IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING PART 2

150 2 0
  • Loading ...
1/150 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 24/07/2019, 09:23

IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING PART DR MICHAEL R DAVIS Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Table of Contents Introduction and Rubric Phrases to Avoid in your IELTS essay Task Types How to paraphrase in the IELTS test How to write a complex sentence Improving Sentences for Academic Writing Top 10 IELTS Grammar Mistakes and How To Avoid Them Essay Planning Tips How to Write a Thesis Statement Writing Band descriptors What’s The Difference Between Band and in IELTS Writing Task 2? IELTS Writing Task 2: Information (FAQ) How To Write an Effective Introduction For IELTS Writing Task IELTS Writing Task Agree or Disagree Deciding Opinion Discussion Essay Problems and Solution Essay Tips and Exercises 20 Common Essay Topics 100 Part Two writing Questions Section Resources Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 13 16 17 29 30 36 39 46 49 54 55 59 63 68 115 119 134 Introduction Understanding the Rubric General Outline of an essay (tweaks will apply depending on the type of question) General comments 250 minimum – 300 maximum Remember under and over the limit can incur a penalty Don’t waste words with flowery and passive writing Use power words and adjectives consistently Introduction: sentences A B C D Hook (get the reader’s attention) Sentence Answer the question by paraphrasing Sentence Give the points you will discuss in favour of your opinion Sentence Concession point [but] (the other side of the argument) Sentence In an essay which does not require a concession, then in most cases you would add a third point or have two extended paragraphs Do not use phrases like “and I will explain my reasons below’ Give your points! Body: PEE your Paragraphs 4-5 sentences (generally paragraphs) P Point: Paraphrase your point from your introduction Very clear and concise Sentence Do not use phrases like ‘on one hand’, ‘first [of all]’, Personally, In my opinion This is weak writing E Explain: In two sentences clearly explain the point Sentences E Example: Provide at least on clear example to illustrate your point Sentences Examples can be from the news, common knowledge, personal experiences…but make sure they clearly fit the point you are making You the same for each body paragraph Body: Concession Paragraph (when needed) You still PEE this paragraph You start this paragraph with ‘However’ Do not use any other way of starting it! This is clear signposting for the concession The only difference in the concession is that instead of an example, you explain why you reject this argument Conclusion 1-2 Sentences Start with ‘to conclude’ or ‘in conclusion’, as it two words and doesn’t waste words Re-answer the question (paraphrased yet again) with your points Do not add any examples or new information into the conclusion If you didn’t mention it in the body, not add to the conclusion Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 WRITING TASK You should spend about 40 minutes on this task Write about the following topic: Some people believe that television programmes are of no real value for children How far you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience Write at least 250 words The Task Task involves writing an essay on the given topic You have to • answer the question(s) clearly and completely; • give reasons for your answer; • include relevant example ▪ from your knowledge ▪ from your experience • spend about 40 minutes on the task • write at least 250 words 300 words Note: Do part first as it counts 2/3 of your writing mark The Answer Sheet The last two pages of the IELTS writing answer sheet are dedicated to task two and together have over 40 lines Although you may ask for extra sheets to write your answer in, this is not likely to become necessary since the space you are already provided with is way more than sufficient You must not write in the blank space at the bottom of the first page or in the scoring section at the bottom of page two Focus on Academic Register • Use longer sentences (about 20-30 words) • Use subordinate clauses • Use formal linkers (subordinators and transitions) • Use academic words (see “The Academic Words List” at www.tahasoni.com/resources) • Avoid contractions • Avoid “get” phrases where possible • Avoid personal tone except when giving personal opinions or talking of personal experiences • Avoid phrasal verbs where possible • Avoid over-generalisation: ▪ o Non-absolute statements ▪ o Introducing probability/possibility Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Phrases to Avoid in your IELTS Essay This essay will discuss both sides and give an opinion at the end This sentence is poor because it is used for the thesis statement but contains no main points It is a memorised sentence of 15 words It only repeats the instructions but adds no information to the essay Try to avoid using such sentences and just present your answer clearly Another similar sentence is “I shall put forth my arguments to support my views in the following paragraphs” which should also be avoided Don’t forget that while these sentences might be fine for a usual academic essay, they are not appropriate for an English language test With the development of science and modern technology… Many students use this expression to start their essay It is only suitable to use if the essay is about science and technology It is overused and confusing for the reader if the topic is not science or technology You don’t need any expression to start your introduction, just paragraph the essay question directly In the modern era, … / Since the dawn of time … This is overused in introductions Most essay questions are about current issues so you don’t need to put in