Safety at work

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Safety at Work This page intentionally left blank Safety at Work Seventh edition Edited by John Ridley and John Channing AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butter-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA First edition 1983 Second edition 1985 Reprinted 1987 Third edition 1990 Reprinted 1991, 1992, 1993 Fourth edition 1994 Reprinted 1996, 1998 Fifth edition 1999 Reprinted 2000 Sixth edition 2003 Reprinted 2004, 2006 Seventh edition 2008 Copyright © 2008, Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (ϩ44) (0) 1865 843830; fax: (ϩ44) (0) 1865 853333; e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978 7506 8035 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at books.elsevier.com Printed and bound in Hungary 08 09 10 10 Contents Foreword xvii Preface to seventh edition xix Preface to first edition xxi List of contributors Part Law 1.1 Explaining the law Brenda Watts 1.1.1 Introduction 1.1.2 The incident 1.1.3 Some possible actions arising from the incident 1.1.4 Legal issues of the incident 1.1.5 Criminal and civil law 1.1.6 Branches of law 1.1.7 Law and fact 1.1.8 The courts 1.1.9 Judicial precedent 1.1.10 Court procedure 1.1.11 Identity of court personnel 1.1.12 Employment Tribunals 1.1.13 European community courts (ECJ) 1.1.14 Human Rights Courts 1.1.15 Sources of English Law 1.1.16 Legislation 1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1.1.18 Safety legislation today 1.1.19 Principles developed by the courts xxiii 3 3 4 7 17 18 23 25 26 28 29 30 36 37 40 v vi Contents 1.2 Principal health and safety Acts S Simpson 1.2.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 1.2.2 The Factories Act 1961 1.2.3 Fire precautions 1.2.4 The Mines and Quarries Acts 1954–71 1.2.5 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 1.2.6 The road traffic Acts 1972–91 1.2.7 The Public Health Act 1936 1.2.8 Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 1.2.9 Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995 1.2.10 Crown premises 1.2.11 Subordinate legislation 48 48 58 58 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 1.3 Influences on health and safety J R Ridley 1.3.1 Introduction 1.3.2 The Robens Report 1.3.3 Delegation of law-making powers 1.3.4 Legislative framework for health and safety 1.3.5 Self-regulation 1.3.6 Goal-setting legislation 1.3.7 European Union 1.3.8 European standards 1.3.9 Our social partners 1.3.10 Social expectations 1.3.11 Public expectations 1.3.12 Political influences 1.3.13 Roles in health and safety 1.3.14 Safety culture 1.3.15 Quality culture 1.3.16 No fault liability 1.3.17 Risk assessments 1.3.18 Risk aversion 1.3.19 Conclusion 64 64 64 65 66 67 68 69 72 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 78 78 79 80 1.4 Law of contract R W Hodgin 1.4.1 Contracts 1.4.2 Contracts of employment 1.4.3 Employment legislation 1.4.4 Law of sale 1.4.5 Specialised legislation affecting occupational safety advisers 82 82 85 86 88 1.5 Employment law R D Miskin, updated by Sabahhit Ali 1.5.1 Introduction 1.5.2 Employment law 1.5.3 Discrimination 1.5.4 Disciplinary procedures 1.5.5 Dismissal 1.5.6 Summary 90 94 94 94 96 104 107 116 Contents vii 1.6 Consumer protection R G Lawson 1.6.1 Fair conditions of contract 1.6.2 A fair quality of goods and services 1.6.3 Product safety 1.6.4 Product liability 1.6.5 Misleading advertising 1.6.6 Exclusion clauses 1.6.7 Distance selling 1.6.8 Stop now orders 1.6.9 Consumer redress 118 118 126 128 134 136 138 141 141 142 1.7 Insurance cover and compensation A West 1.7.1 Workmen’s compensation and the State insurance scheme 1.7.2 Employer’s liability insurance 1.7.3 Public Liability insurance 1.7.4 Investigation, negotiation and the quantum of damage 1.7.5 General 145 145 148 154 155 159 1.8 Civil liability E J Skellett, updated by David Greenhalgh 1.8.1 Introduction 1.8.2 The common law and its development 1.8.3 The law of tort 1.8.4 Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984 1.8.5 Supply of goods 1.8.6 Employer’s liability 1.8.7 Employer’s Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969 1.8.8 Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 1.8.9 Defences to a civil liability claim 1.8.10 Volenti non fit injuria 1.8.11 Limitation 1.8.12 Assessment of damages 1.8.13 Fatal accidents 1.8.14 ‘No fault’ liability system 160 160 160 161 165 166 167 170 170 170 171 172 172 174 175 Part The management of risk 2.1 An introduction to risk management J E Channing 2.1.1 Introduction 2.1.2 The components of risk 2.1.3 Strategies to control risk 2.1.4 Risk management in the 21st century 177 179 179 181 184 188 2.2 Principles of the management of risk L Bamber 2.2.1 Principles of action necessary to prevent accidents 2.2.2 Definitions of hazard, risk and danger 2.2.3 Risk management 2.2.4 Loss control 2.2.5 Degrees of hazard 191 191 192 194 197 202 viii Contents 2.2.6 Accident causation models 2.2.7 Accident prevention: legal, humanitarian and economic reasons for action 2.3 Risk management: organisation and administration for safety J E Channing 2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Organisation structure models 2.3.3 Roles and responsibilities 2.3.4 Work groups 2.3.5 Organisational theory 2.3.6 Organisational techniques 2.3.7 Culture 2.3.8 Potential problems 2.3.9 The role of specialists in the organisation 2.3.10 Conclusion 2.4 Risk management: techniques and practices L Bamber 2.4.1 Risk identification, assessment and control 2.4.2 Job safety analysis 2.4.3 System safety 2.4.4 Systems theory and design 2.4.5 System safety engineering 2.4.6 Fault tree analysis 2.4.7 Probabilistic risk assessments 2.4.8 Health