Nghiên cứu văn bản kham dư hán nôm việt nam tại viện nghiên cứu hán nôm tt tiếng anh

27 30 0
  • Loading ...
1/27 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 28/05/2019, 16:58

VIETNAM ACADEMY SOCIAL SCIENCES VIETNAM OF ACADEMY GRADUATE ACADEMY SOCIAL SCIENCES OF SOCIALOF SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES NGUYEN QUOC KHANH NGUYỄN QUỐC KHÁNH STUDY OF VIETNAMESE HÁN NÔM GEOMANCY DOCUMENTS IN THE INSTITUTE OFGEOMANCY HÁN-NÔM STUDY OF VIETNAMESE HÁN NÔM STUDIES DOCUMENTS IN THE INSTITUTE OF HÁN-NÔM STUDIES Major: Hán-Nôm Major code: 22 01 04 Major: Hán-Nôm Major code: 22 01 04 SUMMARIZE THE DOCTORAL THESIS HAN NOM Summarize the doctoral thesis Han Nom HA NOI - 2019 HA NOI - 2019 Supervisor: Assoc Prof PhD Trinh Khac Manh Reviewer 1: Assoc Prof PhD Pham Van khoai Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof PhD Hoang Thi Ngo Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof PhD Nguyen Thi Thanh Chung The thesis is defensed with the Academy Thesis Defense Examining Board meeting at: Graduate Academy of Social Sciences At on 2019 To learn the thesis in: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Graduate Academy of Social Sciences INTRODUCTION Urgency of the topic Geomancy 堪輿 (also called Feng Shui 風水), is an important cultural subject on environment and architecture coming from the ancient Chinese culture Comprehension of this concept is the combination with the simple material philosophy, based on the theory of Yin and Yang - Wu Xing to develop into a unique ideological system of harmonious relationship between people with nature In the thesis, we agree to capitalize the noun Geomancy as distinctive and emphasized; and use the terms Geomancy and Feng Shui with the same meaning depending on each context for flexible use Over the years, when building a house, people focus on finding convenient location for the house to get the best environmental conditions overwhelming with the nature The viewpoint of selecting main place of residence is a specific expression of Geomancy In Quan Tu - Thua ma 管子-乘馬, there is this paragraph: “Phàm xây dựng kinh đô, chân núi lớn bên bờ sông lớn, cao không gần chỗ khô khan khiến nước không đủ; thấp khơng q gần nước khơng cơng phòng lụt” (Imperial capital should be constructed at the foot of a big mountain or on the bank of a big and high river but not too near dry places which make water inadequate; low but too near water for flood prevention) Kinh Ly Cong Uan had the article Edict on the Transfer of the Capital 遷都詔 to show clearly Geomancy as follows: “… Huống chi thành Đại La, khu vực trời đất, rồng chầu hổ phục, nam bắc đơng tây, tiện nghi núi sông sau trước Vùng mặt đất rộng mà phẳng, đất cao mà sáng sủa, dân cư không khổ thấp trũng tối tăm, muôn vật tươi tốt phồn thịnh Xem khắp nước Việt nơi thắng địa, thực chỗ tụ hội quan yếu bốn phương, nơi thượng đô kinh sư muôn đời…” Thus, the thought “the heaven and human united” developed into an important stream of traditional culture, which is Geomancy culture or Feng Shui culture During the development, Geomancy received a lot of contents including: Geography, Architecture, Environment, Psychology, etc Therefore, deeply and systematically finding and studying Geomancy in general and Vietnamese Geomancy in particular does not only help the environmental planning managers but also have a great significance in exploiting, preserving and promoting cultural identity Vietnam is one of the countries ever deeply influenced by the Chinese culture, including the Geomancy The old Genmancy was also called with the different names such as: Qingwu Shu, Qingniao Shu, Yin and Yang, Geography, Feng Shui, etc The role of Genmancy is to reflect intuition capacity and thorough observation of human to the nature, in addition, it also reflects dramatic customs and habits, traditional culture of the nation From the reasons shown above, the topic Study of Vietnamese Hán Nôm Geomancy Documents in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies is selected for HánNôm doctoral thesis with not only scientific meaning but also urgent practical meaning to contribute in preservation, exploitation and inheritance of this literary cultural heritage Study purpose and task 2.1 Study purpose To systematize Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, exploit, study and prove scientific value and practical meaning reflected in Vietnamese Hán-Nôm geomancy documents On that basis, to suggest measures for preserving and promoting value of Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents - the traditional cultural heritage of Vietnamese nation in this present age 2.2 Study task To implement quantitative statistics and systematization of Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, to define the complete version To introduce some typical authors of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy To study and exploit for finding scientific and practical features of Geomancy in contemporary Vietnamese cultural and social life Study object and scope 3.1 Study object Study object is Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies - Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences In addition, to refer to some Geomancy data kept in several locations 3.2 Study scope The thesis limits its study scope to the textual study matters of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents, introduction of some authors of Vietnamese HánNôm Geomancy documents with their works currently remaining kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, introduction of good layers of earth and graves recorded in the documents and learning scientific values hidden in Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents Methodology and study method of the thesis 4.1 Methodology Based on the views of the Party and the State of Vietnam in collecting, preserving, studying, exploiting and promoting traditional culture, building an advanced Vietnamese culture imbued with national identity Knowledge of Hán-Nôm literature, textual studies, cultural studies, civilization studies, geomancy studies, interpretation studies, etc applies interdisciplinary research theory in each chapter of the thesis Inheriting research results from the published works of domestic and foreign researchers related to the topic, the thesis focuses on deep exploitation of the characteristics, authors of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy, content values of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents; to contribute to the research results on cultural value of Vietnamese ethnic community 4.2 Study method The thesis uses different general research methods, including the main methods as follows: Textual study method: To list and compare Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies to make general comments on characteristics of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents To define complete version, list and compare the number of good layers of earth and graves recorded in the documents for next studies Hermeneutics method is also used to explain or interpret Geomancy documents from textual, letter, shape matters, etc This method helps to understand the documents and explain the documents more deeply Analysis and comparison methods: To study academic content value implied in Geomancy works inter-textually