WEBSTER essential vocabulary

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TeAM YYePG Digitally signed by TeAM YYePG DN: cn=TeAM YYePG, c=US, o=TeAM YYePG, ou=TeAM YYePG, email=yyepg@msn.com Reason: I attest to the accuracy and integrity of this document Date: 2005.04.07 10:11:30 +08'00' ® ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ® ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY by David A Herzog Websters New Worldđ Essential Vocabulary Copyright â 2005 by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Published by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600 Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department,Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, 317-572-3447, or fax 317-572-4355 The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials.The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation.This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom.The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo,Webster’s New World, the Webster’s New World logo, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and/or its affiliates All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.Wiley Publishing, Inc is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Herzog, David Alan Webster’s New World essential vocabulary / by David A Herzog p cm ISBN 0-7645-7165-6 (pbk.) Vocabulary Vocabulary—Problems, exercises, etc Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides I.Title: Essential vocabulary II.Title PE1449.H445 2005 428.1—dc22 2004022068 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Willis, Gizmo, Lefty, and Archie for their furry invaluable assistance v Dedication This book is dedicated to the memories of Rose and George Herzog, Henry Smolinski, and Allan Shaw, and to their children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren on four continents vii Contents Acknowledgments v Dedication vii Introduction Pronunciation Key Parts of Speech PART I: SAT® Words A Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Quick Review #1 Review #2 11 Review #3 14 Review #4 16 Review #5 19 Review #6 22 Review #7 25 Review #8 28 Review #9 31 Review #10 34 Review #11 36 B 37 Quick Review #12 39 Quick Review #13 43 C Quick Review #14 Quick Review #15 Quick Review #16 Quick Review #17 Quick Review #18 Quick Review #19 Quick Review #20 Quick Review #21 Quick Review #22 Quick Review #23 44 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 66 69 72 D 73 Quick Review #24 75 Quick Review #25 77 ix Appendix A Prefixes and Suffixes Certain beginnings and endings can be affixed to some words or stems of words that change their meanings These beginnings and endings fall into two categories: Prefixes are tacked onto the beginning of a word, while suffixes are stuck onto the end Together, these affixed word pieces are called -fixes A -fix can change the meaning of a word altogether, like un- undoes something, or it can add a little nuance of meaning, as -ac turns a mania (a fad) into a maniac Watch out! It is not within the scope of this book to comprehensively examine suffixes and prefixes, but in the following table some of the most common ones are listed, along with a brief sketch of what they to the words to which they’re affixed; many also include examples I leave it to you to determine whether the -fix is a prefix or suffix from where the hyphen (-) is placed: fix-(word) or (word)-fix I’m sure you’ll recognize many, if not all, of them Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage a- same as ab- before m, p, or v ab- away; from; off; down (abhor, abjure) abs- same as ab- before c or t ac- same as ad- before p or q -ac of, relating to (maniac) ad- motion toward, nearness to -ad forms adverbs, meaning toward, like cephelad af- same as ad- before f al- means the before words of Arabic origin (algebra) -al forms adjectives meaning like (personal) or nouns meaning the act of (rehearsal) -an belonging to or related to (Mexican) (continued) 373 374 Essential Vocabulary Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage -ance the act or process of doing (continuance), something done (utterance) ap- same as ad- before a vowel -ar, -ary forms adjectives meaning relating to (singular, polar, urinary) as- same as ad- before s be- forms verbs meaning around, thoroughly, excessively, treated as (beset, bemoan, befriend) bi- two, twice (biplane, bilateral) bio- life (biography, biology) by- close by; on the side (bystander, bypass) co- same as com- before h or a vowel col- same as com- before l com- next to, with, together (compassion) con- same as com- before c, d, g, j, n, q, s, t, v, and sometimes f cor- same as com- before r -cy quality, state, or condition (lunacy) de- away