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English Grammar ENGLISH GRAMMAR: EXPLANATIONS AND EXERCISES by Mary Ansell Second edition Copyright © 2000 The material in this book may be used freely for any non·commercial purpose; however, no changes to the content may be made without the express permission of the author The contents of the book can be seen at a glance from the Table of Contents, which contains links to all of the material covered There is also an Index TO THE READER This book has the followi ng features: * All of the essential points of English gram mar are covered * Each point of grammar is clearly explained, and is illustrated by examples For every important poi nt of grammar, one or more exercises are provi ded, to make it easier to learn and remember the material * * Answers for the exercises are provided A summary of the uses and formation of the English verb tenses is given for easy reference * Grammatically determined rules for spelling, pronunciation, and punctuation are included * * The grammar of North American English is emphasized * Grammatical differences between formal and informal English are pointed out TABLE OF CONTENTS THE USES AND FORMAT ION OF THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES THE ACTIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW THE VERB TO BE AND THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW COMMON ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS CHAPTER The simple present of the verb to be Grammar Verb forms Uses of the simple present tense The simple present of the verb to be a Affirmative statements b Questions c Negative statements d Negative questions e Tag questions Exercises CHAPTER The sim ple present of verbs other than the verb to be The formation of the simple present a The si m ple present of the verb to have Spelling rules for adding s in the third person singular a Verbs ending in y b Verbs ending in c Verbs ending in ch, s, sh, x or z Pronunciation of the es endi ng The auxiliary a Questions b Negative statements c Negative questi ons d Tag questions e The verb to have Exercises CHAPTER The present continuous Uses of the present continuous Formation of the present continuous Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle a Verbs ending in a silent e b Verbs ending in ie c One· syllable verbs endi ng in a si ngle consonant preceded by a si ngle vowel d Verbs of more than one syllable which end i n a single consonant preceded by a si ngle vowel Questions and negative statements a Questions b Negative statements c Negative questions d Tag questions Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous Exercises CHAPTER The present perfect and the present perfect continuous Use of the present perfect Formation of the present perfect: Regular verbs Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle a Verbs ending in a silent e b Verbs ending in y c Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel Pronunciation of the ed ending Formation of the present perfect: Irregular verbs Questions and negative statements a Questions b Negative statements c Negative questi ons d Tag questions The present perfect continuous a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements Exercises CHAPTER The simple past Uses of the simple past Formation of the simple past a The verb to be i Questions and negative statements b Other verbs i Questions and negative statements The simple past of to use followed by an infi nitive Exercises CHAPTER The past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous Summary of the uses of the English tenses The past continuous a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements The past perfect a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements The past perfect continuous a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements Summary of the formation of the English present and past tenses Emphatic statements Exercises CHAPTER The future tenses The simple future a Use b Formation c Questi ons and negative statements The conj ugation expressing determi nation and compulsion The present continuous of to go followed by an infinitive The future conti nuous a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements The future perfect a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements The future perfect continuous a Use b Formation c Questions and negative statements Summary of the formation of the English future tenses Clauses a Coordinate clauses b Subordinate clauses c The past perfect and the sim ple past d The use of the present i n subordinate clauses to express future actions Exercises CHAPTER Conjugations with the auxiliary would Uses of the auxiliary would Formation of conjugations with the auxiliary would a The sim ple conjugation with the auxiliary would b The continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would c The perfect conjugation with the auxiliary would d The perfect continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would Sum mary of the formation of the conjugations with the auxiliary would The ··future in the past"· Exercises CHAPTER The subjunctive Uses of the subj unctive Formation of the subjunctive Formal commands and requests Wishes a An earlier time b The same time a The Simple Present indicative b The other indicative tenses c Summary of the formation of the indicative tenses of the passive voice Questions and negative statements a Questions b Negative statements c Negative questi ons Changing the voice of a verb Changing the voice of a verb while preservi ng the meaning of a sentence a Changi ng the verb from the active voice to the passive voice b Changing the verb from the passive voice to the active voice c Changing the voice of a verb which takes both a direct object and an i ndirect object The subju nctive mood of the passive voice a Use of the simple present subjunctive b Use of the past forms of the subju nctive Exercises CHAPTER Nouns: The formation of plurals Proper nouns Countable nouns The formation of plurals a Nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z b Nouns ending i n y c Plurals of proper nouns d Nouns ending in f or fe e Nouns ending in f Foreign words g Hyphenated nouns h Numbers and letters i Irregular plurals Exercises CHAPTER Singular countable nouns The use of determiners with singular countable nouns A and an The use of a and an before si ngular countable nouns a A weakened form of one b Naming a profession c Maki ng a general statement d Referring to something not m entioned before e A or an with the meaning of per The use of the before singular countable nouns a Referri ng to something mentioned before b Referring to somethi ng unique c Referri ng to something when it is considered obvious what is meant d Referri ng to somethi ng as a class Exercises CHAPTER Plural countable nouns The absence of a determiner before plural countable nouns a Maki ng a general statement b Referri ng to something not mentioned before c Naming a profession The Use of The Before plural countable nouns a Referri ng to something mentioned before b Referri ng to something when it is considered obvious what is meant c Names of nationalities d Adjectives referring to classes of people The use of the with proper nouns a Names of people b Names of places Nouns used only in the plural Exercises CHAPTER Uncountable nouns The absence of a determiner before uncountable nouns a Maki ng a general statement b Referring to something not m entioned before The use of the before uncountable nouns a Referri ng to something mentioned before b Referri ng to something when it is considered obvious what is meant The use of uncountable nouns to refer to individual things Nouns which can be either countable or uncountable a Differences in meaning b Referring to a type of something c Referri ng to places used for specific activities d Names of meals Infinitives used in the place of nouns Gerunds Specific verbs followed by infinitives and gerunds a Verbs followed by i nfinitives b Verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds c Verbs followed by gerunds Exercises CHAPTER Nouns indicating possession and compound subjects Ways i n which possession is indicated a The ending s b The ending s' c Phrases begi nning with of d Two consecutive nouns Agreement of verbs with collective nouns and compound subjects a Collective nouns b Amounts considered as a whole c Compound subjects i Compound subjects with and i i Compound subjects with or or nor d Nouns followed by descriptive phrases Exercises CHAPTER Personal pronouns The subjective case Agreem ent of personal pronouns with thei r antecedents a Male and female antecedents b Singular and plural antecedents c Human and non· human antecedents Special uses of it The obj ective case Possessive personal pronouns a Possessive adjectives i Possessive adjectives used with gerunds b Possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns Exercises CHAPTER Other pronouns Indefinite pronouns a The use of one in general statements Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Interrogative pronouns a Direct questions b The pronoun who i Who i i Whom iii Whose c What and which d I ndirect questions i I nterrogative word as the subject i i Interrogative word as the object of a verb or preposition iii The verb to be with a noun or pronoun complement Relative pronouns a Defini ng and non·defining relative clauses i Non· defining relative clauses i i Defi ning relative clauses b That c Which d Who, whom and whose e Comparison of the use of that, which and who f Other relative pronouns Exercises CHAPTER 20 Determiners Determiners used to refer to groups of two persons or things Determiners used as singular or plural pronouns The use of all, both and each The use of no, none and not The use of some and any The use of another, other, others and else The use of only The use of few, little and several The expressi ons such that, so that and too a Such that b So that c Too Exercises CHAPTER Adjectives: Position in a sentence Proper adjectives Attributive adjectives a Order of attributive adjectives i Determiners i i General descriptive adjectives iii Adjectives indicating color iv Adjectives indicating materials v The position of proper adjectives vi Defining adjectives vii Ordinal adj ectives b Punctuation used with attributive adjectives c Stress used with attri butive adjectives i Adjectives indicating materials i i Defining adjectives i ndicating location or time iii Defining adjectives indicating purpose Predicate adjectives a Attributive adjectives which can be used as predicate adjectives i Order i i Punctuation b Adjectives which can be used only as predicate adjectives c Linking verbs Interpolated adjectives Adjectival phrases and clauses Participles used as adjectives a Present participles b Past participles c Dangling participles d Past participles which follow the verb to be Exercises CHAPTER 22 Adjectives used in comparisons : Part I Positive forms of adjectives preceded and followed by as a The positive form combined with a noun b The use of ellipsis c The use of the subjective case Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives which use endings a Com parative forms of adjectives which use endi ngs i Spelling rules i i Irregular adjectives iii The comparative form followed by than iv The comparative form followed by a noun, followed by than v The use of ellipsis vi The use of the subj ective case vii Progressive comparisons b Superlative forms of adjectives which use endings i Spelli ng rules i i Irregular adjectives iii The superlative form preceded by the iv The use of ell i psi s v The comparison of one or more things with a group Exercises CHAPTER 23 Adjectives used in comparisons: Part Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives which not use endings a Com parative forms: The use of more i The comparative form followed by than i i Progressive comparisons b The use of less i The construction less than i i The construction not as as iii The construction less and less c Superlative forms The adjectives many, much, few and little used to compare quantities a The use of many, m uch, few and little with countable and uncountable nouns b Synonyms for many and much c Positive forms used in comparisons d Com parative forms used in comparisons e Superlative forms used in comparisons The adjectives similar, different and same used i n comparisons Making logical comparisons Exercises CHAPTER 24 Adverbs: Position in a sentence Adverbs which modify adjectives and other adverbs a I ntensifiers Adverbs which modify verbs a Adverbs of frequency b Adverbs of ti me c Adverbs of manner d Connecting adverbs e Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose f Adverbs of locati on i Here and there i i There used as an i ntroductory word iii Inverted word order g Negative adverbs i Double negatives i i Inverted word order him himself his his or her how, use of however however, used as connecti ng adverb Hyphenated nouns, formation of plural I I I'd (I had) I'd (I would) I'll I'm I've ic ending Idioms, prepositional phrases if, conditions which are false or improbable if then if, used as subordinate conjunction Im perative mood in case in, use of in, used after certain adjectives and verbs in the passive voice in, used after certain nouns in, used after certain verbs in, used as preposition or adverb in, used in idioms Indefinite pronouns Indirect objects Indirect questions, introduction Indirect questions, sum mary of word order Indirect questions with the verb to be Indirect questions, word order Infinitive, split I nfinitives used in the place of nouns ing endi ng inside, use of inside, used in idioms instead Intensifiers, definition of I nterpolated adjectives Interrogative adverbs Interrogative pronouns I nterrogative pronouns, used i n di rect q uestions into, use of into, used after certain nouns into, used after certain verbs into, used i n idioms Inverted word order, used with verbs of motion Inverted word order, used with negative adverbs Irregular adjectives, comparative form Irregular adjectives, superlative form Irregular adverbs Irregular plurals Irregular verbs, 140 common irregular verbs Irregular verbs, present perfect tense Irregular verbs, simple past is is, used as an auxiliary isn't it'd (it had) it'd (it would) it'll it's (it has) it's (it is) it, objective case it, special uses of it, subjective case its its and it's itself L late and lately late, meani ng of lay and lie lay, verb forms least, use of least, used with the least, used with adverbs in comparisons less than less and less less and less, followed by a noun less and less, used with adverbs less, use of less, used i n com pari sons less, used with than lest, used as subordinate conjunction lie, verb forms like and as if like, use of likewise, used as connecting adverb Linking verbs little, meani ng little, use of little, used with as Logical comparisons look lots of ly added to adjectives ending in ic ly added to adjectives ending in Ie ly added to adjectives ending in II ly added to adj ectives endi ng in ue ly added to adj ectives ending in y ly endi ng, spelli ng rules M Mai n clause of conditional statem ent, verb forms Mai n clause of conditional statem ent, present or future ti me Mai n clause of conditional statement, past time Mai n clause of conditional statement, sum mary many, use of many, used with as may me might mightn't mine minus, use of Modal auxiliaries, meani ng Modal auxiliaries, relationships among Modal conjugations, formation of Modal verbs Modal verbs, negative questions Modal verbs, negative statements Modal verbs, questions Modal verbs, tag questions more and more, followed by a noun more and more, used with adverbs more and more more and most more, comparative form of an adjective more, used with than more, used with adverbs moreover, used as connecting adverb most, superlative form of an adjective most, used with the most, used with adverbs much, use of much, used with as must mustn 't my myself N Names of meals Names of people near and nearly near, use of Negative adverbs Negative adverbs, inverted word order Negative questions, m odal verbs Negative questions, passive voice Negative questions, present continuous tense Negative questions, present perfect tense Negative questions, simple present of to be Negative questions, simple present Negative statements, modal verbs Negative statements, passive voice Negative statements, present continuous tense Negative statements, present perfect tense Negative statements, simple present of to be Negative statements, simple present Negative tag questions, sum mary neither nor neither, used as determiner neither, used as determiner at beginning of clause neither, used with singular verb nevertheless nevertheless, used as connecting adverb no sooner than no, use of Non·defining relative clauses none, use of none nonetheless, used as connecting adverb nor, in compound subjects nor, used as coordinate conj unction not as as not only but also not, use of Nouns, collective Nouns, countable Noun, definition of Nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z Nouns ending in f or fe Nouns ending i n Nouns ending in y Nouns followed by descri ptive phrases, verb agreement Nouns followed by prepositions Nouns, formation of plurals Nouns indicating possession Nouns, proper Nouns, uncountable Nouns used only in the plural Nouns which can be either countable or uncountable Nouns with irregular plurals Numbers and letters, formation of plural o Objective case, pronouns Obj ects, direct Objects, indirect Obj ect of a verb of, use of of, used after certain adjectives and verbs i n the passive voice of, used after certain nouns of, used after certain verbs of, used in idioms of, used to i ndicate possession of, used with uncountable nouns off, use of off, used as preposition or adverb off, used in idioms on, use of on, used after certai n adjectives and verbs i n the passive voice on, used after certai n nouns on, used after certai n verbs on, used as preposition or adverb on, used in idioms one another one, used as indefinite pronoun one, used i n general statements only, use of onto, use of opposite, use of or else or, in compound subj ects or, used as coordi nate conju nction Ordinal adjectives other, use of others, use of otherwise, used as connecting adverb ought our ours ourselves out of, use of out of, used in idioms outside, use of over, use of over, used after certain verbs over, used as preposition or adverb p pair of Parallel construction Participles, dangling Participles used as adjectives Passive voice, formation of Passive voice, i ndicative tenses other than the simple present Passive voice, questions and negative statements Passive voice, simple present indicative Passive voice, subjunctive mood Passive voice, summary of formation of the indicative tenses Passive voice, summary of formation of the subj unctive tenses Passive voice, use of past forms of the subj unctive Passive voice, use of the si m ple present subjunctive Passive voice, use of Past and present tenses, summary of the formation of Past continuous tense, formation of Past continuous tense, use of Past participles used as adjectives Past participles which follow the verb to be Past perfect and simple past, use of Past perfect continuous tense, use of Past perfect continuous tense, formation of Past perfect tense, formation of Past perfect tense, use of past, use of per, use of Period, use of Personal pronouns Personal pronouns, agreement with their antecedents Personal pronouns, i ntroduction Personal pronouns, possessive Personal pronouns, summary of Personal pronouns with human antecedents Personal pronouns with non- human antecedents Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by a preposition Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by an adverb Phrasal verbs, examples of ergative phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs, examples of intransitive verb + adverb Phrasal verbs, examples of intransitive verb + preposition or adverb Phrasal verbs, examples of transitive verb + adverb Phrasal verbs, examples of transitive verb + preposition or adverb Phrasal verbs, exam ples of transitive verb + adverb + preposition Phrasal verbs, examples of verb + preposition Phrasal verbs, examples of verb + adverb + preposition Phrasal verbs followed by objects com pared with adverb phrases of location Phrasal verbs, introduction Place names Places used for specific activities Plural antecedents of personal pronou ns Plural countable nouns, absence of a determiner Plural countable nouns, used in making a general statement Plural countable nouns, used to refer to something not mentioned before Plural countable nouns, used in naming a profession Plurals Plurals of proper nouns plus, use of poor, meaning of Position of adverbs in a negative statem ent Possession Possession, phrases begi nning with of Possession, the 's ending Possession, the s' endi ng Possession, two consecutive nouns Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives, agreement with their antecedents Possessive adjectives used with gerunds Possessive personal pronouns Predicate adjectives Predicate adjectives compared with adverbs Predicate adjectives, order Prepositions, introduction Prepositions, meanings and examples Prepositions, use of Prepositions, used in idioms Prepositions which follow certain nouns Prepositions which follow certain adjectives and verbs in the passive voice Prepositions which follow certain verbs Prepositions with pronoun objects Present and past tenses, summary of the formation of Present continuous tense, formation of Present continuous, uses of, compared with the simple present present, meaning of Present parti ciples used as adjectives Present perfect continuous tense, use of Present perfect continuous tense, formation of Present perfect tense, i rregular verbs Present perfect tense, regular verbs Present perfect tense, use of Present tense, used in subordinate clauses to express future actions Progressive com pari sons with adverbs Progressive comparisons, adjectives which use endings Progressive comparisons, adjectives which not use endings Pronoun, object of a preposition Pronouns, agreement of third person pronouns with thei r antecedents Pronouns, defined Pronouns, demonstrative Pronouns, indefinite Pronouns, interrogative Pronouns, objective case Pronouns, personal Pronouns, possessive Pronouns, reciprocal Pronouns, reflexive Pronouns, relative Pronouns, subj ective case Pronouns, sum mary of personal pronouns Pronouns, unambiguous use of Pronunciation of the ed ending Pronunciation of the es ending Proper adjectives Proper adjectives, position of Proper nouns Proper nouns, plural forms provided or providing, used as subordinate conjunction Punctuation, use of period Punctuation, use of question mark Punctuation used with attributive adjectives Punctuation used with predicate adjectives Q Question mark, use of Questions and negative statements, simple present of to have Questions and negative statements, present perfect conti nuous tense Questions and negative statements, simple past of to be Questions and negative statements, simple past Questions and negative statements, past continuous tense Questions and negative statements, past perfect tense Questions and negative statements, past perfect continuous Questions and negative statements, simple future Questions and negative statements, future conti n uous Questions and negative statements, future perfect Questions and negative statements, future perfect continuous Questions and negative statements, passive voice Questions, modal verbs Questions, passive voice Questions, present continuous tense Questions, present perfect tense Questions, simple present of to be Questions, si mple present Questions, word order of direct and i ndirect questions R raise and rise raise, verb forms rather than Reciprocal pronouns Reflexive pronouns Regular verbs, present perfect tense Regular verbs, simple past Relative clauses, defining and non·defining Relative clauses, defining Relative pronouns rise, verb forms round, used as preposition or adverb s ending, third person singular s ending, used to form plurals s' ending, used to i ndicate possession same as scarcely when second, used as ordinal adjective set and sit set, verb forms several, use of shall and will shan't she she'd (she had) she'd (she would) she'll she's (she has) she's (she is) Short answers should shouldn 't similar to Simple future tense, formation of Simple future tense, use of Sim ple past and past perfect, use of Simple past of to be Simple past of to use followed by an infinitive Simple past tense, formation of Simple past tense, uses of Simple present of to be Sim ple present of to have Simple present tense, formation of Sim ple present tense, uses of Sim ple present, uses of, com pared with the present continuous since, use of since, used as subordinate conjunction Singular antecedents of personal pronouns sit, verb forms so that so as to so, used as subordinate conjunction some, use of somebody, use of someone, use of something, use of sometime and someti mes somewhere, use of Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle Spelling rules for adding s in the third person singular Spelling rules for adjectives with er ending Spelling rules for adjectives with est ending Spelling rules for adverbs with ly ending Spelling rules for formation of the present participle Spelling rules for past participles, verbs endi ng in a si lent e Spelling rules for past partici ples, verbs ending i n y Spelling rules for past participles, verbs ending i n a single consonant preceded by a si ngle vowel Spelling rules for present participles, verbs ending i n a si lent e Spelli ng rules for present participles, verbs ending i n ie Spelling rules for present participles, one- syllable verbs ending i n a single consonant preceded by a si ngle vowel Spelli ng rules for present participles, verbs of more than one syllable which end i n a si ngle consonant preceded by a single vowel Spelling, verbs ending in y Spelling, verbs ending in Spelling, verbs ending in ch, s, sh, x or z Split infinitive still, used as connecti ng adverb Stress, adjectives i ndicating materials Stress, defining adjectives indicating location or time Stress, defining adjectives indicating purpose Stress used with attributive adjectives Style, parallel construction Subjective case, pronouns Subj unctive mood of the passive voice Subj unctive, formation of Subj unctive, uses of Subordinate clause of conditional statement, verb forms Subordinate clause of conditional statement, present or future time Subordinate clause of conditional statement, past time Subordinate clause of conditional statement, summary Subordinate clauses Subordinate clauses, use of the present tense to express future actions Subordinate conjunctions such that Superlative form of adjectives which use endings Superlative form of adjectives using most Superlative forms of adverbs used in comparisons supposing, used as subordinate conj unction _ _ _ T Tag questions, Tag questions, Tag questions, Tag questions, Tag questions, Tag questions, modal verbs present continuous tense present perfect tense si m ple present of to be si m ple present summary Tenses, summary of the uses of than, followed by subjective case than, used as subordinate conjunction than, used in comparisons with adjectives which use endings than, used in com parisons with adjectives which not use endi ngs than, used with adverbs in comparisons that that, compared with which and who That, used as relative pronoun the " " the ' " the least, used with adverbs i n comparisons the same as the, summary of use of the, used before singular countable nouns the, used to refer to something unique the, used to refer to something as a class the, used with adjectives referring to classes of people the, used with adverbs in comparisons the, used with names of nationalities the, used with names of people the, used with names of places the, used with proper nouns the, used with the superlative form of an adjective the with plural nouns, used to refer to something mentioned before the with plural nouns, used to refer to something when i t is considered obvious what i s meant the with singular nouns, used to refer to something mentioned before the with singular nouns, used to refer to somethi ng when it is considered obvious what is meant the with uncountable nouns, used to refer to something mentioned before the with uncountable nou ns, used to refer to something when it is considered obvious what is meant their their, informal use of theirs them themselves then, used as connecting adverb there and here there used as an introductory word therefore, used as connecting adverb therefore, used as connecting adverb these they they'd (they had) they'd (they would) they'll they're they've Third person singular, endings this those thou though, used as subordinate conjunction through, use of through, used as preposition or adverb throughout, use of th us, used as connecting adverb till, use of till, used as subordinate conjunction to, use of to, used after certai n adjectives and verbs i n the passive voice to, used after certai n nouns to, used after certai n verbs to, used in idioms too toward or towards, use of toward or towards, used after certain adjectives and verbs i n the passive voice toward or towards, used after certain nouns Transitive and intransitive verbs turn U ue changed to u before adding ly Uncountable nouns, used i n making a general statement Uncountable nouns, used to refer to somethi ng not mentioned before Uncountable nouns, used to refer to individual things Uncountable nouns under, use of under, used in idioms underneath, use of unless, used as subordinate conjunction until, use of until, used as subordinate conjunction up to, use of up, use of up, used in idioms upon, use of upon, used as preposition or adverb us use, sim ple past followed by an infinitive used to Uses of the English verb tenses Uses of the present continuous V Verb Verb Verb Verb + + + + adverb + preposition, where the verb has an object adverb + prepositi on adverb, ergative verbs adverb, exam ples of intransitive phrasal verbs Verb + adverb, examples of transitive phrasal verbs Verb + adverb, position of adverb of manner Verb + adverb, position of object of the verb Verb + adverb, stress in spoken English Verb + preposition compared with verb + adverb Verb + preposition or adverb, where the verb has an object Verb + preposition or adverb Verb + preposition, examples of phrasal verbs Verb + preposition, position of object of the preposition Verb + preposition, position of adverb of manner Verb + preposition, stress in spoken English Verb + preposition, where the verb has an object Verb agreement, amounts considered as a whole Verb agreement, collective nouns and compound subjects Verb agreement, nouns followed by descriptive phrases Verb agreement with compound subj ects, sum mary Verb forms, introduction Verb tenses, active voice of to show Verb tenses, summary of the uses of Verb tenses, to be and the passive voice of to show Verb tenses, uses and formation of Verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds Verbs followed by gerunds Verbs followed by infinitives Verbs followed by prepositions Verbs in the passive voice followed by prepositions Verbs of motion Verbs of motion, used with adverb phrases of location Verbs, 140 common irregular verbs Verbs, ergative Verbs, linking Verbs, phrasal Verbs, phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by a preposition Verbs, phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by an adverb versus, use of via, use of Voice of a verb, changing from active to passive Voice of a verb, changing from passive to active Voice of a verb, changing the voice while preservi ng the meaning Voice of a verb, comparison of active and passive Voice of a verb with both a direct object and an indirect object W was was, used as an auxiliary wasn't we we'd (we had) we'd (we would) we'll we're we've well, use of were were, used as an auxiliary weren't what with and what and which what, used as relative pronoun whatever, used as relative pronoun when, use of where, use of whereas, used as subordinate conjunction whether or whether, used as su bordinate conjunction which and what which, compared with that and who Which, used as relative pronoun while and d uring while, used as subordi nate conjunction who, compared with which and that who, used as interrogative pronoun Who, used as relative pronoun whoever, used as relative pronoun whom, objective case of who whom, use of Whom, used as relative pronoun whose, possessive case of who whose, use of Whose, used as relative pronoun Whose, used in i nformal English why, use of wide and widely will will and shall will be will have been will have Wishes, a later time Wishes, an earlier time Wishes, summary Wishes, the same time Wishes with, use of with, used after certain nouns with, used after certai n adjectives and verbs in the passive voice with, used after certain verbs with, used in idioms within, use of within, used in idioms without, use of without, used in idioms won't won't Word order of direct and i ndirect questions, summary Words used as prepositions or adverbs would, conj ugations with would, continuous conjugation would, perfect conjugation would, perfect continuous conjugation would, simple conjugation would, sum mary of conjugations would, used as auxiliary wouldn't y y changed to i before adding es y changed to i before adding ly yet, used as coordinate conjunction you'd (you had ) you'd (you would) you'll you're you 've you, objective case you, subjective case your yours yourself yourselves .. .English Grammar ENGLISH GRAMMAR: EXPLANATIONS AND EXERCISES by Mary Ansell Second edition Copyright © 2000 The material in this book may be used freely for any non·commercial... of the essential points of English gram mar are covered * Each point of grammar is clearly explained, and is illustrated by examples For every important poi nt of grammar, one or more exercises... formation of the English verb tenses is given for easy reference * Grammatically determined rules for spelling, pronunciation, and punctuation are included * * The grammar of North American English is
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