to exploit more deeply the matters of interest Interdisciplinary study: To solve matters which need to study related to the thesis topic such as historical value, cultural value, religion and belief, customs and habits, etc Using the research methods mentioned above is in principle, during preparing the thesis, the methods are closely related and support each other for implementation in each chapter of the thesis New contributions of the thesis This is the first time that Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies is listed, classified and compared comprehensively in number and textual study To analyze characteristics of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents and define complete version for research and introduction To list, compare and provide reliable data on the number of main graves, expanded graves, luminous graves, favorite graves, prosperous and materialistic graves, etc recorded in Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents To introduce life, career and status of some typical authors of Vietnamese HánNôm Geomancy based on the historical data and works currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies To analyze, evaluate and clarify the scientific content values of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy in accordance with Vietnamese climate and spiritual culture to contribute to preserve and promote the national cultural identity To help the concerned managers plan traditional cultural architectures To introduce some good layers of earth of the localities in the Northern Delta To provide the terms of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy To translate the work An Nam phong thủy (A.693) in Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy Scientific meaning of the thesis Studying the group of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies gives the scientific meanings as follows: The thesis does not only systematize number of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents but also systematizes number of good graves and interesting land positions, etc which were recorded and left by predecessors through Hán and Nôm works Through studying, analyzing and evaluating values of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy works, the thesis provides scientific meanings of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy in the cultural and spiritual life of Vietnamese people It may be said that the topography of Vietnamese rivers and mountains in the area of heaven and earth with Dực, Chẩn, created the system of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy works in the writing culture of the country When comparing Vietnamese Geomany and Chinese one, in spite of similar term, Vietnamese Geomany has separate contents in accordance with Vietnamese culture The thesis will open for related research works on culture, spirituality and beliefs of Vietnamese people Thesis layout In addition to Introduction, Conclusion, References Appendix; the thesis consists of 04 chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of study related to the topic Chapter 2: Survey of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies Chapter 3: Study of some typical authors of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy Chapter 4: Study of content values of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF STUDY RELATED TO THE TOPIC AND RESEARCH ORIENTATION 1.1 Origin and concept of Geomancy 1.1.1 Origin of Geomancy Geomancy originated from China with selecting residence of primitive people, started in Pre-Qin dynasty, developed in Han dynasty, circulated in Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern dynasties, spread widely in Sui - Tang Five Dynasties and prosperous in Ming - Qing dynasties Basically, Geomancy can be divided into 02 groups which are Hinh The (Loan dau) and Ly 1.1.2 Geomancy concept Based on check evidences of current scholars, geomancy firstly mentioned 12 gods Geomancers guessed good or ill based on such 12 gods Due to observing phenomenon of heaven for guessing good or ill on the earth, Xu Shen in Eastern Han dynasty said that Geomancy was words of the heaven and the earth containing Feng shui contents From Sui - Tang dynasties, housing and grave physiognomies were gradually considered as Geomancy In Qing dynasty, Tiền Đại Hân in the book Hằng ngôn lục said that: “Ancient Geomancers are modern “housing and grave” physiognomists, current geographers”; it means that the meaning of Feng Shui has been included later in the Geomancy concept In addition, feudal intellectual writers used to use the term Geomancy and masses of the people called Feng Shui 1.2 Summary of introduction and development process of Vietnamese Geomancy 1.2.1 Introduction of Geomancy in Vietnam Geomancy was introduced in Vietnam with the Chinese invasion, most prominently, Gao Pian (Tang dynasty) was assigned as Jiaozhou Domination Ambassador from 865 to 875 (C.E) In fact, based on our considerations, Geomancy was not introduced once in our country but throughout our country history in the middle ages Geomancy was always introduced in different forms such as: Baggages of domination mandarins; Vietnamese people directly going to China for studying Geomancy; rebellion in civil wars in China making some families migrate to Vietnam for fleeing away, including genuine families of Feng shui, etc 1.2.2 Geomancy development in Vietnam The book Trùng đính thiên Nam danh địa 重訂天南名地 (No VHv.1927), said that: “Nước ta từ trời mở “trời Nam” trở lại đây, địa hình có sử sách ghi chép vào thời Đường Hiến Tơng (806 - 821) vào năm Hàm Thơng có sai quan Thượng thư Bộ Công Cao Biền 高駢 làm chức An Nam Đô hộ tổng quản, Kinh lược chiêu thảo sứ viết sách An Nam cửu long kinh 安南九龍經 sách Vịnh cảo tập 詠稿集” By Dinh dynasty (968 - 980), the king Dinh Tien Hoang assigned An phủ sứ and Đông Đô viện Tran Quoc Kiet 陳國傑 to write the book Thiên Nam hình thắng ca 天南形勝歌 and assigned him to explain the old book of Gao Pian From Ly, Tran, Le and Nguyen dynasties, Geomancy continued developing strongly From the twentieth century until now, Western civilization has entered our country, the Confucian lifestyle has gradually decreased, however the Geomancy subject remains very popular artistically and scientifically in the field of architecture 1.3 Overview of study related to the topic 1.3.1 Geomancy study in China In China, in any dynasty, there were many researchers left well-known works, for example, in Song dynasty, Wenjun Lai 賴文俊 with the work Thôi quan thiên 催 官篇, in Ming dynasty, Xu Bo 徐勃 with the work Kham biện 堪輿辨惑, in Qing dynasty, Wu Yuanyin 吳元音 with the work Táng kinh 葬經注, etc , Geomancy study later developed more, for example: In 1923, Tan Yang-Wu 談養吾 with the book Đại tam nguyên huyền không phong thủy 大三元玄空風水; in 1983, Bai He Ming 白鶴鳴 with the book Phong thủy tùy bút 風水隨筆; Hsiang-kwang Liu 劉祥光 with the book Sự phát triển mở rộng văn hóa Phong thủy đời Tống 宋代風 水文化的擴展 (Development of the Culture of Geomancy in Song China); in 1992, Wang Qiheng 王其亨 with the book Nghiên cứu lý luận Phong thủy 風水理論研究 (Research of fengshui theory); In 2004, Shao WeiHua 邵偉華 with the book Phong thủy toàn thư Trung Quốc 中國風水全書; Gao You Qian 高友謙, with the book Văn hóa Phong thủy Trung Quốc 中國風水文化 (Chinese Feng Shui Culture); etc 1.3.2 Geomancy study in Vietnam In our country, from