and safety in design and planning 2.4.9 Quality, Environment, Safety and Health Management Systems (QUENSH) 2.4.10 Use of data on accidents 2.4.11 Maintenance systems and planned maintenance 2.4.12 Damage control 2.4.13 Cost-effectiveness of risk management 2.4.14 Performance evaluation and appraisal 2.4.15 Loss control profiling 2.5 The collection and use of accident and incident data Dr A J Boyle 2.5.1 Introduction 2.5.2 Types of accident and incident data 2.5.3 Collection of accident and incident data 2.5.4 Legal requirements to notify accidents and incidents 2.5.5 The use of accident and incident data 2.5.6 Epidemiological analysis 2.5.7 Accident investigation 2.5.8 Accident and incident data and risk assessment data 2.5.9 The use of computers Appendix UK requirements for reporting accidents and incidents 202 204 209 209 210 213 216 218 220 224 225 228 229 230 230 236 241 243 246 247 248 249 251 253 254 255 257 260 263 267 267 267 271 275 275 283 285 296 297 302 Contents 2.6 Practical safety management: systems and techniques J E Channing 2.6.1 Introduction 2.6.2 Legal obligations 2.6.3 Generic safety management 2.6.4 Implementing a regulation within a safety management system 2.6.5 Safety management and housekeeping 2.6.6 Assessment techniques 2.6.7 Proprietary audit systems 2.6.8 Safety systems and incidents 2.6.9 Learning organisations 2.6.10 Safety management systems in small organisations 2.6.11 Limitations of safety systems 2.6.12 Conclusion 2.7 The individual and safety Andrew Hale 2.7.1 Introduction: What does this chapter try to do? 2.7.2 Individuals as controllers of danger 2.7.3 Behavioural science and the human information processor 2.7.4 Individual behaviour in the face of danger 2.7.5 Change 2.7.6 Conclusion 2.8 Risk management and behaviour modification J E Channing 2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Behaviour modification for employees 2.8.3 Behaviour modification for managers and supervisors 2.8.4 Applying behaviour concepts to incident investigation 2.8.5 Behaviour concepts and the safety management system 2.8.6 Risk, behaviour, leadership and commitment 2.8.7 Behaviour modification processes: the hazards 2.8.8 Behaviour and safety culture 2.8.9 Conclusion Part Occupational health and hygiene 3.1 The structure and functions of the human body Dr T Coates 3.1.1 Introduction 3.1.2 History 3.1.3 The functions of an occupational health department 3.1.4 Overseas developments 3.1.5 Risks to health at work 3.1.6 Occupational hygiene ix 307 307 308 309 313 319 321 326 327 328 330 331 331 333 333 335 340 355 377 389 393 393 395 406 411 412 415 416 417 418 423 425 425 425 427 428 429 429 1016 Index IOELVs see Indicative occupational exposure limit values Ionisation process, 524–5 Ionising radiation biological effects, 526–7 detectors, 657, 658 emission, 525–6 occupational disease, 479–82 Regulations, 533 types, 525–6 units, 527–8 see also Radiation ‘IP’ code, 760 IPC see Integrated pollution control IPCC see Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change ISO Standards 9000, 953–4, 970 9001, 252–3, 311–12 14000, 875 14001, 311–12, 878–80, 884–5, 887–9, 953–5, 969–70 18000, 875 see also BS ; Standards Isolation, vibration, 564–5 Isotopes, 524–5 Job safety analysis, 236–41 charts, 237–8 job breakdown, 239–40 procedure, 236–9 risk identification, 232 safety instructions, 239 work systems, 239, 241 Joint consultation, 102–3 Judgement principle, 17 Judicial precedent see Precedent Jurisdiction, 7, 27 Key exchange system, 719, 720–1 Kidney, 492 Knowledge, behaviour, 355 Kyoto Protocol, 893 Labelling, 365–9, 834–5, 904 Laboratories, 854–6 Lack of management controls, 291, 293 Ladders, 809 Lagging, 560 Lamps, 583–5 Landfill waste, 894, 926, 945, 968 Landlord duties, 51 Language, 361 LAs see Local authorities Lasers, 504, 538–9, 662, 806–7 Law, 1–176 branches, 5–7 civil law, 4–5, 20, 43 courts, 7–16, 18–23, 40–4 criminal law, 4–5, 43–4 employment, 94–117 Employment Tribunals, 25–6 English law sources, 29–30 European Courts, 26–9 explained, 3–47 Human Rights Courts, 28–9 imaginary incident, 3–4, 21 influences, 64–81 law-making power delegation, 65–6 legislation, 30–6 objectives, 393 precedent, 17–18 questions of law/fact, reporting, 18 see also Legal ; Legislation Law of contract, 82–93 contract formation, 82–5 damages, 85 misrepresentation, 84 remedies, 84–5 safety advisers, 90–2 selling laws, 88–90 unfair terms, 89–91 Law of sale, 88–90 Law of tort see Tort Law-making power delegation, 65–6 Lead, 463–5, 783, 804, 869 Leadership, 406, 408–10, 411, 415–16 Leakage prevention, 915 Learning processes, 328–30, 379–81 Leasing issues, 51–2 Leg, 606–7 Legal obligations, 275, 302–6, 308–9 Legal principle, 17 Legal reasons, 205, 260–1, 263 Legionnaire’s disease, 488 Legislation, 30–6 Acts of Parliament, 30–1 before HSWA, 36–7 chemicals, 929–33, 936 chemicals safety, 831–7 co-decision procedure, 34–5 construction sites, 808, 816–18 employment, 86–8 environment, 883, 966 European Union, 32–3, 38–9, 71–2 fire precautions, 689–94 frameworks, 66–7 goal-setting, 68–9 ionising radiation, 532–6 machinery, 704–11 Index noise, 552–5 plant and equipment, 768 safety signs, 680 standards of duty, 39–40 statutory interpretation, 31–2 subordinate, 61 today, 37–40 waste management, 892–3, 898–9, 910–11, 922–5 see also Law Leptospirosis (Weil’s disease), 487–8, 805–6 Liability duties, 40 false trade descriptions, 120 insurance, 148–55 no fault liability, 78 occupiers, 90, 91, 154, 165–6 see also Civil liability; Employer’s liability; Product liability Licensing, waste management, 901–3 Life Cycle Assessments, 965 Life cycle management (FSLCM), 851 Lifting, 615–16, 729, 775–6 Lifting equipment, 728–35 constructing, 730–2 construction