTA855 engine shown in Figure 4.2 21 Figure 4.2 Blending system and fuel supply for Cummins NTA855 engine Essential supplies: - Tank of B10 (B5) and tank of DO, B100; - Oil supply valve, pipe; - Three way valves to change oil from DO to B10 and return 4.2 Experimental setup This is high-speed engine To ensure the safety of the engine and equipment, engine speed, load in constant state and change fuel to determine main parameters of 22 engine Some images of the experimental process shown in Figure 4.3 Figure 4.3 Test of engine and equipment of Cummins NTA855 engine 4.3 Building test mode and experimental process Experimental process of Cummins NTA855 engine using biodiesel done as follows: Step 1: - Adjusted engine at low rotation from 30 to 45 minutes to heat up for engine (no-load rotation of 600 rpm); - Adjusted engine at 50% load, 1.200 rpm; 23 Step 2: Open B10 oil valve, close DO oil valve and measurement of parameters: Engine power, rotation, fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature Step 3: Open DO oil valve, close B10 oil valve and measurement of parameters: Engine power, rotation, fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature 4.4 Experimental result B10 fuel test results compared with DO recorded during about 10,000 working cycles of engine shown in Power (Hp) Figure 4.4 146 145,8 145,6 145,4 145,2 145 144,8 144,6 144,4 144,2 144 145,5 145,3 145,4 145,3 145,4 144,9 DO B10 DO B10 DO B10 Fuel (DO, B10) Figure 4.4 B10 fuel test results compared with DO recorded during about 10,000 working cycles of engine 24 Comment: - Power: NeDO = 145.5 Hp reduced to: NeB10 = 145.3 Hp (red line) - Engine speed: nDO = 1210 rpm reduced to: nB10 = 1206 rpm (blue line) - Exhaust gas temperature: TegtDO = 3050C constant: TegtB10 = 3050C (yellow line) Experimental results for B10 in 1.000 cycle after using DO: - Power: NeB10 = 145.3 Hp increased to: NeDO = 145.4 Hp - Engine speed: nB10 = 1206 rpm constant: nDO = 1214 rpm - Exhaust gas temperature: TegtB10 = 3050C constant: TegtDO = 3050C B10 fuel test results compared with DO recorded during about 20,000 working cycles of engine shown in Figure 4.5 25 145,8 Power (Hp) 145,4 145,2 145 144,8 144,6 144,6 144,2 143,9 143,8 143,7 143,8 143,4 143 DO B10 DO B10 DO B10 Fuel (DO, B10) Figure 4.5 B10 fuel test results compared with DO recorded during about 20,000 working cycles of engine Comment: - Power: NeDO = 145.2 Hp reduced to: NB10 = 143.9 Hp (red line) - Engine speed: nDO = 1208 rpm reduced to: nB10 = 1201 rpm (blue line) - Exhaust temperature: TegtDO = 2980C reduced to: TegtB10 = 2950C (yellow line) Experimental results for B10 in 1.000 cycle after using DO: - Power: NeB10 = 143.9 Hp increased to: NeDO = 144.6 Hp 26 - Engine speed: nB10 = 1201 rpm increased to: nDO = 1211 rpm - Exhaust gas temperature: TegtB10 = 2980C increase to: TegtDO = 3000C Experimental results show that at loat same when engine using B10 fuel, power and Engine speed equivalent with engine using DO fuel Table 4.1 show engine performance when using B10 fuel compared to DO Table 4.1 Evaluate the change of engine performance when using B10 fuel compared to DO Measurement FUEL time (cycle) DO B10 Power Hp Specific fuel Power Hp Specific fuel (kW) consumption (kW) consumption (g/kW.h) 10.000 145,5 273,80 (109,13) // 145,4 274,00 (109,05) 20.000 145,2 275,51 (108,90) // 144,6 274,38 (108,45) 27 (g/kW.h) 145,3 (108,97) 277,17 (Reduced (Increase compared to compared to DO DO 0,14% ) 1,23%) 145,3 (108,97) 277,17 (Reduced (Increase compared to compared to DO DO 0,07% ) 1,15%) 143,9 (107,92) 279,87 (Reduced (Increase compared to compared to DO DO 0,9% ) 1,58% ) 143,9 (107,92) 279,87 (Reduced (Increase compared to compared to DO DO 0,5%) 2% ) 4.5 Conclusion of chapter Chapter had analysis and shown follow content: - Build procedure and operation steps when converting DO fuel to biodiesel for experimental engines; - Successful experimental on Cummins NTA855 diesel engine to complement the basis practice of catfish fat biodiesel fuel for diesel engine of fishing ship 28 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK Conclusions: The thesis shown some conclusions as follows: - Experimental engine are very popular engines used as main engines of fishing ship, which is practical basis to evaluate using catfish fat biodiesel fuel as alternative fuel for diesel engines - The mixing method of fuel is suitable with practice, mixing equipment are made simple and easy use - Experimental results obtained from the equipment are reliable to ability evaluate to use catfish fat biodiesel for diesel engines - The results of thesis is scientific basis to affirmed catfish fat biodiesel (B5) and B10 is perfectly applicable for diesel engines - Defined some properties of B5, B10, B100 fuel (catfish fat biodiesel) used to research - The thesis used KIVA-3V software to build and adjust the Cummins NTA 855 engine simulation model, which used to investigate the effect of fuel on some 29 thermodynamic parameters in combustion chamber, NOx, PM emissions and some cycle parameters of engine when using B10 fuel - Estimate the influence of B10 fuel on some basic operating parameters of Cummins NTA 855 engine by experiment and promote a suitable fuel mixing technology for diesel engines of fishing ship Future work:  To operate diesel engine used BIO B5 or B10 fuel, the following should be done: - Start the engine with DO fuel - When the engine is working with constant speed to convert DO fuel to BIO - Observe the working status of the engine and the exhaust, if the engine does not work stability to convert BIO fuel to DO - DO fuel is only used in cases the engine has problems with the bio system and only use safe reserve for engine - Note that about - minutes to convert the oil valve to the corresponding position 30 - Before stopping the engine about 15 minutes, it is necessary to convert BIO fuel back to DO to clean the pipeline - Check the technical condition of the engine after stopping  It should be added and advanced research about some problem in the next works: - Study of the effect of catfish fat biodiesel with higher mixing ratios on performance of diesel engine by experimental - Experimental study to determine the exhaust emission of diesel engine when using catfish fat biodiesel - Study of the effect of BIO fuel injection process on economic, technical parameter and performance of diesel engine - Considering the effect of early injection crank angle of biofuel on performance of diesel engine and optimization of injection system when using B5 fuel and B10 31 LIST OF AUTHORIZED RESEARCH WORKS 1) H.T Phuoc, P.V Quan, A Study on the Application of the Catfish Biofuel in the Mekong Delta for Marine Diesel Engine, International Journal on Marine Navigation, Volume 9, Number 4, December 2015 2) Phan Van Quan, Ho Trung Phuoc, The Handbook Introduction to use catfish fat biodiesel for diesel engines of fishing ship of the Mekong river Delta, published by Transport publishing house and in 2015 3) Ho Trung Phuoc, Experimental study of the effect of catfish fat biodiesel on power of Cummins diesel engine, Vietnam Mechanical Engineering Journal, No 6/2018 4) Ho Trung Phuoc, Model of the mixing system and supplying biofuels for diesel engine of fishing ship, 4th Conference on Transport Science and Technology, HCM University of Transport, No / 2018 32 5) Ho Trung Phuoc, Simulation Study of the effect of catfish fat biodiesel fuel on power and exhaust emission of Cummins diesel engine, Vietnam Mechanical Engineering Journal, No 7/2018 33 ... Research objects Catfish fat biodiesel and the main parameters of diesel engine of fishing ship 3.2 Research scope - Catfish fat biodiesel B10 (10% Biodiesel B100, 90% Diesel) - Power, specific fuel... 3: Prof Nguyen Le Duy Khai Thesis title: “Research to Use Catfish Fat Biodiesel for Diesel Engines of Fishing Ship” Mayor: Mechanical Power Major code: Engineering PhD Cadidate: 9520116 Supervisor:... biodiesel will contribute to the additional fuel for diesel engines, including diesel engines of fishing ship Chapter THEORETICAL BASIS AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESCRIBING THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL
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