the first period of independent country construction, Geomancy was received and applied in the country terrain for promotion based on its own characteristics That is affirmed by the works such as: Trùng đính thiên Nam danh địa 重訂天南名地 written in the year of Chính Hòa (1678), Hòa Chính địa lý 和正地理, Trịnh Tùng vấn phong thủy sách văn 鄭松問風水策文, etc In that spirit, Pham Dinh Ho (1768 - 1839) and Nguyen An (1770 - 1815), who wrote the book Tang thương ngẫu lục 桑 滄 偶 錄 also had a page to explain status of the Geomancer Ta Ao Next, Phan Ke Binh with the books Nam hải dị nhân and Việt Nam phong tục In the book Liệt tiên truyện 列僊傳, the part Nghệ địa lý phong thủy focuses on fame and status of Vietnamese Geomancers such as Ta Ao, etc In the early 50th decade of the twentieth century, in the year of 1952, Hoang Xuan Han wrote the book La Sơn Phu Tử 羅山夫子; in 1984, Tran Van Giap wrote the book Tìm hiểu kho sách Hán Nôm - Nguồn tư liệu văn học sử học Việt nam (volume 1), the section Sơn xuyên, lý lộ with introduction of two Vietnamese authors, Ta Ao with the work Tả Ao địa lý luận 左泑地理論; and the work Hình địa mạch ca 形勢地脈歌 written by Quan An phủ sứ in Tran dynasty, Tran Quoc Kiet 陳國杰, edited by Ho Tong Thoc 胡宗鷟, this work no longer exists In the twenty-first century, studying and translating Feng Shui became richer Based on the actual condition, it is possible to divide into the sections as follows 1.3.3 Works collected and translated from foreign languages 1.3.3.1 Works translated from Chinese language As Geomancy came from China, a lot of book were translated into Vietnamese, the thesis lists some works which have been recently translated as follows: In 1996, Truong Huyen translated the book Hướng gió mạch nước đất nghệ thuật kiến trúc xây dựng nhà of Vuong Ngoc Duc; in 2002, Nguyen Van Duc translated and Nguyen Quoc Khanh edited the book Phong thủy thực hành - Trang trí nội ngoại thất theo phong thủy of Tong Thieu Quang; in 2010, Vuong Tuyen translated the book Phong thủy thực vật of Ly Duc Hung, etc Generally, the translated works summarized fully and crucially Geomancy, for example: địa lý đại tồn nhập mơn yếu quyết, địa lý đại toàn tập yếu, địa lý lục pháp đại toàn, địa lý Dương trạch đại toàn, etc 1.3.3.2 Works translated from other languages Works translated from other languages in our country are quite big and they have been mainly translated since the beginning of the twenty-first century, for example: In 2001, Thanh Khang and Tien Thanh translated the book Cẩm nang phong thủy phương Tây ( Western Guide to Feng Shui) of Terah Kathryn Collins; in 2006, Vu Tai Hoa translated the book Phong thủy toàn tập - Nghệ thuật trí nhà cửa theo khoa học phương Đông (The practical encyclopedia of feng shui) of Gill Hale; in 2008, Nguyen Manh Thao translated the book Khoa học phong thuỷ sống (The Complete Illustrated Guide to Feng Shui) of Lillian Too; in 2012, Nguyen Manh Thao translated the book Bí ẩn biểu tượng Phong thủy (Feng shui symbols of good fortune) of Lillian Too; etc It may be said that this is an open direction for new access when studying Geomancy 1.3.4 Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy translations, writings and researches 1.3.4.1 Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy translations The first translator of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy is Cao Trung From 1969 - 1998, he translated 04 books: Địa lý Tả Ao địa đạo diễn ca, Dã đàm Tả Ao, Địa lý gia truyền bí thư đại tồn, Địa lý trị soạn phú These are considered as the first works in Geomancy translation 1.3.4.2 Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy writings In 1952, Hoang Xuan Han wrote the book La Sơn Phu Tử; in 1999, Pham Khai wrote the book Thực hành kiến trúc & xây dựng theo mỹ thuật phong thủy phương Đông; in 2000, Ngo Nguyen Phi wrote the book Nghiên cứu phong thủy phong thủy Việt Nam góc độ khoa học; in 2005, Vuong Thi Muoi wrote the book Phong thủy địa lý Tả Ao tơng; in 2007, Tran Manh Linh wrote the book Phong thuỷ ứng dụng kiến trúc đại; in 2008, Dam Lien and Kim Phong wrote the book 500 vấn đề phong thủy vượng nghiệp; in 2015, Dam Duc Vuong wrote the book Khoa học lý Số -Dự đoán khoa học người đời; etc It may be said that the writings account for the largest number in comparison with all the works 1.3.4.3 Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy researches Studies posted on magazines include: Tho Nhan with the article ““Phong thủy” (Feng shui) or cách nhìn người phương Đông thời cổ môi trường” posted on Hán-Nôm Studies Magazine, volume (47); Tran Trong Duong with the article “Bản đồ tri tạo kiến văn địa lý Việt Nam thời tiền đại qua mẫu hình nhà Nho hành đạo Nguyễn Huy Quýnh” posted on Research and Development Magazine, volume (138); Nguyen Quoc Khanh with: “Tác giả Tả Ao tác phẩm kham dư” (The author Ta Ao and Geomancy works), posted on Hán-Nôm Studies Magazine, volume (137); “Tìm hiểu 28 cách chọn đất Tả Ao chân truyền địa lý”, posted on Hán-Nôm Studies Magazine, volume (144); “Phong thủy việc chọn hướng nhà thờ họ ban thờ người Việt”, posted on Hán - Nôm Studies(Summary record of national scientific workshop ); etc 2.2.3.3 Editors and copiers From the survey, the editors and copier of 03 works with 06 documents are Pham Lap Trai edited work (2 documents), Pham Xuan Loc copied work (1 document), Le Xuan Cat copied work (3 documents) 2.2.4 Genres There are many literary genres in Hán - Nôm Geomancy such as Prose, fu, seven-character/syllable lines poems, lục bát poems In 46 works with 60 documents, 04 works with documents are prose mixed with fu, 06 works with 06 documents are prose mixed with luc bat, work (1 document) is prose mixed with fu and luc bat, work (1 document) is prose mixed with seven-character/syllable lines poem, others are prose 2.2.5 Scripts In 46 works with 60 documents, Chinese and Southern characters were used to write the works Chinese characters were mainly used in prose mixed with fu and seven-character/syllable lines poems (some Southern charaters were used for places) and Southern characters were used in lục bát poems In 46 works with 60 documents, 01 work (01 document) was written completly in Southern characters 2.3 Basic contents of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy works 2.3.1 Yin and Yang - Wu Xing content Yin and Yang - Wu Xing theory is a viewpoint on universe and methodology of the ancient Chinese for identifying and explaining natural phenomena Geomaners had deep knowledge of Yin and Yang theory and applied to Geomancy studies, called mountains as Yin and water as Yang Mountain south is Yang, and mountain north is Yin, water north is Yang and water south is Yin Therefore, the topography must be “leaning on Yin and hugging Yang”, leaning back on mountain and facing river, elements such as high temperature, afternoon sunshine, high terrain, etc are generally called Yang; and low temperature, low sunshine and low terrain, etc are generally called Yin After surveying 46 works with 60 documents, there are 21 sections in 15 documents of Yin and Yang - Wu Xing in Vietnamese Geomancy 2.3.2 Compass Compass includes every space of the heaven and earth, collects reasonableness of yin and yang, pointing of bagua and Wu Xing, fate of Ha Lac thu, emblems of astronomy and stars, orders of solar term of four seasons, is used to define azimuth, observe astronomy, calculate good days, predict weal and woe, becomes a necessary tool in Feng Shui activities, expresses awareness and adjust geographical deflection angle, and open up an infinite number of synthetically reasoning and philosophically associating concepts After surveying 46 works with 60 documents of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy, there are 150 sections in all 60 documents about compass 11 2.3.3 Good layers of earth After surveying 46 works with 60 documents of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy, there are 02 documents about good layers of earth Indicating that Vietnam has 04 main good layers of earth (đại cán long), including: Truong Son mountain layer, Ba Vi mountain layer, Tam Dao mountain layer, Huyen Dinh mountain layer 2.3.4 Graves Grave (topography) means local graves or lands, the ends of Lai Long with vitality converged, two protective right and left mounds and front preventive water Grave relate closely with energy layer, graves on high mountains, graves in plains, etc After surveying the documents about grave, we recognize that in 46 works with 60 documents, 12/60 documents refer to this matter divided to the main contents as follows: Grave defense gods Exorcized and unexorcized graves System of main graves and expanded graves System of duke-marquess, graduate and wealth graves 2.3.5 Yang houses In Geomancy, house means Yang house After surveying 60 Vietnamese HánNôm Geomancy documents, in 46 works with 60 documents, 12/60 documents contain Yang house contents Contents of Yang house sections guide and describe ways to select and arrange locations, directions, structures and ways to select date for house construction 2.3.6 Yin houses In Geomancy, grave means Yin house After surveying 60 Vietnamese HánNôm Geomancy documents, in 46 works with 60 documents, 7/60 documents contain some Yin house contents Contents of these documents mainly focus on analyzing ancestral graves of families with excellent graduates Conclusion of the chapter In the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, there are 46 Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy works with 60 documents Based on the document unit, in 60 documents (symbol) surveyed, we recognize that there are 47 manuscripts (making up 77%) and 13 printouts (making up 23%) Regarding document writers and copiers, after surveying 46 works with 60 documents, we list 31 works with 37 documents (symbol) with authors’ names (07 Vietnamese authors and 02 Chinese authors) or with copiers’ names (03 copiers) (making up 63%) 02 works with 04 documents with writing date 06 works with 13 documents with printing year 03 works with 03 documents with copying year Therefore, textual study is always set out when these works are used After surveying 46 works with 60 documents of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, the thesis provides some basic scientific contents of refected Geomancy documents as follows: Yin and Yang - Wu Xing, compass, good layers of earth, graves, Yang houses and Yin houses 12 Basic contents of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy embrace basic contents of Chinese traditional Geomancy and also have separate features of Vietnamese Geomancy It can be said that the topography of Vietnamese rivers and mountains forms the system of Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy works in the writing culture of the country in accordance with the culture and beliefs of Vietnamese people completely different from the Geomancy contents recorded in Chinese books The research results of this chapter show that Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy is a rich and valued resource reflecting many aspects of history, geography, celebrity, vestige, culture, human, customs and habits, etc of the country and localities Chapter 3: RESEARCH ON SOME TYPICAL VIETNAMESE HÁN-NÔM GEOMANCY AUTHORS Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy authors, considered in the history, appeared a lot from official history to unofficial history or family annals, etc In this chapter, we select to introduce Hán-Nôm Geomancy authors whose works are currently kept in the literature depot of the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies 3.1 Chu Van An Chu Van An 朱文安 (1292 - 1370), also called Chu An 朱安 or Chu Van Trinh 朱文貞, alias: Tieu An 樵隐 and another alias was Khang Tiet tiên sinh 康節先生 (Mr Khang Tiet), courtesy name: Linh Triet 靈徹, posthumous name: Van Trinh, lived in Quang Liet Commune, Thanh Dam District, Ha Dong (now Thanh Tri District, Hanoi City) Geomancy works With deep knowledge, he wrote the book Địa đạo dẫn giải chương cú tập di biên 地道引解章句集註遺編 (Posthumous manuscript of the book quoted and explained notes of each chapter on geography), in the summary, he said: “Tuy kiến thức sơ sài, tới đâu, tơi chép, có ý thu thập hình núi sơng, đặt tên sách Địa lý dẫn giải chương cú tập di biên để khoe khoang sơ lược lĩnh hội được” His 20th generation descendants, Xuan Luong and Hai Ham later copied and named Thanh Trì Quang Liệt Chu thị di thư 清池光烈朱氏遺書(Remaining books of Chu family in Quang Liet Commune, Thanh Tri District) Regarding contents of the work Địa lý dẫn giải chương cú tập di biên (Thanh Trì Quang Liệt Chu thị di thư), in addition to 01 article of title, 01 article of introduction, 01 article of general presentation, and 01 conclusion, the work included 03 parts Part 1: Địa lý dẫn giải chương cú tập (including 18 chapters) Part 2: Địa đạo lý luận tập (including 10 sections) Part 3: Địa đạo hình huyệt pháp tập (including 101 methods for considering topography for graves) 13 It can be said that the works of Chu Van An can be considered as contents of Vietnamese Geomancy foundation discussing explanatory geography, boolean geography and topographical geography, and Vietnamese authors in next generations have received quintessence of the work for discussing Vietnamese Geomancy contents 3.2 Nguyen Duc Huyen Nguyen Duc Huyen1 阮德玄 (? - ?), alias: Ta Ao 左泑 and Phu Hung 甫興 (also called Hoang Chiem 黃瞻, Hoang Chi 黃止), lived in Ta Ao Village, Duc Quang Fu, Nghe An Town2 (now Xuan Giang Commune, Nghi Xuan District, Ha Tinh Province), because he used name of the village, he was called Ta Ao According to Hán - Nôm sources, he lived and worked in the fifteenth - sixteenth centuries, he was a famous Geomancer Geomancy works Through the practical process, he summarized and wrote many works for handing down to next generations However, over time, his works are not much left at present After the survey in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies, he had 16 works with 20 documents There are 05 copies of the work Tả Ao chân truyền địa lý 左幼真傳地 理 (VHv.1660, A.1207, VHv.1661, VHv.483, VHv.783), their basic contents are same and all of them were printed by Nghia Loi brand, Hang Dao Street, Hanoi in the year of Khải Ðịnh Kỷ Mùi (1919) Particularly, VHv.1660 was attached with the work Địa lý Tả Ao di thư chân truyền pháp printed by Lieu Van Duong in the 3rd year of Khải Định (1918) Considering the existing Geomancy works of Ta Ao, it can be recognized that he received Geomancy contents of Chu Van An on boolean geography and topographical geography to describe 28 land positions of wealth Tả Ao chân truyền tập In addition, in the Geomancy works of Ta Ao, the contents also embraced other matters such as Graves, Yang houses (land positions of wealth in Vietnam) and Yin houses (wealth graves in Vietnam), etc 3.3 Le Hoang Le Hoang 黎璜(? - ?), alias: Haa Chinh Tu 和正子 and Chuyet Phu 拙夫, lived in Kim Bang District (now Kim Bang District, Ha Nam Province), normally called Hoa Chinh He lived in the seventeenth century, he had come to Yen Kinh (China) to learn Gemancy Sino-Vietnamese sound is Huyền 玄 but Huyên in the documents There is an information that He was originally from Son Nam (i.e Hai Duong, Hung Yen today), after that migrated to Ta Ao village We think that this needs to be considered more carefully 14 Geomancy works Hoa Chinh had three Geomancy works (Hòa Chính địa lý 和正地理 (A.2153), Lưu Xá Hòa Chính bí truyền địa pháp 流舍和正秘傳地法 (A.1405), Thiên Nam địa lý cách ngơn tồn tập 天南地理格言全集 (R.2221) Contents of Geomancy works of Hoa Chinh proved additionally and specifically ways of astronomical recognition to assess land layers on the land positions of Vietnam previously discussed by Ta Ao The book An Nam phong thủy, gave comments on his Geomancy knowledge as follows: “Xét nước ta, có ơng Hòa Chính Tử nhà phong thủy tiếng, tìm ngơi đất loại “hổ táng” [đất phát khiến cháu làm quan to] cho quốc gia” 3.4 Trinh Tung Trinh Tung 鄭 松 (1550 - 1623), posthumous name: Thanh To Triet Vuong 成 祖哲王, was the first person to restore Revival Lê dynasty Geomancy discussion The work 鄭松問風水策文 Trịnh Tùng vấn phong thủy sách văn (No A.2265), recorded questions and answers between Trinh Tung and Hoa Chinh about Compass and Good layers of earth in Geomancy Considering the conversation, it is recognized that Trinh Tung had deep knowledge of Geomancy, especially compass and good layers of earth Due to his deep knowledge of Geomancy, he was very talent in strategy, to fight and conquer in all the battles against the Mac dynasty as recorded in the historical books Conclusion of the chapter Research results of this chapter introduce 04 typical Vietnamese Geomancy authors in the history To define these 04 authors, we based partly on the previous researches and based mainly on the Hán - Nôm documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies and National Library of Vietnam We followed the principle of introducing author status, studying works, analyzing content values based on evidences in the literary works, then comparing with related historical books to define works and authors This principle was consistently presented during studying authors, then proving clearly Geomancy works left by the authors until now 01 works with 03 documents of Chu Van An, 16 works with 20 documents of Ta Ao, 03 works with 03 documents of Hoa Chinh, and 01 works with 01 documents of Trinh Tung Contents of Hán - Nôm Geomancy works of each author expressed matters of Vietnamese Geomancy studies Explanatory geography, boolean geography and topographical geography with Chu Van An Selecting precious land positions (địa lý chi đồ) for duke-marquess, graduate and wealth, etc “hổ táng” lands with Ta Ao and Hoa Chinh Matters of compass and good layers of earth with Trinh Tung Chapter 4: RESEARCH ON CONTENT VALUES OF 15 VIETNAMESE HÁN - NÔM GEOMANCY WORKS 4.1 Content values It can be said that material values in Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy documents are quite rich, reflect many aspects of culture, belief, customs and habits of the people, and show a particular nuance Below are some basic values reflected by Vietnamese Geomancy document contents 4.1.1 Thought harmony of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Geomancy reflects clearly harmony and interaction between the thoughts of three religions (Confucianism - Buddhism - Taoism) in which the most dominant is Confucianism and Taoism This is proved as follows: Confucianism and Taoism considered I Ching as the source, Geomany also considerd I Ching as the source, both used Yin and Yang, Wu Xing, Bagua, Taiji, Nine Stars, Energy Theory, etc as theory system Geomany considered Yin and Yang as basic, vitality as nuclear andn mixed with the thoughts of Wu Xing and Bagua doctrines as specific thought of Taoist theory Taoism considered “Dao Zang 道藏” as private chronic canon and Geomany artfully applied “Classic on Mansions 宅經” as its canon However, in “Dao Zang” there were many rituals related to Geomancy including burial ritual Besides, Geomancy used “Eight houses” means to base on the “Nine Stars” theory of Taoism Or for example, the classic reference “Cửu thiên huyền nữ nang hải giác kinh 九天玄女青囊角海經” of Geomancy was from the fairy reference “Xuannü” in Taoism Besides, the model of four symbols (four auspicious beasts) “Azure Dragon, White Tiger, Vermilion Bird, and Black Turtle” in Geomancy also originated from Taoism In Taoism, these are four gods to protect four cardinal directions In addition, fulu, zhaijiao, chúc chú, etc are also normal words in Geomancy: Fulu of Taoism and Phù chấn of Geomancy, bagua mirror of Taoism and Huyền kinh of Geomancy, etc have the same origin Confucianist venerated Zhouyi 周易, the thought of Yang and Yin, and baguataiji theory were from Zhouyi Geomancy did not only use the system of good or ill assessment of Zhouyi but also followed the thought of Yang and Yin of Zhouyi Geomancy valued three moral bonds and five cardinal virtues: Three moral bonds in Geomancy are energy, front side and water gate in which energy is mainstay of rich and poor; road; front side is mainstay of nice or bad water mound; water gate is mainstay of birth peak death extinction Five cardinal virtues are mountain layer, grave, mound, water, direction; in which mountain layer must be like dragon foot; grave must be connected with mountain layer; mound must be beautiful; water must be meandering; direction must be nice (good attending direction) Three moral bonds and five cardinal virtues are complete with mutual relationship Geomancy cares about cultivating virtue, it means that it is necessary to good works; if you 16 want good graves, firstly your mind should be good Silent good works to be guided by genii Buddhism seeks an ideal environment as Heaven and Geomancy also seeks an ideal environment as Heaven Buddhism propagated in Vietnam increased generosity and Geomancy once based on Buddhism for propagation and development This was proved by that monks were Geomancers In short, in the history, the thought of Geomancy always connected closely with the thoughts of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, intertwining, permeating in each other to ensure objectively its propagation and development 4.1.2 Local culture and belief First of all, it can be said that culture and belief reflect the cultural life, customs and habits of all people in general In this matter, Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy, after receiving the thought of Chinese Geomancy, screened and developed under separate rule and was not complete when imported It means that Chinese Geomancy initially imported in Vietnam remained intact matters of Chinese culture, but after that, Vietnamese people mixed it with the local folk beliefs for development in accordance with the existing environment That is expressed as follows: In Chinese Geomancy, there are not 24 gods governing 24 layers of earth (24 mountain directions) but only six gods - ten heavenly stem coordinated with six gods The documents, such as An Nam cửu long ca 安南九龍歌 (VHv.482), An Nam cửu long