from; off (derail); down (decline); reverse action; undo (decode) di- twice, doubled (diatomic, dihybrid) di- same as dis- before b, d, g, l, m, n, r, or v dia- through; between (diagonal, diameter) dif- same as dis- before f dis- away; apart (disperse, dismiss); not or un- (dishonest); lack of; opposite (disunion, disease) -dom rank; dominion of (kingdom); state of being (officialdom, martyrdom) -drome arena (velodrome); large field or arena (airdrome) dyn-, dyna- power (dynamo, dynameter) dys- bad, impaired, abnormal (dysfunctional) Prefixes and Suffixes 375 Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage -eer a person who makes or does things (engineer, pamphleteer) ef- same as ex- before f em- same as en- before b, m, or p (emboss, empower) en- to cover or wrap (enrobe); to cause to be or to make into (endanger); in or into (encase) end- same as endo- before a vowel endo- within (endosperm, endocrine) epi- on the outside (epidermis) equi- equally (equiangular) -er a person having to with or from somewhere (hatter, writer, New Yorker); forming the comparative (bigger) -ery a place for, or a place to be (eatery, winery); the act of (robbery) -est forming the superlative (greatest, smallest) ex- former (exwife) exo- outside (exoskeleton) -fy make; cause to become (liquefy, putrefy) -gamy marriage (polygamy) geo- of the earth (geology) -gon having a certain number of angles (octagon) -gram to write (diagram) -graph something that writes, or is written (telegraph) helio- relating to the sun (heliotropism) hex- same as hexa- before a vowel hexa- six (hexagon) holo- entire, whole (holograph) hom- same as homo- before a vowel homo- same, equal, alike (homonym) (continued) 376 Essential Vocabulary Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage hydro- water (hydrometer); containing hydrogen (hydrochloric) -iatry treatment (psychiatry) -ic having to with (volcanic) -ide the end of the second name in a compound whose molecule contains exactly two atoms (sodium chloride) idio- one’s own, personal (idiosyncrasy) il- same as in- used before l im- same as in- used before b, m, or p in- in, into, within, (inside); toward (inward); also used to intensify some words of Latin origin (inbreed, induct, infer) -ine having the nature of; like (crystalline) inter- between or among (interval); together (interact) intra- within, inward (intramural) intro- same as intra- (introvert) ir- same as in- used before r -ism condition of being (pauperism); devotion to (nationalism) iso- equal, similar, alike (isobar) -ist one who does or participates in an -ism (satirist); an expert at something (scientist); a believer or adherent to (atheist) -istic, -istical the former of adjectives relating to an action (artistic, egotistical) -ite inhabitant or native of (Brooklynite); a salt of (halite); a certain rock (lignite); a descendant of (Israelite) -itis an inflammatory disease (tonsilitis) -lepsy a fit or attack (epilepsy) -let small, diminutive (starlet); small object worn as a band on the body (anklet) lipo- fatty (liposuction) -lith, -lithic stone (batholith, neolithic) -logy study of (biology) Prefixes and Suffixes 377 Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage -lysis destruction; dissolving; loosening; dissolution (analysis) macro- large or enlarged (macrobiotic) -mania a mental disorder or a wild enthusiasm for something (pyromania, hulamania) -maniac a person affected by a mania (cleptomaniac) maxi- maximum; of larger scope than usual (maxi-power), often hyphenated as an attachment to a word micro- very small; a millionth of a unit (microscope, micrometer) milli- one one-thousandth of a unit (milliliter) mini- miniature (miniskirt) mis- wrong; wrongly; bad; poorly (miscue, misfire) mult- same as multi- before a vowel multi- much; many; more than two (multichanneled) narco- sleep (narcolepsy); narcotic (narcotism) neur- same as neuro- before a vowel neuro- of the nerves or nervous system (neurology, neuritis) non- not; the opposite of (nonagressive) nona- nine (nonagon, nonet) -nym name (pseudonym) o- same as ob- before m ob- to; for; in front of (obtrude); opposed to; against; opposite (obverse); upon; over (obscure) oc- same as ob- before c oct(a/o)- eight (octagon, octopus) of- same as ob- before f -oid like; resembling (ovoid) op- same as ob- before p -or a person or thing that does something specific (addressor, incisor); a quality or condition (error, savor) (continued) 378 Essential Vocabulary Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage -otic of or affected with (neurotic); producing (hypnotic) oto- of the ear (ototic) -ous full of (beauteous, capacious) over- excessive (overact, overindulge) paleo- ancient (paleontology, paleolithic) pan- embracing