sites, 802, 810–15 definitions, 729–30, 775 hired, 776–7 identification systems, 779 LOLER checklists, 814–15 machine definition, 776 resale, 777 safe use of, 732–5, 775–6 statutory examinations, 774–9 testing, 778 see also Cranes Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER), 68, 729, 732, 775–6, 779 checklists, 812–15 construction sites, 802, 810–15 Lifts, 729, 730–2, 774 Light scattering, 570, 576, 658 Lighting, 581–93 construction sites, 803 definitions, 583–5 ergonomics, 613–14 fire control, 655–6 lamp types, 585–6 meters, 592–3 powered truck operation, 727 quality factors, 588–91 recommended levels, 587–8 workstations, ergonomics, 608 1017 Limit switches, 716–23 Limitations, 151–2, 172 management systems, 331 Liquid properties, 638–40 Liquid waste, 905–9, 942, 950 List of Waste Regulations, 911 Liver, 435, 478, 486–7, 492 Load conditions, 727–9, 732–4 Load indicators, 734, 813 Loads, lifting, 598–602, 615–16 Local assessment systems, 312–13, 314 Local authorities (LAs), 39, 930–1, 943 Logic, fault tree analysis, 247–8 LOLER see Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations Lone workers, 403–4 Long-term issues, 108–9, 202, 499–502, 509–10 Loss control, 196–201, 263–4 see also Risk reduction Loss of future earning capacity, 158 Loss of profit, 158 Loudness, 542–4, 545–6 Low frequency fields, 539–40 Lower explosive limits, 700 Lumen, 583 Luminaire, 585 Luminance, 583 Lung, 436–8, 458–63, 491 Lux, 583 McGregor, D., 218–20 Machinery, 704–42 coda, 740 construction sites, 799, 802, 817 guards, 711–25 legislation, 704–11 lifting equipment, 728–35 Machinery Directive, 704–5, 774 powered trucks, 725–8 pressure systems, 736–40 see also Equipment Magistrates Courts, 10, 11, 15, 16 Magnetic fields, 539–40 Magnetic switches, 719–22 Maintenance electrical equipment, 784 electricity, 764 lighting equipment, 585, 588 machinery, 709, 711, 740 portable fire-fighting equipment, 671–2 risk management, 254–5 waste minimisation, 915 1018 Index Management chemicals, 821–60 commitment/involvement/ leadership, 408–10 construction sites, 792–3 Domino Theory, 291, 293 environmental, 875, 878–90, 925, 953–5, 969–71 models, 309–12 objectives, 884 risk control processes, 185–8 structures, 210–13 waste minimisation, 914 see also Performance management; Risk management; Safety management Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999, 38–9, 793–5, 816 chemicals, 823, 857 incident recall, 101–2, 231 product liability risk, 253 risk control, 236 safety management, 308 Managers, behaviour, 406–11 Manganese, 467 Manual handling, 313–19, 323, 615–16 Manufacturers, 166, 769, 774–5, 966 see also Industry Margins of safety, 574 Masking sound, 563 Maslow, A.H., 218–19, 261, 345 Material balances, 916–18, 944–5 Materials, 643–5, 724 see also Strength of materials Matter change of state, 637–41 compounds, 631–3 physical properties, 635–41 structure, 524–5, 629–31 see also Properties of materials Maturation processes, 378–9 Maximum exposure limits (MEL), 573 Maximum potential loss (MPL), 233–4 Mean duration rate, 282 Means of escape, 680–3 Measurement light meters, 592–3 sound level meters, 549–50 thermal environment, 571–2 Measurement matrix, 316, 317 Measures air pollution control, 936–8 atmospheric pollution monitoring, 938–41 Environmental Management Systems, 886–7 Mechanical interlocks, 716, 722 Mechanical risks, 236 Mechanical separators, 936 Mechanics, 598–602, 642–3 Media impact, 873–4, 963, 964 Medical grounds for suspension, 87 Medicines, 133, 426–7 Meetings, 222–3 MEL see Maximum exposure limits Memorability, 368 Memorandum of Guidance, 746–7, 755–6 Memory, 349–50 Mental elements, 121–2 Mercury, 465–6 Mercury lamps, 584 Mesothelioma, 461–2 Metabolism, 453 Metals, 463–8, 584, 631–2, 805 Methane, 959 Methods of change, 383–9 Methyl choloroform, 473 Methylbenzene, 472 MHSWR see Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Micro-organisms, 486–9 Microwave radiation, 540 Migrant workers, 623 Mines, 37, 58, 425–6, 746–7 Minimum wage, 88 Ministry of Labour and National Service, 191 Minor incident investigations, 294–5 Misconduct, 110–12 Misleading advertising, 136–8 Misrepresentation, 84, 118 Mixtures, 510 Mobile cranes, 812–13 Mobile goods hoists, 813–14 Mobile towers, 809–11 Models behavioural science, 342–3 Bowtie model, 337 domino incident, 412 generic behaviour modification, 405–6, 407 generic error-modelling system, 352, 353 management, 309–12 safe envelope metaphor, 338–9 Index Mogden Formula, 908, 968 Monitoring atmospheric concentrations, 830–1, 938–41 environmental contaminants, 507–10 Environmental Management Systems, 883–4, 886–7 hazard exposure, 449–50 instruments, 502–4 lead workers, 465 loops, 348 mercury exposure, 466 performance, waste minimisation, 922 radiation, 481–2, 530–2 risk control, 187 solvent users, 469–70 Motivation, 219–20, 260–1, 344–5 Moving means, 277–8 MPL (maximum potential loss), 233–4 Multi track, 20 Multi-dimensional analysis, 284–5 Multiple causation theory, 203–4 Multipliers, 281 Muscles, 440–1, 596–7, 616 Myopia, 582 ‘N’ type equipment, 761 National Health Service (NHS), 427 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 429 National Insurance, 145 National Minimum Wage Act 1998, 88 National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB), 536 Nature of consequence, 397 Near misses, 294–5 Needs hierarchy, 218–19, 261 Negligence, 41, 43, 151, 162–5 Negotiation, 155–8 Neighbour, definition, 928 Nervous system, 441–2, 491 Neutrons, 524, 526, 629–30 NHS (National Health Service), 427 Nickel carbonyl, 467 Nickel diseases, 467 NIHHS (Notification of Installations Handling Hazardous Substances Regulations 1982), 831–2 NIOSH see National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nitrous