kinh 安南九龍經 (A.1050), Địa lý 地理 (VHv.1048/1), Hồng vũ địa cảo 洪武地稿 (VHv.1594) showed full names of the gods keeping fu and district graves At the fu level, there were: Khoai Chau Fu with Mountain God Madam Pham Thi To keeping grave (worshiping with sweet rice and pork, bấm Dần); Ung Thien Fu (4 districts) with Madam Pham Thi Huu keeping grave (worshiping with sweet rice and pork, bấm Tý) At the district level, there were: Kim Dong District with the mountain god Pham Hung Long keeping grave (worshiping sweet rice, gold, bấm Tý); Tien Lu District with the mountain god Pham Thi Chuoc keeping grave (worshiping fish, sweet rice, wine, bấm Hợi); etc From the above, it can be recognized that Vietnamese Geomancy expressed clearly the belief matter of Vietnamese people through the divine system Vietnamese Geomancy, in its development process, only received the theorical part of Chinese Geomancy to apply in the reality of Vietnamese society in accordance with the culture, spirituality and beliefs of Vietnamese people 4.1.3 Filial piety spirit of Confucianism Confucianism used Hiếu kinh 孝經 (Classic of Filial Piety) as basic content to train filial piety, filial piety includes loyalty or it can be said that loyalty is filial piety Disloyal means undutiful, everyone was not only required to be dutiful to parents but also loyal to the king 17 Filial piety of Confucianism referred to each aspect of family life as a basis for considering deeply each aspect of the society Geomancy soon captured these standards as basis for theoretical points An Nam phong thủy, in the sheet 62a showed that: “Chọn đất để làm kế bảo tồn cha mẹ, cách xử người với cha mẹ, khơng việc khơng lo Nếu lo lắng an nguy thể phách mẹ cha, há cho phép khơng thận trọng, mà chọn rộng Rồi tu dưỡng lấy đức tốt để chờ đợi mệnh trời Việc chọn đất trọn lẽ làm người song song với làm việc tốt (khơng trái nhân đạo) Đó việc bậc nhân nhân hiếu tử phải ghi nhớ” Thus, caring family graves is a form of worshiping the dead, does not only express filial piety of offspring, improving and preserving family tradition value but also is a unique identity in spiritual life, a cultural style with the moral meaning of ethic origin 4.1.4 Land layers for imperial examinations Imperial examinations were the key way to select mandarins of feudal state Confucian imperial examinations in Vietnam began from Ất Mao year in Ly Nhan Tong dynasty (1075) with Minh Kinh examination and three Confucian rounds; finishing with Metropolitan examination in Ky Mui year in Khai Dinh King dynasty (1919) It can be said that imperial examinations were considered as important environment to express talent, it was also the most important purpose for being noble mandate as well as the best way to bring honor to ancestors” Therefore, no mater residence and class, it was possible to hope prosperous literary fortune and focus on graves (Yin houses) of ancestors for good imperial examinations In Trùng đính thiên Nam danh địa (VHv.1927), the author wrote 125 stories of Yang house selection for examination success, for example: Yang house of Vu family in Mo Trach Commune, Duong An District, with position of “Bình dương hố hình, bàn long nghịch 平洋化 形蟠龍逆勢” (biển phẳng hố hình, rồng ngược chiều), “sa tiền thác hậu 砂前托 後” (bãi cát trước lại đổi sau), “nhiễu ngoại đường, vi hổ tác án 遶過外堂為 虎作案” (quấn sân ngồi, tạo hình hổ làm án), etc Therefore, there were up to 20 doctors, 03 second-rank doctors, 02 Apostolic Nunciatures, 03 Ministers, this was a breeding ground, matchless in the world 4.1.5 People harmonize with environmental landscape Geomancy searches “preventing wind and accumulating energy”, in fact it means seeking ideal ecological environment Although feng shui mainly assesses new quality from appearance, however, these appearances are normally result of general impact of natural geographic factors, such as geology and climate, soil, vegetation, surface water and underground water in a small environment, thus, it is very important expressing factors Trùng đính thiên Nam danh địa has many parts to mention the living environment (Yang houses), good or bad living environment has important impacts to the physical and mental develipment of people: “Yang 18 houses (houses on ground) are different from lands for Yin houses (graves) Maybe Yan house mainly seeks advantages in “position” Feng shui lands are the places of “star concentration, energy accumulation”, their natural landscapes have normally “spirit energy accumulated” to show “good and strong mountain and river” to form a land with beautiful landscape Therefore, seeking a beautiful natural environment of people is most clearly shown in feng shui lands Many Hán - Nôm Geomancy books, when describing burial grounds of ancestors, can give assessment from the angle of landscape rather than the angle of feng shui 4.2 Application of some Geomancy contents in the cultural and spiritual life of Vietnamese people In this item, we focus on introducing 02 matters which are the concepts of good and ill in Yang house and Yin house in the cultural and spiritual life of Vietnamese people 4.2.1 Concepts of good and ill in Yang house Over the years, when building a house, people focus on finding convenient location for the house to get the best environmental conditions overwhelming with the nature The viewpoint of selecting main place of residence is a specific expression of Geomancy thought In Hoàng Chiêm địa lý cảo 黃瞻地理稿 (A.457), the author gave some concepts as follows: 4.2.1.1 Concept of land position Position of Yang house is very important and relates closely with weal and woe of people living in that So how to know good and bad directions, we would like to present some cardinal directions as example below: Houses in the directions Thin and Ty with a gap, sons and daughters are gentle, good at literature and have continuous fortunes Being intelligent, eloquent, rich, having food to eat and clothing to wear, servants, good first but bad later, and widow wife so descendants are not complete Houses in the directions Tuat and Hoi with a gap, money dwindle, someone would die early, not good later If living in such houses and facing to banes, it is necessary to change House with small front and wide rear, to live stably, fortunes for long time, descendants are prosperous, blessing and have long life Banes are resolved, lands with small front and wide rear are favorable and peace In fact, places are considered as good feng shui means that they have harmonious natural geographic factors with mutual support, full vitality, so many talents appear Thereby, the term “Sacred land with extraordinary people” has been summarized for long time 4.2.1.2 Concept of communal temple and pagoda directions Directions of communal temples and pagodas around 24 mountain locations in Yang house were very noticeable, in term of feng shui, could create good and bad, weal and woe listed as follows: Qian (Northwest), communal temples and pagodas in the Qian direction were good for literary and martial mandate, doctor, Chief 19 commander Pagodas in the northwestern direction, descendants would be prosperous and successful Ren (North), communal temples and pagodas in the Northern direction, first being mandate of administrative division, district, later being imprisoned, lost assets Gen (northeast), communal temples and pagodas in the northeast