all (pantheistic) para- by the side of; subordinate to (paralegal, paraprofessional) -ped foot (biped) penta- five (pentagon) peri- beyond; around (periscope); near (perinatal) phleb- same as phlebo- before a vowel phlebo- vein (phlebotomy) photo- of or produced by light (photocopy) phyto- floral; of a plant; vegetation (phytoplankton) plano- having one side flat (planoconvex) pneumo- of breathing; the lungs; respiration (pneumococcal) poly- many (polygon) pre- before (prefix) pro- for (proactive) proto- first in time or importance (protoplasm) pseudo- false (pseudonym) psych- same as psycho- before a vowel psycho- of the mind (psychotic) quadri- four (quadrilateral, quadriped) re- again (rethink) retro- backward (retrofit) rheo- a flow; current (rheostat) rhino- nose (rhinoplasty) Prefixes and Suffixes 379 Prefix/Suffix Meaning/Usage self- of oneself; automatic (self-interest, self-loading) semi- half; twice in a specified period (semicircle, semiannually) sub- under; beneath; below (subhuman); of lower rank than; inferior (subordinate); to a lesser degree (subpar); near; almost (substitute) suf- same as sub- before f sym- same as syn- before b, m, or p syn- together; at the same time (synchronize) sys- same as syn- before s, h, and other aspirate sounds tele- at a distance (telecommute); of, in, or by (televise) tran- same as trans- before s trans- across; on the other side of; above and beyond (transcend, transcontinental) tri- three (triangle) un- not (unused, unsupervised) vice- one who acts in place of; second in command (viceroy, vice president) Appendix B Foreign Phrases Many phrases and expressions from foreign languages have found a place in everyday English among the better educated Some of them have been adopted and have found their way into everyone’s vocabulary, while some remain foreign yet are used often enough to be worth listing here A disproportionate number of the words are Latin and French This should not be a surprise, considering the prominent roles that the French played in our history and literature and that the Romans, whose language was Latin, played in the history of Europe and Britain Letters in brackets stand for the language from which the phrase comes, as follows: Ar., Arabic Fr., French Ger., German Haw., Hawaiian Heb., Hebrew Ire., Irish It., Italian L., Latin Sp., Spanish Foreign Phrase Definition adeste fidelis [L.] always faithful ad hoc [L.] temporary droite [Fr.] on the right affaire d’honneur [Fr.] a matter of honor gauche [Fr.] on the left la rigeur [Fr.] strictly speaking; if absolutely needed (continued) 381 382 Essential Vocabulary Foreign Phrase Definition aloha oe [Haw.] greetings; love to you; farewell alter ego [L.] other self; constant companion amicus curiae [L.] friend of the court amor vincit omnia [L.] “Love conquers all.”—Virgil anno regni [L.] year in the reign of pied [Fr.] on foot ars gratia artis [L.] art for art’s sake au contraire [Fr.] to the contrary autre chose [Fr.] other thing aux armes [Fr.] to arms avant garde [Fr.] vanguard; on the cutting edge (esp in the arts) avec plaisir [Fr.] with pleasure votre santé [Fr.] to your taste ben trovato [It.] well conceived; ingenious bien entendu [Fr.] well understood; of course bon appétit [Fr.] good appetite; enjoy bonjour [Fr.] good day; hello bonne chance [Fr.] good luck bonsoir [Fr.] good evening buenas noches [Sp.] good night buenos dias [Sp.] good day; hello camino real [Sp.] royal road; high road caveat emptor [L.] Let the buyer beware! cave canem [L.] Beware of the dog! c’est la guerre [Fr.] That’s war! c’est la vie [Fr.] That’s life! cherchez la femme [Fr.] look for the woman Foreign Phrases 383 Foreign Phrase Definition cogito, ergo sum! [L.] “I think, therefore I am.”—Descartes comédie noir [Fr.] black comedy comme ci, comme ỗa [Fr.] like this, like that; so, so concordia discors [L.] harmony in discord coup de grace [Fr.] deathblow coup d’etat [Fr.] lit blow to the state; overthrow the state government coup de mtre [Fr.] masterstroke danke schön [Ger.] thank you very much danse macabre [Fr.] dance of death de facto [L.] in fact de gustibus non est disputandum [L.] one can’t argue taste Dei gratia [L.] by the grace of God de nouveau [Fr.] new Dominus vobiscum [L.] may God be with you en ami [Fr.] in friendship en bloc [Fr.] all together en clair [Fr.] clear; not in code enfant terribile [Fr.] lit terrible child; child whose behavior causes shock and dismay; mischievous or outrageous one en garde [Fr.] on guard en suite [Fr.] in succession entre nous [Fr.] between us Erin go bragh [Ire.] Ireland forever ex more [L.] customary ex post facto [L.] lit what is done after; retroactive femme de chambre [Fr.] chambermaid (continued) 384 Essential Vocabulary Foreign Phrase Definition fille [Fr.] daughter fils [Fr.] son garỗon [Fr.] boy; waiter gendarme [Fr.] policeman Gesellschaft [Ger.] commercial company Gotterdämmerung [Ger.] twilight of the gods gracias [Sp.] thank you gravitas [L.] solemnity guten Tag [Ger.] good day habeas corpus [L.] lit to have a body hasta la vista [Sp.] until next time; so long haut monde [Fr.] high society homme du monde [Fr.] lit man of the world; sophisticate id est [L.] that is in perpetuum [L.] forever inshallah [Ar.] God willing in utero [L.] in the womb in vino veritas [L.] in wine there is truth j’accuse [Fr.] “I accuse!”