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GRAMMAR REVIEW I ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY = ADVERBS OF TIME I ADVERBS OF DEFINITE FREQUENCY: + hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly + every second, once a minute, twice a year + once, twice, once or twice, three times AT THE END OF A SENTENCE: • Most companies pay taxes yearly • The manager checks the toilets every hour • The directors meet weekly to review progress AT THE FRONT OF A SENTENCE FOR REASONS OF EMPHASIS: • Every day, more than five thousand people die on our roads II ADVERBS OF INDEFINITE FREQUENCY 0% NEVER SELDOM RARELY 30% OCCASIONALLY SOMETIMES 50% OFTEN NORMALLY USUALLY ALWAYS 100% BEFORE NORMAL VERBS: • We usually go shopping on Saturday • I have often done that AFTER THE VERB ‘BE’: • She is always late AT THE BEGINNING OR END OF A SENTENCE : Occasionally, sometimes, often , generally, frequently, usually • Sometimes they come and stay with us • I play tennis occasionally CONJUNCTIONS Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so, either … or neither nor although, because, since, unless, as, when, while, so … that, such ….that; in order that, whereas… •Coordinating conjunctions: used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal (independent clauses) - Jack and Jill went up the hill - The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming • Subordinating conjunctions: used to join a subordinate dependent clause to main clause - I went swimming although it was very cold PREPOSITIONS OF TIME ENGLISH USAGE ON DAYS OF WEEK DATE IN MONTH / SEASON TIME OF DAYS YEAR / CENTURY CERTAIN TIME IN FUTURE EXAMPLE ON MONDAY ON 9th APRIL IN AUGUST IN THE MORNING IN 2011 / IN THE 21ST CENTURY IN THREE DAYS’ TIME AT FOR NIGHT / NOON FOR WEEKEND FOR A CERTAIN POINT OF TIME AT NOON/ AT NIGHT AT THE WEEKEND / AT WEKENDS AT 10 O’CLOCK SINCE FROM A CERTAIN POINT OF TIME SINCE 1980 FOR OVER A CERTAIN PERIOD OF TIME FOR 10 YEARS AGO A CERTAIN TIME IN THE PAST YEARS AGO BEFORE EARLIER THAN A CERTAIN POINT OF TIME TILL / UNTIL IN THE SENSE OF HOW LONG IT LASTS BY IN THE SENSE OF AT THE LASTEST BEFORE NOON BEFORE 2015 TILL / UNTIL NEXT SATURDAY BY O’CLOCK PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE ENGLISH IN AT ON BY , NEXT TO, BESIDE USAGE EXAMPLE • room, building, street, town, city, country • book, paper, bag, box etc • car, taxi •picture, world in the kitchen, in London, in Vietnam in the book in the car, in a taxi in the picture, in the world • meaning next to, by an object • for table • for events • place where you are to something at the door, at the station at the table at a concert, at the party at the cinema, at school, at work • attached • for a place with a river • being on a surface • for a certain side (left, right) • for a floor in a house • for public transport • for television, radio the picture on the wall London lies on the Thames on the table on the left on the first floor on the bus, on a plane on TV, on the radio on the left or right of somebody or something Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car ENGLISH USAGE UNDER on the ground, lower than something else The bag is under the table • covered by something else • meaning more than • getting to the other side (also across) • overcoming an obstacle • Put a jacket over your shirt • Over 16 years of age • Walk over the bridge • Climb over the wall getting to the other side Walk across the bridge Swim across the lake OVER ACROSS THROUGH TO FROM TOWARDS EXAMPLE something with limits on top, bottom and the sides Drive through the tunnel movement to person or building movement to a place or country go to the cinema go to London / Ireland in the sense of where from a flower from the garden movement in the direction of something go steps towards the house TRANSITION WORDS Transition words are used to join two independent clauses INDEPENDENT CLAUSE ; / The demand has increased sharply TRASITION WORD , ; accordingly , INDEPENDENT CLAUSE the prices are higher now Types of transition words Contrasting ideas : on the other hand, in contrast, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, still • She studied diligently for several months; nevertheless , she failed • George is very handsome; however, he is not popular with girls • It's raining Even so, we must go out Result: therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, consequently, as a result, as a consequence, for this/that reason • He passed his exams; therefore, he had some good news to tell his parents • He lacks self-confidence As a consequence, he is unlikely to be successful 25 Common English Idioms in ages give someone a hand hit the hay in the black in the red for a very long time Have you seen Joe recently? I haven't seen him in ages help I want to move this desk to the next room Can you give me a hand? go to bed It's after 12 o'clock I think it's time to hit the hay profitable Our business is really improving We've been in the black all year unprofitable Business is really going poorly these days We've been in the red for the past three months not too late, but very close in the nick of time I got to the drugstore just in the nick of time keep one's chin up brave and trying for you recently, but Iremain know things havekeep beenon difficult keep your chin up It will get better soon know something like the back of your hand something very, very well If you get lost, justknow ask me for directions I know this part of town like the back of my hand 25 Common English Idioms once in a while sometimes, not verytheater? often No, only see Have you been to the new movie movies once in a while I usually stay home and watch TV exactly at a that time sharp I'll meet you at o'clock sharp If you're late, we'll be in trouble! think about something before making a decision sleep on it That sounds like a good deal, but I'd like to sleep on it before I give you my final decision take it easy I don't haverelax any special plans for the summer I think I'll just take it easy to get the ball rolling start something, especially something big We need to get this project started as soon as possible I'm hoping you will help me get the ball rolling up to the minute most recent information I wish I knew more aboutthe what is happening in the capital city We need more up to the minute news every minute of every day, all the time twenty-four/seven You can access our web site 24/7 It's very convenient! B Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate expression beside the point It doesn’t have anything to with the main That’s ……………………… issue point out A good broker should ………………………… all the important clauses in a shipping contract point of view I see what you mean, but I’m not sure I agree with your ………………… pointless We don’t need to rush to order this shipment It’s ………………………… the carrier won’t be leaving the docks until next week to the point She’s always precise The chairperson’s comments were ………………… makes a point When Sanjay ………………………… , he is always very persuasive ADJECTIVES ENDING IN –ING AND IN -ED I ADJECTIVES IN –ED (V-ED) - passive Adjectives that end in -ed are used to describe how people feel • • • He was surprised to find that he had been upgraded to first class I was confused by the findings of the report She felt tired after working hard all day I ADJECTIVES IN -ING(V-ING) - active Adjectives that end in -ing are used to describe things and situations which affects people’s feelings • Being upgraded to first class is surprising • The findings of this report are confusing • Working hard all day is tiring Phrasal verb UP OUT FOWARD BRING DOWN OFF BACK She brought up three sons on her own (foster) Next year they will bring out a low priced car to compete with Ford (produce a new product) They brought their wedding date forward so that their friends could attend (make sth happen earlier) This scandal could bring down the government (cause sb to lose his/her position) It was an important event, and she's managed to bring it off brilliantly (succeed in sth) Can you bring me back some milk? (return something from somewhere) Phrasal verb: look It’s hard work to look after three children all day (take care of) after I look forward to hearing from you (feel pleased or expect something) forward to LOOK Down on out over UP She thinks they look down on her because she didn't go to university (to think that someone is less important) I'll look out that recipe I told you about and send it to you (to search for and find something) Would you quickly look over these figures for me and see if there are any obvious mistakes? (to quickly examine something or someone) If you don't know what the word means, look it up in a dictionary (to try to find a piece of information by looking) Phrasal verb: take UP UP I took up smoking when I was in high school (start doing sth) These files take up a lot of disk space (occupy) TAKE UP UP UP One of our greatest athletes has taken up a new challenge.( accept) I'd like to take you up on your sales figures for June (discuss sth) I don’t want to take up with the wrong crowd (become friends with someone) OUT After a three –day rest, the travelers set out again (leave on a trip) In his report he sets out his plan for the department ( explain) They set out to discover a cure for cancer (start) UP They set up a shop in the town center (start business) Phrasal verb SET DOWN TO BACK OFF The rules of the club are set down in the members' handbook (to write or record it) If we all set to, we should be able to finish the job in a week (to start working) This result has set back their chances of winning the competition (to reduce something to a weaker or less advanced state) Terrorists set off a bomb in the city centre (cause an event) Phrasal verb WORK out He works out in the gym two or three times a week (to exercise) out Why does he behave like that? - I can't work him out at all (understand) out We need to work out the total cost of the project (calculate) on His dancing technique is good, but he needs to work on his fitness (spend time improving) up over It's strange, but I can't work up any enthusiasm for going on this trip (develop) Do you want me to get some of the lads to work him over? (attack, injure sb) Phrasal verb down turn He turned down the job because it involved too much travelling (refuse) UP Do you think many people will turn up? (arrive, appear) in Both companies turn in pre-tax profits of over 5.5 million annually (produce good results) up You could always turn the sleeves up (fold ) out He was turned out of his flat because he couldn't pay the rent (to force someone to leave) away They turned us away at the entrance because we hadn't got tickets (to not allow someone to enter a place) WORD + SUFFIX = ADJECTIVE Suffixes Word Examples ful careful, helpful, hopeful … al national, natural, external, internal -an American, African, Asian -ent different, independent, confident , absorbent -ic economic, historic, electronic , academic, automatic -ary primary, necessary, elementary, arbitrary, auxiliary -less smokeless, cloudless, hopeless, helpless -ate passionate, subordinate, corporate -able profitable, variable, changeable, workable , acceptable -ible accessible, possible, audible, divisible, invisible -ive active, native, passive, affirmative, competitive , -y windy, rainy, sunny, icy, juicy, cloudy, fishy, airy, starry -iar familiar, -ous dangerous, various, marvelous , ambitious, anonymous MAKE & DO I DO a We use the verb 'do' when someone performs an action, activity or task: a crossword the ironing the laundry the washing the washing up your work homework housework your job B 'Do' for General Ideas: This form is often used with the words 'something, nothing, anything, everything, etc.' I'm not doing anything today He does everything for his mother She's doing nothing C Important Expressions with 'Do' business the dishes /windows/floors a favor good /bad harm time - (to go to prison) lunch/dinner your best your hair your nails your worst DO OR MAKE I MAKE a We use the verb 'make' for constructing, building or creating: make a dress make food make a cup of tea / coffee make a meal - breakfast / lunch / dinner b Important Expressions with 'Make‘ make amends make arrangements make a choice make a comment make a decision make a difference make an effort make an enquiry DO OR MAKE • make an excuse make a fool of yourself make a fortune make friends make a fuss make a journey make love make a mess make a mistake make money make a move make a noise make a phone call make a plan make a point make a profit make a promise make a remark make a sound make a speech make a suggestion make a visit ... companies pay taxes yearly • The manager checks the toilets every hour • The directors meet weekly to review progress AT THE FRONT OF A SENTENCE FOR REASONS OF EMPHASIS: • Every day, more than five... C3 haven’t increased at allWill this+year s + have + pp? HAD + S + PP/C3? We will have finished reviewing your They had studied English before they moved to USA English before the entrance exam
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