direction, in spite of literary mandate, young kids would die Pagodas in the northeast direction, it would be easy to be mandate Position first and direction second is a simple and pure concept of Vietnamese people but they were positions and directions which were valued by ancestors, they are the directions of communal temples and pagodas of shared community beliefs and activities 4.2.1.3 Concepts of road and well Well has been the important water source in the Vietnamese tradition down to modern times, thus there are taboos in feng shui Not locate at the main location of the house In Thanh Trì Quang Liệt Chu thị di thư (VHv.2391), there is also the content as follows: “Phàm núi cao dòng sơng vốn thiên nhiên tạo thành, nhà cửa, ao hồ giếng nước người tạo Người xem đất lưu ý, tất nhiên Bởi việc đắp đường, đào giếng điều lại có lành (tuy trung nhi tàng cát dã) Con đường đắp lên lại, có điều nên kỵ, chẳng hạn kỵ chỗ nhọn đầu hình đinh [đâm thẳng vào huyệt], hay “lưng cong” [lưng cong “phản bội, hay phản bối” đồng âm với “phản bội 反背” [gia chủ] huyệt, đường bao vòng mang dáng vẻ “giam tù” huyệt (chữ “tù 囚” Hán tự có khung nét bao vây chữ “nhân’ người giữa) 4.2.2 Concepts of good and ill in Yin house 4.2.2.1 Graves near communal temples, pagodas and shrines Communal temples, pagodas and shrines in Prayer should be avoided, so what is the reason? Maybe when a grave expands, its spiritual light converges, physics and energy mix together, to form this land And previously, these three factors were created So vitality is damaged Thus, saying that: “Táng nhầm vào huyệt xã miếu, sau táng người bị tuyệt”, does it mean to mention such thing? Moreover, the front is God and the rear is Buddha [Tiền thần hậu Phật 前神後佛], it means to prove “Not afraid of God and Buddha” Why dispute for receiving such scourge? So, taboo is required” 4.2.2.2 Graves near bridges and towers Locating graves near bridges or towers down to modern times, considering the Vietnamese tradition, should not be done Because bridges and towers press on interrupted graves resulting to unsafe They are made by people Good graves are damaged by bridges and towers is normal but bad graves are supported by bridges and towers never happens When graves not expand but contact to bridge and towers, good fortune reduces and when graves expand and then bridges and towers are constructed, harms appear From 24 directions, if there is a bridge exposes to grave, taboos apply to the direction exposing to which grave location If it covers the grave to 20 be invisible, it is forbidden because of harmful Who said that bridges reduced fortune, is it possible to avoid? If you follow me, you can hope to gain position and fame If communal temples, pagodas and shrines are located at the Long Lai or Long Hổ position, the family will “fall into ruin” Conclusion of the chapter In this chapter, we study and analyze content values of Vietnamese Hán Nôm Geomancy documents, then clarify the thoughts which reflect many aspects the culture and belief, customs and habits and graves, etc of Vietnamese people expressing a separate specific shade First, it is harmony between Geomancy and three religions (Confucianism - Buddhism - Taoism) to form harmony and codevelopment in a society harmonious between religionsand folk beliefs Next, they are specific features of local culture and belief in Geomancy with accessing Chinese Geomancy thoughts to screen and develop under the separate rule of Vietnamese, i.e Chinese Geomancy was imported to Vietnam, and its theory was received by Vietnamese people, then it was applied by Vietnamese people with local folk beliefs for development in accordance with the existing environment Filial piety spirit of Confucianism implied in the Geomancy contents was very meaningful, Geomancy used artfully the Yin house system for development in accordance with an aspect in the filial piety of Confucianism showing the spirit of “When you eat a fruit, think of the man who planted the tree”, “Holy living and holy dying” or matters of imperial examination attached to graves focus on grave sites (yin house) of ancestors for good imperial examinations, good graves, interesting land positions, etc helped to be noble mandate, for “bringing honor to ancestors”; or harmony between people and environmental landscape, people should keep close relationship with lands, rivers and mountains, to form a new organic system to be possible to promote potentials of Geomancy Then, to create Geomancy theory in the Vietnamese cultural environment on planning environment and land attached to architectural culture to help readers recognize that scientificality of Geomancy always developed continuously CONCLUSION Geomancy or “Qingwu Shu”, “Qingniao Shu”, “Yin and Yang”, “Geography”, “Feng Shui”, etc is a scientific subject on environmental landscape architecture which came from the ancient Chinese culture and imported to Vietnam However, after importing to Vietnam, Vietnamese people received and modified it in accordance with the domestic geographical feng shui After study, the thesis gains the main results as follows: The thesis studies as well as discusses about Geomancy concept, and introduces the origin of Geomancy in China which started in Pre-Qin dynasty, developed in Han dynasty, circulated in Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern dynasties, spread widely in Sui - Tang Five Dynasties and prosperous in Ming - Qing dynasties Basically, 21 Geomancy studies in China can be divided into 02 groups which are Hinh The (Loan dau) and Ly To give overview on import and development process of Vietnamese Geomancy, after Geomancy imported to Vietnam, it began to develop strongly in Dinh Tien Hoang dynasty (968 - 980) until Nguyen dynasty (1802 -1945) and the modern periods later Vietnamese Geomancy development was based mainly on great schools such as: Cửu tinh bát môn, Ngũ hành thống, Huyền khơng ngũ hành, etc with two main fields which were Yang house and Yin house, focused on main schools such as Kham Loan đầu (or called Hình thế), Kham Bát trạch, Kham Huyền khơng, Kham Thần sát, Kham Tam hợp, Kham Hình tượng, Hình pháp, Tinh túc, Phiên quái, etc To draw out overview on Geomancy research of previous domestic and foreign researchers Separately to Vietnam, the thesis shows works and authors of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy in the middle ages currently existing In the years of the twentieth century, translations from foreign languages, translations of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy, writings of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy and researches of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy were increasingly interested Specially in the beginning years of the nineteenth century, Geomancy researches and translations were more and more developed, especially Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy Based on such general features, the thesis provides some general comments on the Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy researches and research orientation of the thesis topic To implement statistic and survey of 46 Hán - Nôm Geomancy works with 60 documents (60 symbols) currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies of Vietnam This survey focuses on main characteristics and finds basic contents of forms, dates, authors, copiers, genres, scripts, textual