02 CONJUNCTIONS (PAGE 109)

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CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction is used to link words, phrases, or clauses Two types of conjunctions are coordinate conjunctions (and, or, nor, but, etc.) and subordinate conjunctions (although, since, because, when, before, etc.) PATTERNS TO REMEMBER Coordinate conjunctions may link similar ideas (and, not only but also), opposite or contradictory ideas (but), or choices (either or, neither nor) Pay attention to the meaning of the conjunction INCORRECT [It is efficient or maintenance-free.] CORRECT It is efficient and INCORRECT [We can take either a morning flight but an early afternoon flight.] CORRECT We can take either a morning flight or an early afternoon flight Subordinate conjunctions show different kinds of relationships between two clauses They may show cause and effect (because, so, as, since), time (when, while, after, before, until, as soon as), condition (if, unless), or a contradiction (even though, although) Again, pay attention to the meaning of the INCORRECT [The machine shut off even though the power went off.] CORRECT The machine shut off when the power went off INCORRECT [I couldn’t call them until I don’t know their phone number.] CORRECT I couldn’t call them because I don’t know their phone number 1 … she possesses such business acumen, she was able to regain control of the company (A) Despite (B) Even though (C) Because (D) For For a more effective ad campaign, we need both a new product … a new director (A) or (B) either (C) and (D) so Our department did not reach its monthly quota … we worked a lot of overtime (A) because of (B) even though (C) despite (D) but The new employee is not only ambitious … hardworking (A) or (B) neither (C) and also (D) but also … he arrives, our representatives will present the new plan to the public (A) When (B) While (C) So (D) Since 6.The mail will be sorted … it arrives at our division (A) before (B) until (C) or (D) though Mr Fagan notified security … he noticed something suspicious (A) so (B) when (C) although (D) because of The plane cannot leave the gate … all passengers are seated (A) if (B) when (C) unless (D) but … she opened the meeting, the project director amended the agenda (A) But (B) If (C) And (D) Before 10…… the research uncovered some problems, the committee members decided to table the proposal temporarily (A) Since (B) Even though (C) In spite of (D) Whatever THANK YOU ... types of conjunctions are coordinate conjunctions (and, or, nor, but, etc.) and subordinate conjunctions (although, since, because, when, before, etc.) PATTERNS TO REMEMBER Coordinate conjunctions. .. flight.] CORRECT We can take either a morning flight or an early afternoon flight Subordinate conjunctions show different kinds of relationships between two clauses They may show cause and effect
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