Word form and context

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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY WORD FAMILIES A NOUNS I Thành lập danh từ: (Noun formations) Thêm hậu tố vào sau động từ Ex: -tion/-ation: (to) prevent  prevention; invent  invention; conserve  conservation -ment : develop  development; improve  improvement; employ  employment -ence/-ance: different  difference; attend  attendance; appear  appearance -er/-or : drive  driver; teach  teacher; dry  dryer; edit  editor -ar/-ant/-ee: beg  beggar; lie  liar; assist  assistant; employ  employee -ing : build  building (việc xây dựng, tòa nhà); understand  understanding (sự hiểu biết) -age : drain  drainage; use  usage Thêm hậu tố vào sau danh từ: Ex: -ship : friend  friendship; owner  ownership -ism : capital  capitalism; Marx  Marxism Thêm hậu tố vào sau tính từ: Ex: -ity : possible  possibility; real  reality; national  nationality -ism : social  socialism; feudal  feudalism; surreal  surrealism (chủ nghĩa siêu thực) -ness : rich  richness; happy  happiness; willing  willingness Một số danh từ thành lập cách thêm tiền tố vào trước danh từ khác: Ex: super- : man  superman; structure  superstructure (kiến trúc thượng tầng) under- : clothes  underclothes; weight  underweight sur- : face  surface; name  surname sub- : way  subway; contract  subcontract; marine  submarine II Vị trí danh từ: - Chủ ngữ câu Ex: History is an exciting subject - Sau tính từ hay tính từ sở hữu Ex: He is a good teacher; That is my car - Sau “enough” Ex: We haven’t got enough money -Sau mạo từ “a/an/the”, từ hạn định “this/that/these/those/each/every/both/no/…” Ex: The scientist is 40 years of age He can find no solution to his financial troubles *Lưu ý cấu trúc: a/an/the + adj + noun (a long time; an ugly woman; a small wooden table) - Sau giới từ (in, on, of, with,…) Ex: The case is under investigation He has a good knowledge of science -Sau từ số lượng (few, a few, a little, little, some, any, much, many, most,…) Ex: Most boys like playing football She gave me a few crayons B ADJECTIVES I Thành lập tính từ: Thêm hậu tố vào sau danh từ: Ex: -ful : harm  harmful; use  useful; beauty  beautiful -less : child  childless; hope  hopeless; odor  odorless (khơng có mùi hương) (ý phủ định) -ly : man  manly; hour  hourly; friend  friendly (có vẻ, có tính chất,…) -like : child  childlike; life  lifelike; god  godlike ( giống như, tương tự) -y : rain  rainy; health  healthy; sand  sandy ( có nhiều) -ish : fool  foolish; self  selfish; child  childish (giống như, có tính chất của) -al : magic  magical; industry  industrial; nature  natural (thuộc về) -ous : poison  poisonous; danger  dangerous -able : fashion  fashionable; value  valuable Thêm hậu tố vào sau động từ: Ex: -ive : act  active; attract  attractive -able/-ible: accept  acceptable; eat  eatable, edible; comprehend  comprehensible Thêm tiền tố vào trước tính từ: Ex: super- : natural  supernatural; sonic  supersonic (siêu âm) under-: done  underdone; developed  underdeveloped over- : anxious  overanxious; crowded  overcrowded sub- : conscious  subconscious Một số tính từ mang nghĩa phủ định thành lập cách thêm tiền tố trước tính từ: Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Ex: un- (unhappy, uncertain); in- (indirect, independent); im- (impatient, impolite); ir- (irregular, irrational, irresponsible); il- (illegal, illiterate, illogical); dis- (dishonest, discourteous (bất lịch sự), disaffected (bất mãn)) Một số tính từ kép thành lập cách kết hợp danh từ với khứ phân từ: Ex: man + made  man-made (Nhân tạo); snow + covered  snow-covered (phủ đầy tuyết) Horse + pulled  horse-pulled (do ngựa kéo) corn + fed  corn-fed (nuôi ngô) Dùng “well/ill” kết hợp với khứ phân từ: Ex: well + done  well-done (nấu chin); well + known  well-known (nổi tiếng) ill + bred  ill-bred (vô giáo dục); ill + founded  ill-founded (vô cứ) II Vị trí tính từ: Trước danh từ: ADJ + Noun (mechanical engineer, lovely girl, warm bed, sleepless night) Sau hệ từ (linking verb): be, get, seem, appear, feel, taste, look, stay, become Ex: She is beautiful He felt upset The soup tastes really delicious Keep/make + Object + ADJ Ex: The news made her happy Remember to keep your hands warm Sau “too” Be/seem/look/taste/… + too + ADJ … Ex: He is too short to join the team Trước “enough” Be + ADJ + enough Ex: The water isn’t hot enough Trong cấu trúc “so…that” Be + so + ADJ + that … Ex: He was so angry that he couldn’t speak Dùng dạng so sánh Tính từ dài thường đứng sau “more, the most, less, as…as” Ex: He is as deaf as a post Meat is more expensive than fish Trong câu cảm thán How + ADJ + S + V or What + (a/an) + ADJ + Noun! Ex: How nice the girl is! What an interesting film! C VERBS I Thành lập động từ: Thêm “ize” (American English) “ise” (British English) vào sau danh từ tính từ: Ex: social  socialize (xã hội hóa); modern  modernize (hiện đại hóa); symbol  symbolize Thêm tiền tố “out-” (ở mức độ cao hơn, tốt hay nhanh hơn,…) vào nội động từ để tạo ngoại động từ (động từ cần có tân ngữ trực sau) Ex: grow  outgrow (lớn hơn); live  outlive (sống lâu hơn); weigh  outweigh (nặng hơn) Thêm tiền tố “en-” (gây ra, làm cho, đưa vào) vào trước tính từ, danh từ hay động từ khác Ex: rich  enrich; danger  endanger; force  enforce (ép buộc, thực thi) Hậu tố “-en” thêm vào sau số tính từ để tạo động từ: Ex: tight  tighten; sharp  sharpen; weak  weaken Thêm tiền tố vào động từ: Ex: over- : act  overact; pay  overpay; work  overwork; throw  overthrow (lật đổ) under- : pay  underpay; go  undergo; estimate  underestimate super- : impose  superimpose (đặt lên cùng); intend  superintend (giám sát) II Vị trí động từ: Vị trí động từ câu dễ nhận biết thường đứng sau chủ ngữ Ex: Tom’s behavior improved at his new school I believe her because she always tells the truth The film which was shown last Sunday attracted me D ADVERBS I Thành lập trạng từ: Trạng từ thường thành lập cách thêm “-ly” vào sau tính từ Ex: Beautiful  beautifully ; careless  carelessly; strong  strongly; bad  badly Lưu ý số trạng từ đặc biệt: Ex: good  well late  late (trễ)/lately (gần đây) earlyearly fast  fast hard  hard (chăm chỉ)/hardly (hiếm khi) free  free (miễn phí)/freely (một cách thoải mái, tự do) II Vị trí trạng từ: Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Sau trợ động từ (auxiliary verbs) trước động từ thường (ordinary verbs) Auxiliary Verb + ADV + V Ex: The picture has definitely stolen He drives carefully along the narrow road Trước tính từ Be/feel/look + ADV + adj Ex: I’m truthfully grateful for your help It’s a reasonably cheap restaurant Sau “too” : V + too + ADV Ex: They walked too slowly to catch the bus Trong cấu trúc “so…that” V + so +ADV + that … Ex: She sang so beautifully that everybody applauded Đứng cuối câu S + V (+O) + ADV Ex: She speaks English perfectly It is raining heavily Trước “enough” V + ADV + enough Ex: He plays well enough to win the competition Trạng từ đơi đứng đầu câu cách câu dấu phầy Ex: Suddenly, she heard a strange voice She felt ill She went to work, however, and try to concentrate Practice: Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences: She is _ in asking for bigger salary She has worked hard A reason B reasoned C reasonable D unreasonable Learning English has become a in our country A necessary B necessity C necessitate D necessarily English is the language of international A communicate B communicative C communication D communicatively English is outnumbered by Chinese A easy B easily C ease D uneasy There were too many _ nationalities in my class and we had to speak English A differs B differences C difference D different He was right when he said that the man was guilty A reason B reasonable C reasonably D reasons It is _ to regard any language as the property of a particular nation A reason B reasonable C unreasonable D reasoned Fortunately, the plane landed after the violent storm A safe B unsafe C safety D safely In this course, students receive in the basic English grammar A instruct B instruction C instructional D instructive 10.Most children are ill-prepared for A employer B employee C employment D unemployment 11.He is _ with his new job A occupy B occupational C occupation D occupied 12.Nothing could _ him A satisfy B satisfied C satisfaction D satisfactory 13.Daisy does the housework A disappoint B disappointed C disappointingly D disappointment 14.She did the job _ A success B succeed C successful D successfully 15.My teacher always gives us a clear A explain B explaining C explanatory D explanation 16.Getting such a well-paid job is beyond my _ A expect B expected C expecting D expectation 17.He has very little of history A understand B understood C understanding D understandable 18.Would you accept her ? A invite B invited C inviting D invitation 19.This room has to be _ A large B enlarge C enlarges D enlarged 20.In many cities around the world , _ is a serious problem A pollute B polluted C polluting D pollution Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY 21.The _ development leads to our country’s prosperity A industry B industries C industrial D industrialize 22.Forests provide timber, one of Man’s most resources A value B invaluable C valueless D valuably 23.These chemicals are They can cause death or illness if taken into the body A poison B poisonous C poisoning D poisoned 24.We have to the natural resources of our country A conserve B conservation C conservative D conserving 25.Does the earth have enough resources to support people? A nature B naturalize C natural D naturally 26.Exhaust fumes from motor vehicles _ the air A pollute B polluted C polluting D pollution 27.She decided to her studies after obtaining her first degree A pursue B pursuit C pursuer D pursuable 28.I'm always _ about his kindness A suspiciously B suspiciousness C suspicion D suspicious 29 It was one of the most experiences I’ve ever had A fright B frighten C frightened D frightening 30 All the countries should act to stop the _ of rainforests A destroy B destruction C destructive D destructively 31 He felt _ at being the center of attention A embarrass B embarrassed C embarrassing D embarrassment 32 Mrs Feng felt very _ towards her son A protected B protecting C protection D protective SIMILAR WORDS Similar words are often confusing if they have similar meanings but cannot be interchanged Sometimes they have the same root, prefix (tiền tố), or suffix (hậu tố) Sometimes they have similar spelling We should focus or pay attention to the grammatical structure and the meaning of the whole sentence to determine which one is the correct answer to be chosen Practice 1: Below are some confusing word pairs Choose the correct words to fill the blanks: misused (badly, wrongly used) vs disused (no longer used) Ex: Be careful of this word It is often _ The goods were stored in a cinema unreadable (too boring or too badly written to read) vs illegible (physically impossible to read) Ex: His hand-writing is so bad that it is The book is long, uninteresting and not very well-written I find it _ I think her novels are _ The style is awful and the plots are ridiculous dependent (depending) vs dependant (person who depends on another for home, money, food) Ex: The signing of the contract is _ on whether you can guarantee delivery of the goods within three months The empire consisted of the kingdom and all its _ colonies You are entitled to receive a government allowance for each who is living with you historic (important in history) vs historical (concerning history) Ex: She likes _ novels, especially romances set in the 16th and 17th centuries In 1945 there was a meeting of the world leaders which changed the course (quá trình) of world events immigration (coming into a country to settle) vs emigration (leaving a country to settle elsewhere) Ex: If we don’t restrict _ into this country, the pressure on our social services will be intolerable When times were hard in Britain, there was very large to Australia and Canada dissatisfied (discontented, displeased, not satisfied with quality) unsatisfied (unfulfilled, not satisfied with quantity) Ex: He ate a meal large enough for three normal people but his appetite was still I’m very _ with this computer It keeps breaking down If you are with the service, you should complain Demand for the new car is still _ in spite of an increase in production suit (be suitable for) vs suite /swiːt/ (group of things belonging together, set) (dãy, bộ) Ex: Will o’clock you or shall I come later? She took a of rooms at the Riverside Hotel prophecy (prediction, noun) vs prophesy (predict, verb) Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Ex: I _ that he will pass the exam and get a good job You shouldn’t worry I will make a _ There will be a new government in less than a year device (new invention, means of doing something, noun) vs devise (invent, verb) Ex: A _ can be attached to a private telephone which keeps a record of all call made and their cost He managed to a system of bonus payments to encourage hard-working staff 10 electric (using electricity for power) vs electrical (related to electricity) Ex: Mark must have been very delighted since his father bought him an _ guitar My cousin is learning _ engineering at this university 11 exhausting (very tiring) vs exhaustive (very thorough, complete) Ex: _ tests were carried out to discover the cause of the plane’s engine failure The older members of the group found the journey quite He never stops talking He is an person to be with 12 disinterested (impartial (không thiên vị) vs uninterested (bored, apathetic (lãnh đạm)) Ex: I don’t know why he didn’t go to the exhibition Perhaps he was too busy or just The management and the union asked a completely _ party to mediate between them 13 council (district government) vs counsel (to advise; kind of lawyer in court) Ex: I have complained to the local _ about the poor condition of the pavement The job of a Vocational Guidance Officer is to _ young people on their careers 14 unknown (not known) vs infamous (notorious, shameful, famous for sth considered bad) Ex: Joseph Jackson was an mass-murder of Victorian times The film was almost _ ten years ago but now it is famous for its high-quality products 15 certainly (definitely, really) vs surely (used to express surprise, doubt, relief) Ex: _you aren’t going out like that, are you? I am _ not inviting Tom to my party I’ve never liked her 16 dairy (related to milk products) vs diary (daily record of events) Ex: He kept a from the age of 13 to 21 No, we don’t grow wheat or vegetables It’s a _ farm We have about 300 cows 17 compliment (to praise, piece of praise) vs complement (add to, go together) Ex: He lacks confidence and she is a strong person They _ each other very well I’d like to _ you on your stellar (= excellent) performance He paid her a nice _ on her new dress 18 first (1st item in list) vs at first (initial attitude before change) Ex: _boil the water, then add salt, then put in the potatoes, then… He found the job difficult , but soon got used to it _they didn’t like their new boss 19 lastly (final item in a list) vs at last (final result) Ex: then stir the mixture in the saucepan, then leave for minutes and add sugar _ I succeeded in making him understand 20 eatable (good enough to eat, though not excellent) vs edible (suitable or safe for eating) Ex: Only the leaves of the plant are _ Her cooking skill is not very good However, I think her dishes are _ Practice 2: Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D for each sentence The class teacher punished disobedient pupils _ A hardly B severely C stiffly D strongly It was a great to study under such an outstanding teacher A favor B fortune C privilege D value We all like Professor Brecht because of his great _ of humor A sense B willingness C principle D feeling He has been teaching music for years, even though he hasn’t got any A experience B experiment C qualifications D examinations He went to Australia hoping to find a teaching without too much difficulty A employment B occupation C job D work Teachers have been told to good behavior in their classes A prize B award C benefit D reward Some people are against informality at lectures but, personally, I the idea A applaud B cheer C clap D shout When you are an old age pensioner, you have to learn to _ a very small income A live up to B live on C live out D live down Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY People work mainly to money A pay B finance C earn D win 10 She gives each of her children fifty pence a week money A free B pocket C ready D spare 11 Tax deprives the state of several million pounds a year A retention (sự giữ lại) B desertion (đào ngũ) C evasion (trốn thuế) D escapism (sự thoát ly) 12 We don’t take cheques, so you’ll have to pay in _ A coins B money C change D cash 13 Whenever he writes to his mother, he _ a cheque with his letter A contains B contributes C reserves D encloses 14 You’d better stop spending money, _ you’ll end up in debt A if B in case C unless D otherwise 15 The dealer wanted $400, I wanted to pay $300, and we finally agreed to the difference A divide B split C drop D decrease 16 Could you lend me some money? I’m very _ of cash at the moment A down B scare C short D empty 17 Unless the Prime Minister the warning, inflation will rise rapidly A remarks B attends C applies D heeds 18 I don’t get paid for ages and I’ve _ money already! A wasted B saved C spent D run out of 19 Christine _ her money from the ATM and went on a big shopping spree A pulled B withdrew C ejected D extracted 20 State pensions are currently at the center of a(n) debate A scorching B fiery C exploded D flamed 21 The architect’s work was not superb, but he charged an enormous _ A ticket B fare C fee D subscription 22 Adults have to pay $5 to get in, but children under 14 are A open B nothing C penniless D free 23 I don’t have any cash just now I’m _ A flat broke B flat broken C no money D less money 24 Before you can start a business, you’ll have to raise the necessary _ A investment B income C savings D capital 25 I’m afraid we can’t raise your salary this year The company is operating in a very _ budget A close B tight C cheap D hard 26 My friends have just moved to a new flat in a residential area on the _ of Paris A outskirts B outside C suburbs D side 27 The house is part of his _ from his aunt A heritage B will C testament (di chúc) D inheritance 28 James could no longer bear the surroundings of the old house A domineering (áp bức) B pressing C oppressive (ngột ngạt) D overbearing 29 They couldn’t _ to buy that exorbitant house A spare B afford C provide D bear 30 The cottage has got a thatched _ A door B garden C roof D window 31 He lives in his bachelor flat in Mayfair A lone B lonely C himself D alone 32 The move to a different environment had brought about a significant _ in Mary’s state of mind A impact B effect C change D influence 33 Don’t live on the main road unless you have good against noise A insulation B isolation C insurance D assurance 34 The town stands mainly in the left of the river A cliff B bank C coast D shelf 35 I love to round the old part of the town, enjoying its peace and quiet A sit B tour C rush D wander 36 The current _ of this town is about 350 000 A group B membership C number D population Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY WORDS IN CONTEXT You have to base on the context to choose the most suitable words to fill in the blanks: The tiger's roar could be heard in villages far away What does roar probably mean? A food a tiger eats B a tiger's dream C a tiger's ear D a sound a tiger makes The thought of eating a rat is abhorrent to most people What does abhorrent probably mean? A fun B horrible C delicious D sweet My absent-minded teacher loses his keys, his book and his chalk almost every day! What does it mean to be absent-minded? A hateful B not paying attention C intelligent D brainless You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an aboveboard manner What does aboveboard probably mean? A openly B sneaky (lén lút, vụn trộm) C strange D repugnant (ghê tởm) Petra has so many friends because she is a gregarious person What does gregarious probably mean? A introverted B shy C outgoing D hostile The lovely egret is in danger of extinction because clothing manufacturers use their long, beautiful tail feathers to make ladies' hats What is an egret? A a small child B a type of food C a type of bird D an alligator I can't believe it! Right in the middle of our conversation, Peter turned around abruptly and walked out of the room! What does abruptly probably mean? A formally B slowly C suddenly D quiet After the harvest, we had an abundant amount of apples We made apple pie, apple sauce, and apple juice because we had so many apples! What does abundant probably mean? A a shortage B not enough C very red D plentiful When Sara was sick, her voice was almost inaudible We couldn't hear what she was trying to say clearly What does inaudible probably mean? A uncommon B soft C easy to hear D strange 10 The hill was too arduous for us to climb We had to walk our bicycles up the hill What does arduous probably mean? A tall, sharp B fun, exciting C easy, not challenging D difficult, steep 11 She often stands in front of the mirror in her bedroom, holding the bottle as if it's a microphone and belting out songs She is trying to emulate her favorite singers What does emulate mean? A yawn B mimic C break D stamp 12 Bill has got a sprained foot, he tries to step on it very gingerly, not wanting to put all his weight on it and make things worse What does gingerly mean? A loudly B strongly C carefully D naughtily 13 Some people don’t know how to eat properly Their table manners are very _ A charming B edifying (tính giáo dục) C didactic (tính mơ phạm) D shameful 14 Peter is certainly the best student in the class He can figure out in minutes problems that may take his peers half an hour He is really _ A simple B smart C slow D fatuous (stupid) 15 A girl can only hear “I love you” so many times before it begins to sound hackneyed and meaningless What does hackneyed mean? A lovely B unoriginal C hurtful D unlucky 16 The crowd was _when the firefighter carried the woman from the flaming building A happy B scorching C sorrowful D worried ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY, TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER Ta sử dụng trạng từ (adverbs) với động từ, tính từ trạng từ khác Chúng cho ta biết điều xảy cách nào, nào, đâu xảy thường xuyên Adverbs of frequency (trạng từ tần số thường xuyên xảy ra) Adverbs of frequency cho ta biết tần số điều thường xun xảy Trạng từ loại gồm: always, ever, often, usually, sometimes, seldom/rarely, hardly ever, never Jim is always the first to arrive Have you ever played squash? Adverbs of frequency thường đứng sau be trợ động từ, trước động từ Sometimes usually đứng đầu câu; Sometimes we play cricket on Friday Usually Laura and I walk to school together Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Ta sử dụng every day, once cụm từ twice/three times a week nói tần số thường xuyên xảy Các cụm từ đứng đầu câu cuối câu: Every Thursday we have lunch together I play bridge twice a week Adverbs of time (trạng từ thời gian) Trạng từ thời gian giải thích việc xảy Trạng từ loại gồm today, yesterday, tomorrow, early, late Chúng thường đứng cuối câu: What are you doing today? We are leaving tomorrow Today, yesterday, tomorrow afterwards đứng đầu câu: Yesterday it rained all day Today we studied the life of frogs Cụm từ thông dụng sử dụng làm trạng từ thời gian gồm: on Friday, v.v last Friday, v.v next Friday, v.v in January, v.v in 1999, v.v for two years, v.v Adverbs of place (trạng từ nơi chốn) Trạng từ nơi chốn cho ta biết việc xảy đâu Trạng từ loại gồm here, there, in, out, away, abroad, back, around, somewhere, everywhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs Chúng thường đứng cuối câu: We’re going to meet here/there Her grandparents live abroad Ta sử dụng nhiều cụm từ làm trạng từ nơi chốn: on the roof in the park at the bus stop along the road to Paris into the room Adverbs of manner (trạng từ cách thức) Trạng từ cách thức cho ta biết việc diễn Chúng thường sau động từ sau túc từ: She sings beautifully His sister doesn’t speak French well Các trạng từ ngắn tận -ly đứng chủ từ động từ chúng thơng tin chính: I quickly realized that there was a problem The examiner quietly helped Marie to gather her papers Khi có nhiều trạng từ đứng sau động từ, thứ tự thông thường cách thức, nơi chốn, thời gian: Everyone went slowly upstairs (manner, place) We worked hard in the garden yesterday (manner, place, time) PRACTICE: I Choose the best answer for each question: I hate vegetables I _ eat carrots A always B usually C every day D never Robert goes to the gym only two or three times a year He goes to the gym A often B rarely C quite often D ever I never lend money to Curtis He pays me back A yet B timely C normally D never His boss gives him bonuses A annually B still C always D never She is waiting for the feedback from them A already B every day C still D yet Susan goes to the beach whenever she can She _ misses a chance to go to the ocean A usually B hardly ever C sometimes D annually It almost always rains in Seattle The sun shines there A seldom B always C lately D still Teresa is not a pleasant person She is _ in a bad mood A never B always C seldom D rarely The manager tries to be fair and unbiased A usual B every day C ever D always 10 My brother Peter _ optimistic since he was demoted A has been rarely B rarely been C has rarely been D rarely has been II Rewrite each sentence with the adverb of frequency (in brackets) in its correct position Have you been to London? (ever) ………………………………………………………………… Peter doesn't get up before seven (usually) ………………………………………………………………… They go swimming in the lake (sometimes) ………………………………………………………………… The weather is bad in November (always) ………………………………………………………………… Peggy and Frank are late (usually) ………………………………………………………………… John watches TV (seldom) ………………………………………………………………… I was in contact with my sister (often) ………………………………………………………………… She will love him (always) ………………………………………………………………… Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY C reasonable B necessity C communication B easily D different C reasonably C unreasonable D safely WORD FAMILIES B instruction 17.C understanding 10.C employment 18.D invitation 11.D occupied 19.D enlarged 12.A satisfy 20.D pollution 13.C disappointingly 21.C industrial 14.D successfully 22.B invaluable 15.D explanation 23.B poisonous 16.D expectation 24.A conserve SIMILAR WORDS 25.C natural 26.A pollute 27.A pursue 28.D suspicious 29.D frightening 30.B destruction 31.B embarrassed 32.D protective Practice 1: misused (badly, wrongly used) vs disused (no longer used) Ex: Be careful of this word It is often misused The goods were stored in a disused cinema unreadable (too boring or too badly written to read) vs illegible (physically impossible to read) Ex: His hand-writing is so bad that it is illegible The book is long, uninteresting and not very well-written I find it unreadable I think her novels are unreadable The style is awful and the plots are ridiculous dependent (depending) vs dependant (person who depends on another for home, money, food) Ex: The signing of the contract is dependent on whether you can guarantee delivery of the goods within three months The empire consisted of the kingdom and all its dependent colonies You are entitled to receive a government allowance for each dependant who is living with you historic (important in history) vs historical (concerning history) Ex: She likes historical novels, especially romances set in the 16th and 17th centuries In 1945 there was a historic meeting of the world leaders which changed the course (quá trình) of world events immigration (coming into a country to settle) vs emigration (leaving a country to settle elsewhere) Ex: If we don’t restrict immigration into this country, the pressure on our social services will be intolerable When times were hard in Britain, there was very large emigration to Australia and Canada dissatisfied (discontented, displeased, not satisfied with quality) unsatisfied (unfulfilled, not satisfied with quantity) Ex: He ate a meal large enough for three normal people but his appetite was still unsatisfied I’m very dissatisfied with this computer It keeps breaking down If you are dissatisfied with the service, you should complain Demand for the new car is still _ in spite of an increase in production suit (be suitable for) vs suite /swiːt/ (group of things belonging together, set) (dãy, bộ) Ex: Will o’clock suit you or shall I come later? She took a suite of rooms at the Riverside Hotel prophecy (prediction, noun) vs prophesy (predict, verb) Ex: I prophesy that he will pass the exam and get a good job You shouldn’t worry I will make a prophecy There will be a new government in less than a year device (new invention, means of doing something, noun) vs devise (invent, verb) Ex: A device can be attached to a private telephone which keeps a record of all call made and their cost He managed to devise a system of bonus payments to encourage hard-working staff 10 electric (using electricity for power) vs electrical (related to electricity) Ex: Mark must have been very delighted since his father bought him an electric guitar My cousin is learning electrical engineering at this university 11 exhausting (very tiring) vs exhaustive (very thorough, complete) Ex: exhaustive tests were carried out to discover the cause of the plane’s engine failure The older members of the group found the journey quite exhausting He never stops talking He is an exhausting person to be with 12 disinterested (impartial (không thiên vị) vs uninterested (bored, apathetic (lãnh đạm)) Ex: I don’t know why he didn’t go to the exhibition Perhaps he was too busy or just uninterested The management and the union asked a completely disinterested party to mediate between them 13 council (district government) vs counsel (to advise; kind of lawyer in court) Ex: I have complained to the local council about the poor condition of the pavement The job of a Vocational Guidance Officer is to counsel young people on their careers 14 unknown (not known) vs infamous (notorious, shameful, famous for sth considered bad) Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Ex: Joseph Jackson was an infamous mass-murder of Victorian times The film was almost unknown ten years ago but now it is famous for its high-quality products 15 certainly (definitely, really) vs surely (used to express surprise, doubt, relief) Ex: surely you aren’t going out like that, are you? I am certainly not inviting Tom to my party I’ve never liked her 16 dairy (related to milk products) vs diary (daily record of events) Ex: He kept a diary from the age of 13 to 21 No, we don’t grow wheat or vegetables It’s a dairy farm We have about 300 cows 17 compliment (to praise, piece of praise) vs complement (add to, go together) Ex: He lacks confidence and she is a strong person They complement each other very well I’d like to compliment you on your stellar (= excellent) performance He paid her a nice compliment on her new dress 18 first (1st item in list) vs at first (initial attitude before change) Ex: first boil the water, then add salt, then put in the potatoes, then… He found the job difficult at first but soon got used to it at first they didn’t like their new boss 19 lastly (final item in a list) vs at last (final result) Ex: then stir the mixture in the saucepan, then leave for minutes and lastly add sugar at last I succeeded in making him understand 20 eatable (good enough to eat, though not excellent) vs edible (suitable or safe for eating) Ex: Only the leaves of the plant are edible Her cooking skill is not very good However, I think her dishes are eatable Practice 2: Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D for each sentence B severely 10 B pocket 19 B withdrew 28 C oppressive C privilege 11 C evasion 20 B fiery 29 B afford A sense 12 D cash 21 C fee 30 C roof C qualifications 13 D encloses 22 D free 31 D alone C job 14 D otherwise 23 A flat broke 32 C change D reward 15 B split 24 D capital 33 A insulation A applaud 16 C short 25 B tight 34 B bank B live on 17 D heeds 26 A outskirts 35 D wander C earn 18 D run out of 27 D inheritance 36 D population WORDS IN CONTEXT D a sound a tiger makes B soft B horrible 10 D difficult, steep B not paying attention 11 B mimic A openly 12 C carefully C outgoing 13 D shameful C a type of bird 14 B smart C suddenly 15 B unoriginal D plentiful 16 A happy ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY, TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER I Choose the best answer for each question: D never B hardly ever B rarely A seldom D never B always A annually D always C still 10 C has rarely been II Rewrite each sentence with the adverb of frequency (in brackets) in its correct position Have you ever been to London? Peter doesn't usually get up before seven They sometimes go swimming in the lake The weather is always bad in November Peggy and Frank are usually late John seldom watches TV I was often in contact with my sister She will always love him Page of ... B membership C number D population Page of WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY WORDS IN CONTEXT You have to base on the context to choose the most suitable words to fill in the blanks: The tiger's roar... grammatical structure and the meaning of the whole sentence to determine which one is the correct answer to be chosen Practice 1: Below are some confusing word pairs Choose the correct words to fill... The town stands mainly in the left of the river A cliff B bank C coast D shelf 35 I love to round the old part of the town, enjoying its peace and quiet A sit B tour C rush D wander 36 The
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