contents, etc of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy documents To correct some errors of names of Hán - Nôm Geomancy works and show overlaps during copying Geomancy works in some documents This survey gives a credible view of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy documents, and provides the system of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies of Vietnam On that basis, to give certain assumptions as follows: 4.1 To correct 05 documents in Di sản Hán Nôm Việt Nam - Thư mục đề yếu with incorrect names of the works as written in the documents 4.2 In 46 works with 60 documents (symbol) surveyed, we recognize that there are 47 manuscripts (making up 77%) and 13 printouts (making up 23%) The manuscripts (47 ones) were written simply, clearly, and coherently with the “cú đậu” vermilion stamp for breaking 4.3 From surveying 46 works with 60 documents, there are 31 works with 37 documents (symbol) with authors’ names (making up 63%) Including 02 Chinese authors (Gao Pian with 08 works and 02 documents, Huang Fu with 01 work and 01 document), 07 Vietnamese authors (Chu Van An with 01 work and 03 documents, Ta 22 Ao with 16 works and 20 documents, Hoa Chinh with 02 works and 02 documents, Trinh Tung with 01 work and 01 document, Nguyen Linh Nam with 01 work and 01 document, Hoang Dao Duc with 01 work and 01 document, Chan Loc Bao Dai of Nguyen family with 01 work and 01 document) 4.4 Regarding script, in the total of 46 works with 60 documents, Chinese characters were used to write the works, 01 works were written in Southern characters, in addition, Southern characters appeared for poems and some places A document was written in 07 words of naming taboo in Revival Lê dynasty and Nguyen dynasty From the survey results of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy work contents, the thesis author shows basic contents implied in the works, including: Yin and Yang Wu Xing content, Compass content, Good layers of earth content, contents of graves and grave defense gods, system of main graves and expanded graves, system of dukemarquess, graduate and wealth graves, Yang house and Yin house matters Then, to show basic characteristics of Vietnamese Hán - Nôm Geomancy, such as concepts of directions, good layers of earth, system of grave defense gods, land positions of wealth, wealth graves, etc and clarify cultural and social values as well as beliefs and histories of some graduate characters in Vietnamese feudal history After surveying Vietnamese Geomancy documents, we recognize that in spite of being affected from China, there were modifications in accordance with Vietnamese climate and spiritual culture When comparing Vietnamese Geomany and Chinese one, in spite of similar term, Vietnamese Geomany has separate contents in accordance with Vietnamese writing culture Throgh Hán - Nôm Geomancy documents currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies of Vietnam, we introduce author status, study work documents, analyze content values based on evidences in the literary works, then comparing with related historical books to define authors and Geomancy works of 04 typical Vietnamese authors whose works are currently kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies of Vietnam, they are: Chu Van An, Nguyen Duc Huyen (Ta Ao), Le Hoang (Hoa Chinh) and Trinh Tung To analyze, and assess each work of the authors, affirm content values and reliability of each work In addition, to show systematicality in the works, for example: Explanatory geography, boolean geography and topographical geography with Chu Van An; Selecting precious land positions and wealth graves, etc with Ta ao and Hoa Chinh; matters of compass and good layers of earth with Trinh Tung The thesis studies basic content values reflected by Hán - Nôm Geomancy, then clarify the thoughts which reflect many aspects the culture and belief, customs and habits and graves, etc of Vietnamese people expressing a separate specific shade It is harmony between Geomancy and three religions (Confucianism Buddhism - Taoism); specific features of local culture and belief in Geomancy; Filial piety spirit of Confucianism implied in the Geomancy contents; harmony between people and environmental landscape, matters of imperial examination shown through the contents, etc Then, to show matters of applying Geomancy in 23 architectural culture to help readers recognize scientificality of continuously developing Geomancy Specially, to emphasize meanings of the concepts of good and ill in application of Yang house and Yin house of Geomancy to Vietnamese cultural life Studying Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents kept in the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies of Vietnam systematically in all the fields such as document characteristics and content values, contributes positively to the scientific meaning and practical value of Hán - Nôm Geomancy in Vietnamese cultural life in general The research results of the thesis will be based for forming Hán-Nôm Geomancy monographs and gradually form the Vietnamese Geomancy subject Hope that the topic will give certain contributions to preserving and promoting good values in Vietnamese Hán-Nôm Geomancy documents It can be said that Geomancy study was an applicable scientific subject but it has been changed or lost for many years However, the good news is that in recent years, with advanced scientific researches of new sciences, such as: Panoramic principle, biological clock, microwave technique, etc scientificality of Geomancy in contemporary society has been gradually explained In addition, in Vietnam, other typical Geomancers need to be studied deeply, such as: Nguyen Trai, Nguyen Binh Khiem, Pham Dinh Ho, La Son phu tu Nguyen Thiep, etc It is an open direction for studying Vietnamese Geomancy 24 LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE THESIS WRITER RELATED TO THE THESIS “Tứ quý nguyệt lệnh biểu” (2007), Hán-Nôm Studies Magazine, Vol (80), pg.70 -71 Nghiên cứu văn Tả Ao chân truyền địa lý, (2015), Master thesis, Graduate Academy of Social Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences “Tác giả Tả Ao tác phẩm kham dư” (2016), Hán-Nơm Studies Magazine, Vol 4(137); pg.59-72 “Tìm hiểu 28 cách chọn đất Tả Ao chân truyền địa lý” 2017, Hán-Nôm Studies Magazine, Vol 5(144); pg.67-77 “Phong thủy việc chọn hướng nhà thờ họ ban thờ người Việt” 2017, Hán-Nôm Studies; pg.420-431 ... house, focused on main schools such as Kham dư Loan đầu (or called Hình thế), Kham dư Bát trạch, Kham dư Huyền không, Kham dư Thần sát, Kham dư Tam hợp, Kham dư Hình tượng, Hình pháp, Tinh túc,... Description of Vietnamese Hán- Nôm Geomancy documents in the Institute of Hán- Nôm Studies At present, 46 works with 60 Vietnamese Hán- Nôm Geomancy documents are kept in the Institute of Hán- Nôm Studies... terms of Vietnamese Hán- Nôm Geomancy To translate the work An Nam phong thủy (A.693) in Vietnamese Hán- Nôm Geomancy Scientific meaning of the thesis Studying the group of Vietnamese Hán- Nôm Geomancy
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Nghiên cứu văn bản kham dư hán nôm việt nam tại viện nghiên cứu hán nôm tt tiếng anh , Nghiên cứu văn bản kham dư hán nôm việt nam tại viện nghiên cứu hán nôm tt tiếng anh

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn