SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

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SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  1/ Comparison Transformation: … adj/ adv + “er” … + than … = not as/so + adj/adv + as Ex: she is better than me = I am not as good as she is …more + adj/adv + than = not as/so + adj/adv + as Ex: she dances more beautifully than me = I don’t dance as beautifully as she does SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  1/ Comparison Transformation Practice: a He drives faster than me b He is richer than me c He cooks better than me d He speaks English more fluently than me e He is more arrogant than me I am not as stupid as he is g This shirt is not as expensive as that shirt h They can’t swim as well as I f a He drives faster than me = I don’t drive as fast as he does b He is richer than me = I’m not as rich as he is c He cooks better than me = I don’t cook as well as he does d He speaks English more fluently than me = I don’t speak E as fluently as he does e He is more arrogant than me = I’m not as arrogant as he is f I am not as stupid as he is = He is more stupid than me g This shirt is not as expensive as that shirt = That shirt is more expensive than this shirt h They can’t swim as well as I can = I can swim better than them SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  2/ So, Such, Enough & Too Transformation: …so + adj/adv + that + clause Ex: she is so beautiful that I can’t reach …such + a/an + N-phrase (adj+N) + that + clause = she is such a beautiful girl that I can’t reach …too + adj/adv + (for sb) to … Ex: this room is too small for me to work … not + adj/adv + enough + (for sb) to … = this room is not big enough for me to work Challenge!!!  He drives very fast and I can’t catch him = He drives so fast that I can’t… = He is such a fast driver that I can’t … = He drives too fast for me to catch = He doesn’t drive slowly enough for me to catch He is very old and he can’t attend this competition = He is so old that he can’t … = He is such an old man that he can’t … = He is too old to attend this … = He is not young enough to attend … SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  3/ Comment Transformation: It + be + adj + (for sb) to … Ex: it is wonderful to go out today It’s nice to meet you It’s difficult to solve this problem To … + be + adj = To go out today is wonderful = To meet you is nice = To solve this problem is difficult Consolidation!!! I can’t cook as well as my mother does This cake is not big enough for people to eat This phone is smart enough to multitasks This reading is so hard that we can’t finish it He speaks too fast for us to catch To find out the reason why she left is not easy at all It’s great to drink something cold in this hot weather Sentence Transformation … had better + bare inf… You had better study hard for this exam He had better be on time for the meeting tomorrow = … advise + sb + to … I advise you to study hard for … I advise him to be on time for the … … had better not + bare inf… You had better not study carelessly for this exam You had better not be late for the meeting tomorrow = … advise + sb + not to … I advise you not to study carelessly … I advise you not to be late for … Sentence Transformation … would rather + bare inf + than + bare inf I would rather stay home than go out at noon = …prefer + verb+ing (Noun) + to + verb-ing (Noun) I prefer staying home to going out at noon = …would prefer to + bare inf + rather than + bare inf I would prefer to stay at home rather than go… Note: Sub1 + would rather + sub2 + V2 I would rather you cooked dinner now I would rather you didn’t go to work late Challenge!!! 1/ For your safety, you should remember to wear a helmet when you ride a motorbike in VN 2/ You ought to leave early if you want to be on time = for your safety, you had better remember to wear… = for your safety, you had better not forget to wear… = for your safety, I advise you to remember to wear… = for your safety, I advise you not to forget to wear… = you had better leave early if you want… = you had better not leave late if you want… = I advise you to leave early if you want… = I advise you not leave late if you want… Transformation 14: because… • because / since / as + clause… = because / since / as it rains heavily, I stay home = I stay home because/since/as it rains heavily • Clause + so … = it rains heavily, so I stay home • Because of / due to + Noun phrase / Gerund … = because of / due to the heavy rain, I stay home = I stay home due to / because of the heavy rain Transformation 14: Challenge • He studied badly He failed the exam • You don’t obey the company’s rules You are sacked • The economics' condition is unfavorable Our company has to downsize • I came to the meeting late The traffic was so bad • She behaves well Everybody likes to be with her • She studied hard She found the test very easy • They have no job They have to ask us for a loan Transformation 15 • It + takes / took + sb + how long + to sth = it takes us months to finish this project = it took me 1hour to get here by bus • It is a five-hour trip from here to Mui Ne • To buy this smart phone, I had to wait for it for year • I spent hour to buy a ticket for this concert • Finally, I got here after walking for hours • Hurry up! You need at least 30 minutes to get to the airport Transformation 16 I could not swim until I was sixteen years old • It was not until … + that + sub + verb … = it was not until I was sixteen that I could swim • I didn’t know what love was until I met you = it was not until I met you that I knew what love was Transformation 17 • I haven’t seen him for weeks = it’s + how long + since + sub (last)+ V2 = it’s weeks since I last saw him • We have been working here for 10 years = it’s 10 years since we worked here Transformation 18 • “does he like music?” = we’d like to know / could you tell me / you know + if/whether + sub + verb + ? = you know if he likes music? • What does he in his free time? = we’d like to know / could you tell me / you know + Wh-question + sub + verb + ? = we’d like to know what he does in his free time? Transformation 18: challenge!!! • Has she ever done this project before? • Is she going to be ready for the test next week? • How long does it take to get to Dalat from here? • What does his manager think about her proposal? • Were they there when the fire occurred? • What would she if she were in your situation? • Can I withdraw the money from any of your branches? • Who might take this position when the our director retires? = could you tell me…? Do you know…? We’d like to know… Transformation 19: the … , The… • The more we go, the more we know • The faster you run, the earlier you get home • The taller she is, the more beautiful she becomes • The more interesting this film is, the faster its tickets are sold • The more she eats, the less attractive she is Transformation 20: why don’t…? • Why don’t you…? = Sub + suggested that + sub + should… • why don’t you accept the job offer from ACB? said John = John suggested that I should accept the job offer from… • Why don’t you inform me before you quit the job? said Ann • Why don’t you take this promising project, Steve? said Dave • Why don’t you complain to your boss, Sue? said Peter • Why don’t you buy this reasonable car, David? said Paul Transformation 21: used to… • Simple past with “often & always” = used to + bare inf… When I was young, I often went swimming in the river = I used to go swimming in the river when I was young When I was a boy, I always got good mark in English = I used to get good mark in English when I was a boy Real test sample: he used to smoke when he was young a He often smokes when he was young b He often smoked when he were young c He often smoked when he was young d He often smoked when he wasn’t young Transformation 22: be accustomed • Be / get accustomed to verb-ing / Noun I am/get accustomed to swimming in the pool = be / get used to + verb-ing / Noun I am/get used to swimming in the pool Real test sample: he gets accustomed to living independently a he is use to living independently b he is used to living independently c he gets use to living independently d he gets used to live independently Transformation 23 + 24: neither…noreither… or-both and-not only but also Anh ay ngu ma li nua Toi co the gap anh vao thu hoac chu nhat Ho khong thich xem phim lan nghe nhac Ca John va ban gai deu khong thich dia diem du lich Mary vua la giam doc kiem ke toan truong cua cong ty Toi va ho deu khong muon tham gia cuoc phong van Transformation 29: Inversion (test ones) 1/ No sooner had + sub + V3 than + sub + V2 2/ Hardly had + sub + V3 when + sub + V2 3/ Scarcely had + sub + V3 when + sub + V2 I arrived home, and my boss called me I just thought about him then he came He called me after I had just gone to bed Transformation 29: Inversion plus 1/ we have never suffered such a big loss in business = never (before) 2/ she rarely went to work on time = rarely 3/ I didn’t know anything about IT = Little 4/ you’re not allowed to smoke here in any circumstances = under no circumstances 5/ My boss won’t accept this risky plan on any condition =on no condition 6/ you are not only stupid but also stubborn = not only 7/ I was never shown how to cook = at no time 8/ the only way you can solve this is by asking me Only by Transformation 29: Inversion plus If  If you have any question, contact me = Should you have any question, contact me  If you won a lottery, what would you do? = Were you to win a lottery, what would you do? • If I had come there early, I would have met her = Had I come there early, I would have met her ... = she advised us to go out ; or she suggested going out Sentence Transformation Reported speech – special note: prepositions Sentence Transformation • If … not – unless • If you don’t go to work... shirt h They can’t swim as well as I can = I can swim better than them SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  2/ So, Such, Enough & Too Transformation: …so + adj/adv + that + clause Ex: she is so beautiful... can’t … = He is too old to attend this … = He is not young enough to attend … SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION  3/ Comment Transformation: It + be + adj + (for sb) to … Ex: it is wonderful to go out today
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