fumes, 474 No fault liability, 78, 175 Noise, 542–66, 620–1 1019 cancellation, 563 construction sites, 806 control techniques, 555–63 ergonomics, 609 exposure levels, 552–3 hearing loss, 482–4 hearing protectors, 518 measurement, 549–50, 552–5 neighbourhood protection, 553–4, 563 rating curves, 546 Regulations, 153, 552, 554–5 structure-borne, 565 transmission, 555–6 see also Sound Noise-induced hearing loss, 152–3 Non-compliance, 887 Non-flammable liquid storage, 839 Non-pecuniary losses, 158 Non-renewable resources, 961, 962 NONS (Notification of New Substances Regulations 1993), 822, 835 Northern Ireland, 12–16, 25 Nose, 444, 491 Note-taking, 289–90 Notices, 55, 61, 132–9, 693 Notification, 534–5, 796, 822, 831–2, 835 accidents, 275, 302–6 Notified bodies, 731, 737 NRPB see National Radiation Protection Board Nuclear energy, 872–3, 962 Nucleus, 630 Nuclides, 524–5 Nuisance, 162 Numeric data programs, 298, 301 Nursing, 427, 428 NVQs role, 76 Nystagmus (eye disorder), 582 Obscuration optical detectors, 658, 660 Observation, 402–3, 865 Occupation Code of Practice, 100 Occupational diseases, 304–5 Occupational exposure standards (OES), 573 Occupational health and hygiene airborne pollution, 507–10, 567–71 departments, 427–8 development, 425–7 diseases, 451–93 ergonomics, 594–626 human body, structure and functions, 432–50 1020 Index Occupational health and hygiene (continued) lighting, 581–93 loss control, 200 occupational hygiene, 429–31, 494–523 radiation, 524–41 Services Report, 427 ventilation, 567–80 Occupational safety, 90–2, 310–12, 429 Occupier’s liability, 90, 91, 154, 165–6 Octave bands, 546–7 OES (occupational exposure standards), 573 OET cranes, 733 Off-loading chemicals, tankers, 840 Off-site waste management, 909–13 Offences, 20–1, 55–6, 130–1, 924–5 Offices, 37 Ohm’s law, 748–9 OHSAS (Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Services) models, 310–12 Oil companies, 964 On-site waste management, 900–9 Open systems, 245 Openings, guards, 724 Operating conditions (equipment), 726–8, 740, 777–8 Operating limits, pressure vessels, 772 Operational controls, 886 Operational research, 243 Operations Review, 243 Operators (machinery), 709, 713, 725, 734 Opportunities for errors, 406, 407 Optical detectors, 657–9, 660 Optical radiation, 537–9 Orders, 132–9 Organic compounds, 633, 634 Organisations, 209–29 culture, 224 error opportunities, 406, 407 organisation, 209–29 potential problems, 225–7 responsibilities, 213–16 risk management, 209–29 roles, 213–16 specialists, 228–9 structure models, 210–13 techniques, 220–3 theories, 218–20 work groups, 216–18 Outputs, waste, 918 Outsourcing, 212 Overfusing, 754 Overhead cranes, 733 Overhead electricity lines, 744, 755, 802 Overtravel switches, 733 Oxides, 958–9 Oxygen, 435, 475–6, 504–6, 650 Ozone, 537, 960 ‘P’ type equipment see Pressurisation P4SR (Predicted four hour sweat rate), 572 Packaging, 833–4, 918, 922–3, 925, 969 Partial enclosure, 828 Particulates, 939–40, 960–1 Passengers, 728, 734 Passive protection measures, 687–9 PAT see Portable appliance tester Pattern identification, 284, 295 Pecuniary loss, 157–8 Pedestrians, 727–8 Penalties, 56, 122, 124, 130–1 Perceived risk reactions, 365–9 Percentage safe behaviour score, 400 Perception, 183–4, 349, 357–65, 872–4 Perchloroethylene, 472 Performance, 395–401 degradation, 373–5 environmental, 963, 964–6 evaluation, 260–3 facing danger effects, 373–7 measurement/review, 187 personal protective equipment, 517 safety management, 414 self-auditing, 324 waste minimisation, 922 Permits-to-work, 753, 756–8, 853–4, 855 Personal hygiene, 516 Personal injury claims, 156, 160 Personal protection, 185, 561–2, 622 Personal protective equipment (PPE), 516–22, 710, 805, 816, 828–30 Personality, 346–8 Personnel, courts, 23–5 Pesticides, 468 Petroleum spirit, 60, 783, 818 Phosgene, 475 Photochemical smog/particulates, 960–1 Physical agents (disease), 478–86 Physical danger degrees, 202 Physical factors, stress, 510–11 Physical properties, 635–41 Physiology, 432–47, 596–609 Pictograms, 623 Pipes/pipework, 560, 770–4 Index Pitch and coal tar, 457–8 Pitot tubes, 577, 939 Planning Environmental Management Systems, 881–4, 954 health and safety, 249–51 maintenance, 254–5, 915 on-site waste management, 900–9 risk control, 187 safety management, 414 Plant, 57 assessment techniques, 850–1 chemicals, 843–51 construction sites, 817 control systems, 847–8 employer’s liability, 169 ergonomics, 617 excavation safety, 802 management, waste minimisation, 914 modification, 852 process safety, 843–4 risk assessment, 848–51 statutory examinations, 767–91 PNEC (Predicted no-effect concentration), 896 Pneumoconiosis, 147, 458–9 Point source pollution, 943 Poisons, 426, 449, 453, 463–8 see also Toxicology Policy, 186, 880–1, 953–4, 956 Poling boards, 799–800 Political influences, 75–6, 863–4, 957 Pollution air, 864, 930–1, 936–8 chemical, 869, 928–55 control, 200, 924, 931, 944 photochemical smog/particulates, 960–1 ‘polluter pays’ principle, 892, 967–8 waste management, 891–2, 913 water, 924, 941–3 workplaces, 567–71 see also Airborne contamination Pontiac fever, 488 Population growth, 863–4 Portable appliance tester (PAT), 764 Portable fire-fighting equipment, 665–72 carbon dioxide extinguishers, 669 dry powder extinguishers, 669–70 extinguisher ratings, 671, 672 fire blankets, 670–1 halon extinguishers, 670 installed hose reel, 671 1021 maintenance, 671–2 quantities, 666–70 siting, 666–70 types, 666–70 water extinguishers, 666, 668 Portable tools, 762–3, 784–5, 802, 806, 817 Positive action switches, 717–18 Positive assessment approach, 322–5 Positive safety culture, 417–18 Power, 215–16, 642, 749, 872–3 Power presses, 716, 717, 779–81 Powered equipment, 