a time frame unless it is about an issue in the past compared to the present “Since the dawn of time…” is not a relevant statement for most IELTS issues and should be avoided Some students also use “Nowadays” to start their essay Again this is overused Try to avoid these phrases and just paraphrase the information given by IELTS This is a highly controversial issue Most essay questions in IELTS are not controvesial Controversial means that it is deeply debated and causes strong feeling, for example “the death penalty” which results in a person’s death is controversial but “watching sport on TV or playing it” is not controversial 99% of all essay questions in IELTS will not be controversial so don’t use this phrase Also be careful writing “highly debatable” as this is also overused The crux of the discussion is … This is a sentence which is used too often It would be better to write “The most important aspect…” or “One of the key issues is…” as they are more natural to use in writing For example, a recent study from the IMF showed that… / Research indicates that… The examples you give in IELTS writing task not need to come from published sources or known research They can just be an example of a situation: “For instance, the majority of working people not …” Avoid learning opening phrases to common sentences Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 It can broaden a person’s horizons I have seen this written in so many essays and so have examiners It would be better to write about “learning more”, “opening their mind to something” or “developing deeper understanding of something” Don’t learn sentences, just write naturally There are good grounds to argue in favour of… / it is undeniable/ It cannot be denied that… This is another example of a learned phrase to avoid It would be better to write more naturally “One reason that X is important / crucial …” Using more natural language avoids the examiner thinking you are memorising phrases Also the phrase “it cannot be denied” is very much overused and mostly used incorrectly “It cannot be denied” means it is 100% fact but most essay contain opinions which are not fact Therefore, avoid this phrase In a nutshell, … Many students use this idiom to start their conclusion It is informal and not appriopriate to use in IELTS essay writing 10 … the aforementioned arguments offer insights into vindications for the impression that… This is a typical sentence that should be avoided in a conclusion You only need to restate the main points clearly without using learned phrases 11 I think that… This is the epitome of a 4-5 essay Most of the time you can write your essay without using ‘’I” (to what extent questions are a notable exception) Try using, I believe, I feel, or something a little more original, if you have to use ‘I’ 12 First, Second, Third, etc In a part essay these are a waste of words, you don’t need them if you have given your points in the essay 13 On one hand, on the other hand (or any variation of these) Informal spoken English rather than formal Also not needed if points were given in the introduction Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Task Types Opinion-led Some people believe that television programmes are of no real value for children How far you agree or disagree? Argument Discussion a Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged Others believe that children who are taught to co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults Discuss both these views and give your own opinion b In some countries, it is usual for young people who graduate from high school to spend a year working or travelling before going to university What are the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to this? c While some people prefer to live in apartments, others not think an apartment is a suitable form of accommodation Do you think the advantages of living in an apartment outweigh the disadvantages? Issue Discussion a Housing and accommodation has become a major problem in many countries around the world What are some of the main factors that have contributed to this problem? What can be done to help reduce the number of homeless people? b While mobile phones have many advantages, a number of problems have also resulted from them or the ways in which they are used What are some of these problems? What solutions can you suggest for solving these problems? c In many countries today insufficient respect is shown to older people What you think may be the reasons for this? hat problems might this cause in society? Mixed Type Universities should provide students with the skills they will require in order to succeed at their future jobs How far you agree or disagree with the above opinion? What are some of the job skills that employers look for in new employees? Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 How to Paraphrase in the IELTS Test Paraphrasing is simply re-writing a phrase or sentence so that it has the same meaning, but with different words Paraphrasing is one of the most important skills to learn before doing your IELTS test It is most important for writing and speaking, but will also help you in the reading and listening tests In other words, if you know how to paraphrase you are more likely to get the score you need The mental processes required to paraphrase will also help you to fully understand the question and this is one of the reasons I tell my students to begin all of their answers in the writing test by paraphrasing the question Let’s look at an example Example: Paraphrasing is one of the most important skills to learn before doing your IELTS test Paraphrased: Prior to taking the IELTS test, mastering paraphrasing is one of the most crucial things to As you can see, the second sentence (paraphrased sentence) uses synonyms to change some vocabulary (e.g., ‘important’ for ‘crucial’ and ‘’prior’’ to ‘before’ and changes the grammar (e.g., Paraphrasing is one of the most important skills” for “mastering paraphrasing”) You can also change the word order These are the three main methods you should use in the IELTS test to paraphrase sentences Ideally, you should try to use all three but sometimes two will only be possible We will now look at each method in detail and also have a look at the passive Method Number 1: Using Synonyms Synonyms are different words that have the same meaning For example, ‘humans’ is a synonym of ‘people’ and ‘attractive’ is a synonym of ‘beautiful’ This method simply replaces words with the same meaning in order to produce a new sentence For example: My car needs petrol My vehicle requires fuel As you can see, I have replaced out of four words with synonyms to produce a new sentence, with the same meaning as the first one You will notice that I didn’t replace all of the words, but you should try to replace most of them This is the most common method that students use and it can be used effectively, but you should be careful The biggest mistake students make is trying to paraphrase and the word having a similar meaning, but not the same meaning Similar meanings are not good enough and will lose you marks Let’s look at some examples of poor paraphrasing because of using similar instead of the same meanings Violent crime is on the rise among teenagers Violent offences are rising among young people Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 This student has changed the word ‘teenagers’ for ‘young people’ They are similar words and teenagers are of course young people; however children and young adults, aged between 18-30, could also be described as young people A more term would be ‘adolescents’ or ‘young people between the ages of 13-19.’ A better way to paraphrase this sentence would therefore be: Violent offences are rising among adolescents You should therefore only use words you are 100% sure about Don’t change a word unless you are 100% sure that it is a direct synonym, otherwise you are likely to make mistakes and this will bring down your score Let’s look at another good example: Global warming is mostly caused by emissions from internal combustion engines Climate change is mainly caused by the release of fumes from motor vehicles Method Number 2: Change the Word Order Changing the word order also allows us to effectively paraphrase a sentence, but again, we have to be careful Don’t change the word order without thinking about how this affects the grammar of the sentence By changing the word order you may have to add a word, subtract a word or change the form of the word The 100% rule applies again; don’t change it if you are not 100% sure it is grammatically correct Remember that you are being judged on your ability to produce error free sentences in the IELTS test as well as use a range of grammar structures Fortunately, there are two straightforward ways we can change the word order in most IELTS questions You can easily change the order of the clauses, if the original sentence has more than one clause Question: As languages such as Spanish, Chinese and English become more widely used, there is a fear that that many minority languages may die out Paraphrased by changing word order: There is a fear that many minority languages may die out, as languages such as Spanish, Chinese and English become more widely used We could also add some synonyms to paraphrase it even more: Paraphrased with changing word order AND synonyms: There is dismay that many lesser used languages may pass away, as languages such as Chinese, English and Spanish become more broadly spoken You can also change the word order if there is an adjective or noun in the question You this by simply changing the adjective into a relative clause Question: Learning to manage money is one of the key aspects to adult life Paraphrased using a relative clause: Learning to manage money is one of the aspects to adult life that is key Method Number 3: Change the Form of the Word There are many different forms of words including nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs Changing the form of a word allows us to paraphrase effectively Again, don’t just Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 change the form of the word; you also need to check that your changes make grammatical sense You might need to change the words around it to make the sentence error free Question: Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older people suggest that people over the age of sixty-five can continue to live full and active lives Paraphrased by changing word form: Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older people are suggesting that people over the age of sixty-five can continue living full and active lives Method Number 4: Change from Active to Passive The passive voice is often used in academic writing and can therefore be used in the IELTS academic writing test Only verbs with an object can be turned into the passive Example active sentence: The property developers invested $20 million in the development of the shopping centre Example passive sentence: $20 million was invested in the developments of shopping centre We often use the passive voice in academic writing when we don’t want to say it is our opinion Example active: People say that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels Example passive: Global warming is said to be caused by the burning of fossil fuels How many of these methods should I use? The four methods can be used independently or together I advise my students to try and change the grammar (word order and/or word form) and use synonyms Remember only use the methods you feel 100% comfortable using and that you are sure your work is error free 10 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Section Course Handouts 136 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 A Quick Guide to Punctuation in IELTS Basically, the two punctuation marks you will need to use in IELTS reports, letters and essays are the full stop and comma Exclamation (!) and question marks (?) might also be used in General Training letters, while parentheses could be used in Academic reports as well as in letters You are advised to avoid using the colon (:), semi-colon (;) and dashes (–) if you not know where they need to be used, since they are unnecessary Full Stop (.) Full stops are generally used to mark the end of a sentence: There has been a dramatic increase in the population of urban regions Comma (,) Commas are used in longer sentences to separate information into readable units They also often separate clauses in a sentence and sometimes come before a coordinator (e.g “and”, “but”, etc.) - A single comma ensures correct reading of a sentence which starts with a long introductory element: Following efforts by pioneering scientists in the field of ecology, it has now been generally accepted that the world is gradually becoming warmer - A single comma is used after many starting linkers like “however”, moreover”, “basically” and such: In contrast, water levels in Africa and Australia declined to reach an all-time low - Pairs of commas help in the middle of a sentence to set off any string of words which is either a parenthesis, or in contrast, to whatever went before: A student, whether at school or university, needs to receive guidance and instructions on how to use resources effectively and efficiently - Sets of comma act as a means of separating items in a list: Workplaces like business offices, banks and schools would certainly require a more formal dress code Note: not add a comma after “that” at the beginning of a clause: It has been known for some time that many flaws in children’s behaviour have roots in their genes 137 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Synonyms for Advantages & Disadvantages advantages and disadvantages benefits and drawbacks upsides and downsides pros and cons strengths and weaknesses/shortcomings Synonyms for Good and Bad positive and negative welcome and unwelcome favourable and unfavourable desirable and undesirable beneficial and detrimental Synonyms for Causes the factors/issues responsible for … the reasons behind/for … the factors/issues which have contributed to … the causes of … the issues which have resulted in/led to … Synonyms for Effects consequences/effects/impacts the issues it has resulted in /which have resulted from … the problems which follow /have followed … the problems/issues that … could/may/might/is likely to result in/lead to the problems/issues which could/may/might/are likely to result from/follow/ensue … …’s possible/potential/probable/prospective consequences/effects/impacts Synonyms for Solutions Solutions for … means/ways to solve … means/ways to resolve/deal with/tackle/improve … 138 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Technological progress machines and tools have replaced people burning fewer calories obesity less physical activity One reason for this unfortunate development is the technological progress which has taken place over the past decades, as a result of which machines and tools have replaced people in most cases, like in transportation Therefore, most individuals have a lot less activity today than they used to and burn far fewer calories every day, which results in their obesity OR One reason for this unfortunate development is that most individuals burn far fewer calories every day because they have a lot less activity now than they used to The reason for this is that machines and tools have replaced people in most cases, like in transportation, thanks to the technological progress which has taken place over the past decades 139 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Example: Overpopulation more demand for food food shortages widespread hunger Overpopulation can lead to widespread hunger in many parts of the world, particularly in countries like India and China which have very large populations This is because when there are more people in an area, the demand for food is highly likely to rise as a result of which there may not be enough food available for everyone 140 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 141 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 142 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 143 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 144 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 The Academic Word List Sublist analyze • approach • area • assess • assume • authority • available • benefit • concept • consist •constitute • context • contract • create • data • define • derive • distribute • economy • environment • establish • estimate • evident • export • factor • finance • formula • function • identify • income • indicate • individual • interpret • involve • issue • labor • legal • legislate • major • method • occur • percent • period • policy • principle • proceed • process • require • research • respond • role • section • sector • significant • similar • source • specific • structure • theory • vary Sublist achieve • acquire • administrate • affect • appropriate • aspect • assist • category • chapter • commission • community • complex • compute • conclude • conduct • consequent • construct • consume • credit • culture • design • distinct • element • equate • evaluate • feature • final • focus • impact • injure • institute • invest • item • journal • maintain • normal • obtain • participate • perceive • positive • potential • previous • primary • purchase • range • region • regulate • relevant • reside • resource • restrict • secure • seek • select • site • strategy • survey • text • tradition • transfer Sublist alternative • circumstance • comment • compensate • component • consent • considerable • constant • constrain • contribute • convene • coordinate • core • corporate • correspond • criteria • deduce •demonstrate • document • dominate • emphasis • ensure • exclude • framework • fund • illustrate • immigrate • imply • initial • instance • interact • justify • layer • link • locate • maximize • minor • negate • outcome • partner • philosophy • physical • proportion • publish • react • register • rely •remove • scheme • sequence • sex • shift • specify • sufficient • task • technique • technology • valid • volume Sublist access • adequate • annual • apparent • approximate • attitude • attribute • civil • code • commit • communicate • concentrate • confer • contrast • cycle • debate • despite • dimension • domestic • emerge • error • ethnic • goal • grant • hence • hypothesis • implement • implicate • impose • integrate • internal • investigate • job • label • mechanism • obvious • occupy • option • output • overall • parallel • parameter • phase • predict • principal • prior • professional • project • promote • regime • resolve • retain • series • statistic • status • stress • subsequent • sum • summary • undertake Sublist academy • adjust • alter • amend • aware • capacity • challenge • clause • compound • conflict • consult • contact • decline • discrete • draft • enable • energy • enforce • entity • equivalent • evolve • expand • expose • external • facilitate • fundamental • generate • generation • image • liberal • license • logic • margin • medical • mental • modify • monitor • network • notion • objective • orient • perspective • precise • prime • psychology • pursue • ratio • reject • revenue • stable • style • substitute • sustain • symbol • target • transit • trend • version • welfare • whereas 145 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 Sublist abstract • accurate • acknowledge • aggregate • allocate • assign • attach • author • bond • brief • capable • cite • cooperate • discriminate • display • diverse • domain • edit • enhance • estate • exceed • expert • explicit • federal • fee • flexible • furthermore • gender • ignorant • incentive • incidence • incorporate • index • inhibit • initiate • input • instruct • intelligence • interval • lecture • migrate • minimum • ministry • motive • neutral • nevertheless • overseas • precede • presume • rational • recover • reveal • scope • subsidy • tape • trace • transform • transport • underlie • utilize Sublist adapt • adult • advocate • aid • channel • chemical • classic • comprehensive • comprise • confirm • contrary • convert • couple • decade • definite • deny • differentiate • dispose • dynamic • eliminate • empirical • equip • extract • file • finite • foundation • globe • grade • guarantee • hierarchy • identical • ideology • infer • innovate • insert • intervene • isolate • media • mode • paradigm • phenomenon • priority • prohibit • publication • quote • release • reverse • simulate • sole • somewhat • submit • successor • survive • thesis • topic • transmit • ultimate • unique • visible • voluntary Sublist abandon • accompany • accumulate • ambiguous • append • appreciate • arbitrary • automate • bias • chart • clarify • commodity • complement • conform • contemporary • contradict • crucial • currency • denote • detect • deviate • displace • drama • eventual • exhibit • exploit • fluctuate • guideline • highlight • implicit • induce • inevitable • infrastructure • inspect • intense • manipulate • minimize • nuclear • offset • paragraph • plus • practitioner • predominant • prospect • radical • random • reinforce • restore • revise • schedule • tense • terminate • theme • thereby • uniform • vehicle • via • virtual • visual • widespread Sublist accommodate • analogy • anticipate • assure • attain • behalf • bulk • cease • coherent • coincide • commence • compatible • concurrent • confine • controversy • converse • device • devote • diminish • distort • duration • erode • ethic • format • founded • inherent • insight • integral • intermediate • manual • mature • mediate • medium • military • minimal • mutual • norm • overlap • passive • portion • preliminary • protocol • qualitative • refine • relax • restrain • revolution • rigid • route • scenario • sphere • subordinate • supplement • suspend • team • temporary • trigger • unify • violate • vision Sublist 10 adjacent • albeit • assemble • collapse • colleague • compile • conceive • convince • depress • encounter • enormous • forthcoming • incline • integrity • intrinsic • invoke • levy • likewise • nonetheless • notwithstanding • odd • ongoing • panel • persist • pose • reluctance • so-called • straightforward • undergo • whereby 146 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 147 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 148 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 149 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 150 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2.2 12/17/16 ... Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2. 2 12/ 17/16 Answers While because As a result particularly namely 28 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2. 2 12/ 17/16 IELTS Writing. .. Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2. 2 12/ 17/16 IELTS Writing Task 2: Paraphrasing Practice IELTS writing task paraphrasing practice exercise To get a good mark in IELTS writing task... first part is quite simple, while the second part is a second conditional which requires a comma between clauses 26 Dr Michael R Davis, IELTS Academic Writing Part Version 2. 2 12/ 17/16 IELTS Writing
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING PART 2, IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING PART 2

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn