Wong wan sie curtain wall for hign rise building2007

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University of Southern Queensland Faculty of Engineering and Surveying Analysis and Design of Curtain Wall Systems for High Rise Buildings A dissertation submitted by WONG WAN SIE, WINXIE In fulfillment of the requirements of Courses ENG4111 and 4112 Research Project towards the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering Submitted: November, 2007 _ ABSTRACT Faỗades are the first aesthetical feature of a building that distinguish one building from another Its distinctive appearance is often the subject of controversial debate Nowadays, Unitized Curtain Wall system is commonly used for new high-rise buildings, it becomes a major investment in both construction and long-term success of the building Compared to reinforced concrete structure, unitized curtain wall is new technology in the construction industry This dissertation will focus on the design and analysis of unitized curtain wall for high-rise building, using finite element and structural analysis programme The curtain wall systems nowadays, even the simpler types, are far more sophisticate products than their early counterparts, though many of the earliest walls are still performing admirably More than fifty years of experience and development have eliminated the major difficulties of the pioneering designs, resulting in better products Beginning with the relatively simple, but innovative concept of the early 1950’s, a series of window units and panels jointed and supported by simple framing members Curtain wall system technology has developed, over the years, into a proliferation of highly engineered design The author worked in construction industry for years and working in Faỗade Consultancy for almost years I am currently engaging in various key Faỗade projects in Asia I have found that some people simply think that curtain wall system is just an assembly of glass, aluminium, steel, screw and sealant Curtian wall system, apart from its appearance, functions as an external enclosure to protect the building from weather and to achieve pressure-equalization between the outdoor and indoor environment Its construction is not only an assembly of several components, but an advanced technology with involves sophisticated calculation In this paper, design concerns of the unitized curtain wall system are also regarded as major issue to discuss i _ University of Southern Queensland Faculty of Engineering and Surveying ENG4111 & 4112 Research Project Limitation of Use The Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, and the staff of the University of Southern Queensland, not accept any responsibility for the truth, accuracy or completeness of material contained within or associated with this dissertation Persons using all or any part of this material so at their own risk, and not at the risk of the Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and Surveying or the staff of the University of Southern Queensland This dissertation reports an educational exercise and has no purpose or validity beyond this exercise The sole purpose of the course pair entitled “Research Project” is to contribute to the overall education within the student’s chosen degree program This document, the associated hardware, software, drawings, and other material set out in the associated appendices should not be used for any other purpose; if they are so used, it is entirely at the risk of the user Prof Frank Bullen Dean of Faculty of Engineering and Surveying ii _ CERTIFICATION I certify that the ideas, designs and experimental work, results, analysis and conclusions set out in this dissertation are entirely my own efforts, except where otherwise indicated and acknowledged I further certify that the work is original and has not been previously submitted for assessment in any other course or institution, except where specifically stated WONG WAN SIE, WINXIE Student Number: 0050031397 Signature Date iii _ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Stephen Liang for his endless help and guidance in making this project successful; And, my appreciation is also extended to my current experienced colleagues Mr Ray Chong, Mr Matthew Kong and Ms April Soh who directly or indirectly contributed to the success of this dissertation The author also wishes to thank her family for their kind assistance and support throughout the course of this project Miss Winxie Wong November, 2007 iv _ TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background information on the research project 1.2 Aims 1.3 1.4 Structure of Dissertation Summary CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Theoretical Studies 10 2.2.1 Finite Element Analysis Studies 10 2.2.2 Structural Analysis Studies 11 2.3 Design Codes 13 2.3.1 ASTM E1300-2004 : Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings 13 2.3.2 BS 8118-1:1991: Structural Use of Aluminium Code of Practice for Design 14 2.3.3 BS 5950-1:2000: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building Code of Practice for Design Rolled and Welded Section 15 2.4 Summary 15 CHAPTER HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM 3.1 History of curtain wall system development 17 3.2 Advantages of unitized curtain wall system compare with stick and semi-unitized curtain wall systems 20 3.3 Modern curtain wall system – Unitized curtain wall system 25 3.4 3.5 Design of curtain wall system 26 Analysis of curtain wall system 27 CHAPTER DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM 4.1 Introduction 28 4.2 Natural forces and their effects on curtain wall system 29 v _ 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Sunlight 29 Temperature 30 Water 30 4.2.4 Wind 31 4.2.5 Gravity 32 4.3 Design Consideration 32 4.3.1 Structural integrity 33 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 Provision for movement 35 Weather tightness 37 Moisture control 42 Thermal insulation 43 4.3.6 Sound transmission 44 4.4 Glass and glazing 44 4.5 Conclusion 49 CHAPTER ANALYSIS OF UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM 5.1 Introduction 50 5.2 Case study 50 5.2.1 Wind Pressure Calculation: 53 5.2.2 Glass design 54 5.2.3 Structural modeling 64 CHAPTER CONCULSIONS 6.1 Summary 91 6.2 Achievement of aims and objectives 91 6.3 Conclusions 92 vi _ LIST OF FIGURES Figure Mega Box at Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong, China…………………………… Figure One Peking Road at Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong, China…………………… Figure Scene of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong, China………………………… Figure 170m Height, Bank of China, Hong Kong, China….……………………… Figure 290m height, International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong, China………… Figure 890m Height, Buji Tower, Dubai…………………………………………… Figure Walter Gropius (1883-1969)………………………………………………… 18 Figure The Bauhaus………………………………………………………………… 18 Figure The Bauhaus………………………………………………………………… 19 Figure 10 Diagram to illustrate the stick wall system………………………………… 21 Figure 11 Diagram to illustrate semi-unitized curtain wall system…………………… 22 Figure 12 Diagram to illustrate unitized curtain wall system………………………… 23 Figure 13 An Unitized Curtain Wall Panel…………………………………………… 23 Figure 14 Fixing details of unitized curtain wall system……………………………… 37 Figure 15 Drainage path in unitized curtain wall system……………………………… 39 Figure 16 Design concern of weather tightness in unitized curtain wall system……… 40 Figure 17 Design concern of pressure equalized in unitized curtain wall system…… 41 Figure 18 Insulation installed in unitized curtain wall system………………………… 43 Figure 19 Cross section diagram to show different types of glass…………………… 46 Figure 20 Project Photo of “Cullinan” 51 Figure 21 Elevation plan of “Cullinan”……………………………………………… 52 Figure 22 Part of elevation of glass panel……………………………………………… 54 Figure 23 Load Diagram of vision glass (Strand 7)…………………………………… 55 Figure 24 Deflection Diagram of vision glass (Strand 7)……………………………… 56 Figure 25 Stress Diagram of vision glass (Strand 7)…………………………………… 57 Figure 26 Load Diagram of glass during different conditions of impact load……… 59 Figure 27 Deflection Diagram of glass during different conditions of impact load… 60 Figure 28 Stress Diagram of glass during different conditions of impact load……… 60 Figure 29 Load Diagram of spandrel glass (Strand 7)………………………………… 62 Figure 30 Deflection Diagram of spandrel glass (Strand 7)…………………………… 63 Figure 31 Stress Diagram of spandrel glass (Strand 7)………………………………… 63 Figure 32 Cross section details of the elevation of curtain wall system……………… 64 Figure 33 Space Gass model for mullion with floors……………………………… 65 Figure 34 The most critical distribution of wind load for mullion…………………… 66 vii _ Figure 35 Cross section and section properties for mullion of curtain wall…………… 68 Figure 36 Deflection diagram of load case 11 for mullion…………………………… 71 Figure 37 Deflection diagram of load case 12 for mullion…………………………… 72 Figure 38 Moment diagram of load case 21 for mullion……………………………… 74 Figure 39 Moment diagram of load case 22 for mullion……………………………… 75 Figure 40 Cross section of stack joint for transom………………………… ……… 77 Figure 41 Section properties for upper part of transom Dead load will along X-axis… 77 Figure 42 Section properties of transom Wind load along Y-axis…………………… 78 Figure 43 The most critical distribution of wind load for transom…………………… 79 Figure 44 Loading diagram (dead load) for transom………………………………… 82 Figure 45 Loading diagram (Wind pressure load) for transom………………………… 83 Figure 46 Loading diagram (Wind suction load) for transom………………………… 84 Figure 47 Deflection diagram (dead load) for transom………………………………… 85 Figure 48 Deflection diagram (Wind pressure load) for transom……………………… 86 Figure 49 Deflection diagram (Wind suction load) for transom……………………… 87 Figure 50 Moment diagram (load case 21) for transom……………………………… 88 Figure 51 Moment diagram (load case 22) for transom……………………………… 89 Figure 52 Moment diagram (load case 23) for transom……………………………… 90 viii _ LIST OF TABLE Table Node coordinates of mullion……………………………………………… 67 Table Node restraints condition of mullion ……………………………………… 67 Table Member end release condition of mullion………………………………… 68 Table Load case for mullion……………………………………………………… 69 Table Combination load cases summary for mullion……………………………… 69 Table Member distributed force summary for mullion…………………………… 70 Table Node reaction result for mullion…………………………………………… 76 Table Node coordinates for transom……………………………………………… 79 Table Node restraints condition for transom……………………………………… 79 Table 10 Load case for Transom……………………………………………………… 80 Table 11 Combination load case summary for transom……………………………… 80 Table 12 Member distribution force summary for transom…………………………… 81 Table 13 Node load for transom……………………………………………………… 81 ix - Wind load (Pressure) Fig 45 – Loading diagram (Wind pressure load) for transom 83 - Wind load (Suction) Fig 46 – Loading diagram (Wind suction load) for transom 84 Result Output: a) Deflection diagram: - For Dead load (Glass + Self weight of Transom) - along Y-axis According to the requirement of BS8118, the deflection limit of non-factored load case for Aluminium beam is Span/360, where carrying brittle finish Deflection limit = 1630/360 = 4.5mm Fig 47 – Deflection diagram (dead load) for transom Maximum deflection = 3.05mm
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