711, 725–8, 777 Powerpoint presentation packages, 299 PPE see Personal protective equipment Practicability condition, 708, 709–10 Pre-1974 HSWA legislation, 48–9 Pre-Action Protocols, 156 Pre-mixed foam installations, 678 Pre-work site checks, 796 Precedent, 17–18 Predictions, 362–3, 572, 864–5, 869 Preferred process route, 934–5 Premises, 57, 698 see also Occupier’s liability Presentation packages, 299 Press brakes, 779–81 see also Power presses Pressure, 475, 577–9, 636, 642 Pressure systems, 68, 736–40, 768–74, 785 Pressurisation, 762 Pricing offences, 122–5 Probability, 182–3, 233–4, 248–9, 369 Problem solving, 355, 380–1 Process design, 843–51 Process modifications, 915 Process organisation, 315–16 Producer responsibility, 892, 895, 922–3, 925, 932, 952, 968–9 Products emissions, 918 liability, 134–6, 200–1, 253 life cycle, 865–7 safety, 128–33 testing, 645–6 Profiling, 263–4 Profit margins, 258–9 Prohibition notices, 132, 931 Project design, 250–1 Properties of materials, 631–5, 639, 640–1 Proportional-tank foam systems, 677 Prosecutions, 4–5 1022 Index Protection electricity, 752–5 fire, 685–9 hearing, 555 infrared radiation, 538 lasers, 539 noise, 561–2 radiation, 528–32 ultraviolet radiation, 538 vibration, 564 workplace temperature, 612 Protective equipment, 236, 516–22, 828–30 Protocol, colour coding, 610 Protons, 524, 629–30 Proving devices, 753 Proving negligence, 151 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER), 705, 708–11, 729, 732, 775, 780 accident prevention, 205 construction sites, 794, 817 Provisional damage assessment, 174 Psycho-social disorders, 489–90 Psychological danger, 202 Public Health Acts, 59–60, 891 Public law, 5–6 Public liability insurance, 154–5 Pure risks, 194 Pursuit of excellence, 226 PUWER see Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations Qualified majority voting (QMV), 69–70 Quality, 77–8, 251–3, 870, 953–4, 970 Quality Circles, 217–18 Quantitative methods, 233 Quantum of damage, 155–8 Quantum meruit remedies, 85 Quarries, 37, 58, 746–7, 818 Quarterly moving mean, 277–8 QUENSH (Quality, Environment, Safety and Health Management Systems), 251–3 Question and answer programs, 298, 300–1 Questions of law/fact, Race relations, 88, 98–9 Racial equality, 99 RAD see Reactive airways dysfunction Radar screen charts, 406, 411 Radiation, 524–41, 868–9 detectors, 661 fire spread, 652 incidents and emergencies, 536–7 legal requirements, 532–6 non-ionising, 537–40 occupational disease, 479–82 protection, 528–32 protection advisers/supervisor, 533–5 see also Ionising radiation Radio fire alarm systems, 662 Radio frequency (RF) radiation, 540 Radioactivity, 525, 535, 806, 842 Radiological protection, 528–32 Radionuclides, 525 Rail transport, 387, 842 Ranking process, 873, 882–3 Rapport, interviews, 287–8 Rates, accident/incident trend analysis, 280–1, 283 Ratings, risk assessment, 234–5 Raw materials, 915, 917 RCDs see Residual current devices Re-use options, 875–6, 916, 952 Reactance, 749 Reactive airways dysfunction (RAD), 462 Reactors, chemicals, 849 Readability, 624 Reading positions, 608 Recall notices, 130 Recommendations (EU), 71 Records accident and incident data, 274–5, 289–90 chemicals, 831 Duty of Care audit, 950–1 Environmental Management Systems, 887 pressure systems, 739–40 statutory examinations, 779, 785 see also Documentation Recoverable benefits, 157, 177 Recycling, 916 household waste, 875–6 industrial waste, 952 national waste strategies, 894 non-domestic lighting equipment, 592 packaging waste, 923 selecting best option, 900 water, 909 Red List waste, 913 Reduced Earnings Allowance, 147 Redundancy, 112–13, 173 Reflectance, 583 Reflections, ergonomics, 613 Index Reform, court procedure, 23 Refreshing behaviour modification process, 405 Registration, 878–80 Regulations chemicals, 936 European Union, 71 fire safety, 689–94 first aiders, 431–2 HSWA, 53–4 implementation, 313–19 product safety, 133 see also individual regulations Reinforcers, 396 Relative humidity, 505–6 Relevant fluid, 769 Relevant territorial waters, 941 Reliability of consequence, 397 Religion, 333, 334 Remedies, 84–5 Renewable energy, 962 Repairs, 739–40, 772 Repetitive actions, 485–6, 616 Repetitive strain injury (RSI), 616 Reports, 271–5, 293–4, 302–6 checking non-reporting, 273–4 design of forms, 274–5 environmental, 966 facts and opinions, 294 feedback, 294 good signposting, 294 HAZOP study, 846 improvements, 272–3 law, 18, 302–6 statutory examinations, 787 ‘triple bottom line’, 971 writing reports, 293–4 Representation in court, Res ipsa loquitur doctrine, 151, 164 Resale of equipment, 777 Rescue services, 689 Residual current devices (RCDs), 754, 763–4 Residual risk assessment, 712–13 Resistance electrical circuits, 749 thermometers, 939 to change, 381–2 Resonance, 564 Resource costs, 257 Resource depletion, 961, 962 Respiratory system, 435–8, 448, 458–63, 475–6, 518–21, 829 Response to fire alarms, 682 Responsibilities 1023 construction sites, 797 corporate social, 971–2 environment agencies, 892–3 Environmental Management Systems, 884 organisations, 213–16 producers, 892, 895, 925, 932, 952, 968–9 shared, 968–9 Responsible Care programmes, 312 Responsible person, 692, 786 Restrictions on the use of hazardous substances (RoHS), 923–4 Retention of risk, 196 Reviews, 414, 888, 954 RIDDOR (Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations) 1995, 302–6 Risk assessment, 78–9, 186–8, 195 accident and incident data, 296–7 administration processes, 221–2 aggregated accidents/incidents, 296 biological agents, 512 chemicals, 823–7, 929 construction sites, 805 COSHH, 824–6 definitions, 180, 823 environmental risks, 870–1 existing plant, 848–51 fire precautions, 681, 694–7 five steps, 187–8 forms, 825 handling of chemicals, 827 hazard seeking, 363 health hazards, 431, 449–50 ionising radiation, 533 machinery use, 712–13 manual handling of chemicals, 827 occupational hygiene, 494–513 plant, 848–51 probabilistic, 248–9 procedures, 824 risk control, 186–8 single accidents/incidents, 297 statutory examinations, 787 techniques, 233–5, 850–1 underlying levels of risk, 296 workplaces, 431 see also Aspects and impacts analysis Risk management 21st century, 188–9 accident and incident data, 267–306 administration, 209–29 cost-effectiveness, 257–60 1024 Index Risk management (continued) definitions, 180, 194 development pictogram, 197 introduction, 179–90 maintenance, 254–5 organisation, 209–29 practices, 230–66 principles, 191–208 role/process, 194–5 techniques, 230–66 see also Behaviour modification Risks, 181–4 aversion, 79–80 avoidance, 196, 236 compensation, 382 components, 181–4 control, 184–8, 195–7, 235–6 definition, 870 environmental, 870–4 estimation, 180 evaluation, 180, 194–5 identification, 194–5, 230–3 measurement, 283 minimisation, 827–31 phrases, 834 ranking, 243 reduction, 196–7, 929 retention, 196 scales, 369 transfer, 196 workplace, 429 see also Facing danger; Loss control; Risk Road traffic, 59 Robens Report, 49, 64–5 RoHS (restrictions on the use of hazardous substances), 923–4 Rope slings, 814–15 Rotary switches, 716, 717 Routines, 352–4 Royal College of Nursing, 427 Royal College of Physicians, 427 Royal Society Study Group, 180 RSI (repetitive strain injury), 616 Rules, 354–5, 380, 386–8 see also Regulations Safe behaviour score, 400 Safe envelope metaphor model, 338–9 Safe operating limit, 772 Safe product, 129 SAFed guidance, 771 Safety 1977 Regulations, 102–3 advisers, 91–2, 514, 627 catches, 734 committees, 223, 323 culture, 77, 224, 388–9, 417–18 fire signs, 680, 683–4 legislation today, 37–40 management, 327–8 valves, 770–1 see also Guards; Health and safety Safety management 5S’s approach, 319–21 assessment, 312–13, 321–5 audits, 323, 326–7 behaviour concepts, 412–15 benchmarking, 329–30 checklist, 318 common law, 308–9 generic, 309–13 housekeeping, 319–21 HSE models, 309–10 HSWA, 308 initial status review, 310 learning organisations, 328–30 legal obligations, 308–9 local assessment systems, 312–13 management models, 309–12 MHSW Regulations, 308 OHSAS model, 310–12 policy, 414 positive assessment approach, 322–5 practical systems/techniques, 307–32 regulation implementation, 313–19 safety systems, 327–8 small company systems, 330–1 statute law, 309 systems, 290, 327–8, 331 workplace incidents, 327–8 Safety Training Observation Program (STOP), 402 Sale of goods, 83, 88–90, 126–7 Sampling, 495–502, 531, 569–70 SAR see Specific energy absorption rate Scaffolding, 808–11 Schedules, HSWA, 56–7 Scientific applications, 868–9 Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL), 509 Scientific management theories, 218 SCOEL see Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits Scoring systems, 324 Scotches, 722 Scotland Building Act 1959, 784 courts, 12, 13, 14, 25 Index offence reporting, 20–1 waste management, 892, 894, 911 Screens, 560–1 Scrotum cancer, 456–7 SEA see Single European Act Sea life, 961–2 Secretary of State, 67, 694 Security, 199–200, 948–9 Segregation, 515, 915 Self-auditing, 324 Self-employed person, 58 Self-regulation, 67–8 Selling laws, 83, 88–90, 126–7 Senior management, 201, 914 Senses, physiology, 442–4, 446 Sensitisation, 511, 574 Sensitisers, 455–6, 462–3 Sensory defects, 358 Separate lifting accessories, 729 Service statements, 121–2 Service see also Fair trading Severe Disablement Allowance, 147 Severity, 269–70, 276–7, 282–3, 368 Sewers, 805–6, 941–2 Sex discrimination, 87–8, 96–8 Shadow effects, 590 Shaping techniques, 324 Shared responsibility, 968–9 Sheriff Court, 12, 13 Shielding radioactivity, 529–30 Shift working, 581–2 Shipment of waste, 912–13 see also Transfer of waste Shock, electric, 749–51, 754 Shoring trenches, 798–801 Short circuits, 751–2 Short-term exposure limits, 509–10 Sievert (Sv), 528 Sight see Eye Signage see Signs Signals, 623–4, 734–5, 813 Signposting, reports, 294 Signs, 623–4, 680, 683–4 Silencers, 558–9 Silicosis, 460–1, 804–5 Silver, 869 Single dimension analysis, 284 Single European Act (SEA), 31, 38, 69 ‘Single-root cause’ incident model, 327, 328 Site ownership audit, 948 Siting of fire-fighting equipment, 666–70 Sitting, 600, 602, 616 Skills, 352–4 1025 Skin, 445–7 airborne contamination, 574 contaminant absorption, 511 occupational diseases, 455–8, 491 protection preparations, 521–2 radioactive contamination, 530 ultraviolet radiation, 537–8 Slings, 814–15 Small Claims, 20 Small organisations, 330–1 Smell, 444 Smog, 960–1 Smoke, 686, 687–8 Smoke detectors, 657, 658, 659, 660 Smoke tubes, 576–7 Smoking, 654–5 Smoothing data, 277 Smouldering fires, 651 SMSR see Supply of Machinery Regulations SNVQs role, 76 Social Committee (EcoSocC), 70 Social expectations, health and safety, 74–5 Social partners, 74 Social responsibility, 971–2 Social Security, 147, 157, 306 Societal risk, 249 Society, 307–8 Society of Light and Lighting, 587–8 Occupational Health Nursing, 427 Occupational Medicine, 427 Sodium lamps, types, 584 Software, computers, 297–302 Solids, properties, 640–1 Solvents, 468–73 Sound, 542–50, 557–8 see also Noise Source waste reduction, 914–15 Space employees, 611 plant design, 617 Special damage assessment, 173 Special waste, 911–12, 931–2, 944, 946–7 see also Hazardous waste Specialists, 228–9 Specific energy absorption rate (SAR), 540 Specific Performance remedy, 85 Spectrometry, 940 Speculative risks, 194 Speech privacy, 563 Spillage, waste, 905, 906, 915 1026 Index Spinal cord/column physiology, 441–2, 598–602 Spontaneous combustion, 651 Spreadsheets, 301 Sprinkler systems, 673, 674–5, 699 SREDIM principle, 237 SRSC (Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Regulations 1977), 102–3 SSP (Statutory Sick Pay), 146 Stability, buildings, 688–9 Stacking aisle widths, 727 Staff training, 686–7, 921–2 Stain detector tubes, 495–9 Stakeholders, 972 Standards airborne contaminants exposure, 572–4 airborne contamination levels, 507–10 alignment, 311–12 colour coding, 610 of duty, 39–40 emergency lighting, 591 fire alarm systems, 663 hygiene, 513 machinery, 704–8, 713, 724–5, 731–2 making procedure harmonisation, 73–4 personal protective equipment, 517, 520 see also British Standards Institution; BS ; EN ; ISO Standing, 597, 598–600 State insurance scheme, 145–7 State of matter gases, 637–8 liquids, 638–40 solids, 640–1 Statements, 121–2, 889 Static electricity, 757, 759 Static goods hoists, 813–14 Static risks, 194 Statistical packages, numeric data programs, 301 Status, EAW Regulations, 747 Statute law, 309 see also Acts of Parliament Statutory examinations, 767–91 Statutory interpretation, 31–2 Statutory nuisances, 932–3 Statutory Sick Pay (SSP), 146 Steam boilers see Pressure systems Stereotypes, control actions, 618 Stimuli for change, 381–2 Stimulus response learning, 379 Stockholm scale, 479 Stop doors, smoke, 686, 687–8 Stop now orders, 141–2 STOP (Safety Training Observation Program), 402 Storage chemicals, 837–41 drum compounds, 837–40 Duty of Care audit, 949 gas cylinders, 841 non-flammable liquids, 839 tanks, 837–40 waste, 903–4, 949 Strain definition, 643 eye, 582, 609 repetitive strain injury, 616 static body positions, 598–600, 606 Strategy, health risk protection, 522 Strength of materials, 643–5 Stress conflicts, 226 definition, 643 ergonomics, 621–2 factors, 375 health risk, workplaces, 429 human body, 445 occupational disease, 490 territorialism, 611 using incident models, 412 Stroboscopic effects, 591, 613 Structural feedback approach, 401–2 Structure Environmental Management Systems, 884 human body, 432–47 matter, 524–5 organisations, 210–13 Structure of matter, 629–31 Structure models, 210–13 Structured alphanumeric data programs, 298–300 Subcontractors, 795 Subjective costs, 257 Subsidiarity, law, 31 Substances, definitions, 823 Substitution, 185, 514 Successful Health and Safety Management (HSE), 251–2 Sulphur dioxide, 474 Summary trial, Summit (European Council), 70 Superior courts, 7–8 Supervision, employer’s liability, 169 Supervisor behaviour, 406–11 Index Supply of electricity, 744–6 Supply of goods issues, 89, 127–8, 166–7 Supply of Machinery Regulations (SMSR), 704, 705–8, 729, 774 Supports, excavation, 797, 798 Surface finishes, 681 Surface flame spread, 688 Surface water, 942, 950 Suspension notices, 130, 132–3 Sustainability, 865–7, 893–4, 969–71 Swan Hunter Shipbuilders case, 795 Switches, 716–23, 733 Symbols, 630–1, 834 Synthesis route, 933–4 Systems humans as, 342–3 job safety analysis, 239, 241 limitations, 331 risk control, 186 safety, 241–3, 246–7 theory, 243–6 Tankers off-loading chemicals, 840 Taste, 444 Taxation, 926, 968 Technical evaluations, 919–20 Technical files, 706 Technologies, 649–52, 863, 871, 873 Teeth, 491 Telephones, 621 Temperature global warming, 959 human body, 446–7, 485 ignition, 698, 700 monitoring atmosphere, 938–9 property of matter, 635–6 see also Thermal environment Tennis elbow, 485 Tenosynovitis, 485 Tensile loads, 644–5 Terminology, fire, 698–700 Territorialism, 611 Test coefficients, 730 Test of reasonableness, 106 Testing equipment/products, 645–6, 764, 778, 784 Tests, toxicology, 451–3 Tetrachloroethylene, 472 Theory X and Theory Y, 218–20 Thermal environment, 571–2, 611–12 Thermocouples, 938 Third party duties, 42–3 Thorough examination requirement, 776, 777–8, 786 1027 Three day accidents, 303 Three-part plant acceptance systems, 251 Three-phase systems, 744 Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), 507–8, 512–13 Time delays, guards, 721, 722 Time weighted averages (TWA), 509–10, 568 Timing of consequence, 397 TLVs see Threshold Limit Values Toluene, 472 Tools construction sites, 802, 806, 817 electricity, 762–3, 784–5 power presses, 781 Tort, 41–2, 43, 161–5 Total exposure, 828 Towers, site access, 809–11 Toxicity, 449, 454, 469–70, 514, 869 Toxicology, 451–5 Tracks, courts, 20 Trade descriptions, 118–22 Trade effluent see Liquid waste Trade unions, 86–7, 223 Training, 386, 408–10, 430, 884–5 chemicals safety, 853 construction sites, 795 machinery operators, 709, 713, 725 risk minimisation, 830 stress reduction, 622 waste minimisation, 921–2 Transactional leadership styles, 415 Transfer of risk, 196 Transfer of waste, 902, 909–10, 912–13, 946 Transformational leadership styles, 415 Transmissiometers, 939 Transmission, sound, 542, 548–9, 555–6 Transportation, 535–6, 833–4, 841–2 Trapped key interlocks, 719 Travel distance, 682, 683, 700 Treatment works, 906–8, 945 Trenching methods, 797, 798–801 Trend analysis, accident and incident data, 275–83 data comparisons, 281–3 graphs, 276–80 steady state, 276–80 variable conditions, 280–3 Trespass, 161–2 Trial on indictment, Trichloroethane, 473 Trichloroethylene, 470–1 Trip devices, 723–4 1028 Index ‘Triple bottom line’ reporting, 971 Trucks, 725–8, 777 Truth in lending, 125–6 Tuberculosis, 489 Tunnel guards, 715 Turnbull reports, 188, 232 TWA see Time weighted averages Two-hand control devices, 724 UGR (Unified Glare Rating System), 589 UKAS see United Kingdom Accreditation Service Ultrasonic examination, 771 Ultraviolet radiation, 537–8 Ultraviolet spectrometry, 940 Underground cables, 755, 799–801, 802 Unfair contracts, 89–91, 138–41, 166 Unfair dismissal, 114–15 Unfired pressure vessels, 736, 772–4 Unhealthy environments, 803–7 Unified