—Zola jeu de mots [Fr.] play on words jeune fille [Fr.] young girl Kamerad [Ger.] friend laissez-faire [Fr.] let be; leave alone; hands off le chaim [Heb.] to life le monde [Fr.] the world l’etat, c’est moi [Fr.] “I am the state!”—attrib to Louis XIV mano a mano [Sp.] hand in hand Foreign Phrases 385 Foreign Phrase Definition mea culpa [L.] my fault merci beaucoup [Fr.] thank you very much mère [Fr.] mother Missa solemnis [L.] High Mass (Roman Catholic) mitzvah [Heb.] blessing; commandment n’est-ce pas? [Fr.] Isn’t it so? nicht wahr? [Ger.] Isn’t it so? nil desperandum [L.] “never desperate”—Horace noblesse oblige [Fr.] the inferred obligation of high-ranking people to behave well toward others nom de plume [Fr.] pen name non sequitur [L.] a remark having no bearing on what was just said; an illogical conclusion from the facts nouveau riche [Fr.] newly rich, and hence unschooled in the appropriate behavior of the wealthy omnia vincit amor [L.] “Love conquers all!”—Virgil on dit [Fr.] lit one says; it is said o tempora! o mores! [L.] “Oh times! Oh morals!”—Cicero, meaning “What a time we live in!” par avion [Fr.] by airplane; airmail par exemple [Fr.] for example Pax Britannica [L.] peace imposed by Britain Pax Romana [L.] peace imposed by Rome pax vobiscum [L.] peace be with you père [Fr.] father peu peu [Fr.] little by little peu de chose [Fr.] small thing; a trifle (continued) 386 Essential Vocabulary Foreign Phrase Definition peut être [Fr.] perhaps pièce de résistance [Fr.] the main item por favor [Sp.] please pro bono [L.] free; without compensation pro bono publico [L.] for the public good pro forma [L.] according to form pro patria [L.] for one’s country quand même [Fr.] just the same; regardless of consequences ¿qué pasa? [Sp.] What’s happening? que sera, sera [Fr.] what will be, will be quid pro quo [L.] one thing in return for another qui va là? [Fr.] Who goes there? quod erat demonstrandum [L.] which is (was) to be demonstrated quo vadis? [L.] Where are you going? raison d’être [Fr.] reason for being répondez s’il vous plâit [Fr.] (usu R.S.V.P.) answer please salaam [Ar.] peace (used as general greeting) salle manger [Fr.] dining room salud [Sp.] to your health sans doute [Fr.] without doubt sans pareil [Fr.] without equal sante [Fr.] good health se habla español [Sp.] Spanish is spoken here shalom [Heb.] peace, well-being (used as general greeting) s’il vous plâit [Fr.] please status quo [L.] existing condition Foreign Phrases 387 Foreign Phrase Definition terra firma [L.] solid ground terra incognito [L.] unknown land; unknown ground tête-à-tête [Fr.] head-to-head toujours [Fr.] always tour de force [Fr.] lit feat of strength; an exceptionally skillful production, performance, creation, etc tout de suite [Fr.] at once; immediately tout le monde [Fr.] the whole world; everybody tristesse [Fr.] melancholy; sadness Übermensch [Ger.] superman und so weiter (usw.) [Ger.] and so on; etcetera veni, vidi, vici [L.] “I came; I saw; I conquered.”—Julius Caesar verbatim [L.] word for word vérité [Fr.] truth; short for cinéma vérité; realism vice versa [L.] the other way around; reversed vive la différence [Fr.] Long live the difference! [between men and women] vive la reine [Fr.] Long live the queen! vive le roi [Fr.] Long live the king! Voila! [Fr.] There it is! Wunderbar [Ger.] wonderful Wunderkind [Ger.] child prodigy Zollverein [Ger.] customs union ...® ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ® ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY by David A Herzog Websters New Worldđ Essential Vocabulary Copyright â 2005 by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ... Alan Webster s New World essential vocabulary / by David A Herzog p cm ISBN 0-7645-7165-6 (pbk.) Vocabulary Vocabulary—Problems, exercises, etc Vocabulary Examinations—Study guides I.Title: Essential. .. this work was written and when it is read Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo ,Webster s New World, the Webster s New World logo, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks
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