Glare Rating System (UGR), 589 Uninsured costs, 206, 257–8 United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS), 786 United Kingdom reporting requirements, 302–6 United Kingdom see also England; Northern Ireland; Scotland; Wales United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 868 United States of America (USA), 429, 957 see also American Unsafe acts/conditions, 291–2 UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), 868 Upper explosive limits, 700 Urban wastewater treatment Regulations, 905 USA see United States of America Valves, 716, 718, 770–1 Vanadium, 468 Vapours and gases, 495–501, 502–3, 940–1 VCM see Vinyl chloride monomer Vdt see Visual display terminals Vehicles, road traffic, 59 Velocities, air flows, 576–8 Ventilation, 781–3 contaminants, 515–16 ergonomics, 614–15 noise enclosures, 557 workplaces, 567, 574–9 Ventricular fibrillation, 750 Vibration construction sites, 806 ear, 443–4 ergonomics, 620–1 health risks, 564–5 induced white finger, 153, 479, 564 occupation disease factor, 479 see also Noise Vicarious liability, 167, 169 Video smoke detectors, 660 Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), 478, 513 Visual communication, 386 Visual display terminals (vdts), 583, 588, 608, 622–3 Vividness, 368 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 960 Volenti non fit injuria defence, 151, 171–2 Voltage, 744, 746–9, 751, 753, 763 Volume, 636 Voting, 69–70 Wages, 88 Wales, 892, 894 Walls, 681, 688 Warehouses, 840–1 Warnings, 360–2, 623–4 Waste categorisation, 898–9 contractors, 947 costs, 259 definition, 895–7, 931 Environmental Management Systems, 878 handling and deliveries, 904, 915, 949 leakage prevention, 915 liquid, 905–9 lists, 911 national strategies, 893–4 radioactive, 535 recycling and re-use, 875–6 Regulations, 911 segregation, 915 source identification, 916–18 spillage and emergency procedures, 905, 906, 915 storage, 903–4, 949 Index streams, 898, 918–19 transferring, 902, 909–10, 912–13, 946 transfers, 912–13 Waste disposal, 931–2 authorities, 892–3 duty of care, 944–52 environmental harm, 961–2 radioactive substances, 535 see also Waste management Waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE), 923 Waste hierarchy see Waste Management Hierarchy Waste management, 891–927 chemical pollution, 931–2, 934, 944–52 defining waste, 895–7 developing strategies, 944–5 failure costs, 924–5 good practices, 903–5 legislation, 892–3, 898–9, 910–11, 922–5 licensing, 901–3 national strategies, 893–4 off-site, 909–13 on-site, 900–9 practising, 897–913 selecting best option, 899–900, 934 shared responsibility, 968–9 Waste Management Hierarchy, 865–7, 875, 897–8, 944 Waste minimisation, 913–22 benefits, 913–14 feasibility of options, 919–20 goals, 921 implementing programmes, 916–22 senior management commitment, 914 techniques, 914–16 Wastewater treatment, 905 Water abstraction, 924 chemical properties, 635 Duty of Care audit, 950 fire extinguishers, 666, 668 mist systems, 675–6 ‘polluter pays’ principle, 967–8 pollution, 924, 941–3 recycling, 909 service companies, 905, 907–9 waste sources, 918 WBGT see Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index WEEE see Waste electronic and electrical equipment 1029 ‘Weighted’ votes, 69–70 Weighting, decibels, 547–8, 609 Weil’s disease, 487–8, 805–6 Welding operations, 803 Welfare facilities, 815–16 WELs (Workplace Exposure Limits), 454, 471, 472–3, 508–10, 537, 573 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT), 572 Wet chemical fire extinguishers, 667–9 Wet and dry bulb hygrometers, 506 Wet environments, 804 Wet scrubbers, 937 White Papers, 32 Wind chill index, 572 Windows system software, 298–9 Wiring, 662, 744, 746, 752, 765 Withdrawal notices, 130 Witnesses, 22–3 Woolf Report, 18–19, 23 see also Civil Procedure Rules; PreAction Protocols Word processors, 299 Word use see Language Word for Windows, 299 Work at heights Regulations, 808 definitions, 50, 57 and energy, 641–2 equipment, 253, 704 groups, 216–18 permits-to-work, 853–4, 855 space requirements, 611 worker compensation, 145–7 Work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD), 485–6 Working time discrimination, 103–4 Workplace behaviour intervention process, 400 chemicals safety systems, 852–4 electricity precautions, 752–3 employee suspension, 87 employer’s liability, 168 environments, 609–15, 759–62, 803–7 ergonomics, 609–15 exposure limits, 454, 471, 472–3, 508–10, 573 informal organisational structures, 213–14 inspections, 231 job safety analysis, 239, 241 pollution, heat and ventilation, 567–80 Regulations, stress factors, 621–2 1030 Index Workplace safety, 627–860 chemical management, 821–60 construction sites, 792–820 electricity, 743–66 engineering science, 629–48 fire precautions, 649–703 machinery, 704–42 plant and equipment, 767–91 World Meteorological Organisation, 864 Wrist, 602–6 Writer’s cramp, 485 Written communication, 293–4, 386, 624 WRULD (work-related upper limb disorders), 485–6 X-rays, 526 Xylene, 472 Young persons, 60, 101–2 Zero tolerance approach, 393–4 Zones, hazardous areas, 761 ... Courts 1.1.15 Sources of English Law 1.1.16 Legislation 1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1.1.18 Safety legislation today 1.1.19 Principles developed by the... occurring as rationalisations of a number of related but separately legislated requirements This is the case with fire safety through the coming into effect of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order... culminating in 1974 in the Health and Safety at Work etc Act Safety at Work has now taken on a new and more pertinent meaning for both employer and employee Developments in the field of safety
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