grammar 2

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1 GRAMMAR NOUN Countable Noun Singular Plural a /an/the Regular Irregular Noun –s/ es Note >< Uncountable Noun without a/an/ -s a means/series/species – means a child – children a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a louse – lice a person – people a goose – geese a mouse – mice a man – men a woman – women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp – carp a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a deer – deer a sheep - sheep a crisis – crises a thesis – theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis – hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum – memoranda a curriculum – curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus – syllabi a cactus – cacti a fungus – fungi a stimulus – stimuli a radius – radii an appendix – appendices an index – indices Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves a calf - calves a life – lives a shelf - shelves a half - halves a loaf - loaves a thief - thieves a knife - knives -self - -selves a wife - wives a leaf - leaves a sheaf - sheaves a wolf –wolves But: a hoof – hooves/hoofs a roof – roofs a cliff – cliffs a safe – safes a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a belief- beliefs NOUN 2: Compound Nouns Normally the last word is made plural boyfriends city streets college travel agents corner shops libraries shop windows street markets driving hitch-hikers spring flowers licenses traffic wardens November fogs river banks church bells But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers women drivers The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law NOUN 3: Quantifiers Many/several/various/numerous/diverse >< Much A number of/numbers of >< An amount of/amounts of (A) few >< (A) little Fewer/ the fewest >< Less/ the least NOUN 4: Numbers a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun VERB (1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active Transitive V + Obj >< Passive V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…) (4) Form a After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b After ‘be’ P P (passive) c After ‘have’ + P P (perfect tenses) d Gerund >< Infinitive e Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) PARALLEL STRUCTURE , and but or either …or neither… nor not only… but also both … and rather than 10 whether … or 11 as well as PRONOUN Pronoun/Noun Agreement they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves>< which that (of ) >< those (of) (plural) Which type? a Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) - Subject of a Verb - After ‘Be’ b Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them) - Object of a Verb - Object of a Preposition c Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their) - Before a Noun - Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh conditions d Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs) e Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves) Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) The >< Possessive Adjective Ex: His snake is a reptile He devoted the life to science Double subject/object Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years The woman lives next door is too nosy WORD FORM Adjectives a Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b After ‘be’ and other linking verbs - be/become - look/seem/appear/sound - taste/feel/smell - stay/remain ( = continue to be) - turn/get/grow/go (= become) - prove/find Ex: She looks angry c Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly Adverbs a Modify verbs: Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge b Modify adjectives Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic c Modify participles Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress d Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before e Modify adverbs: f Modify the whole sentence Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly - general >< generally - possible >< possibly - basic >< basically - probable >< probably - particular >< particularly - usual >< usually - original >< originally - innate >< Ex: Generally, I like my class Note a fast (adj)  fast (adv) b long (adj)  long (adv) c hard (adj)  hard >< hardly d high (adj)  high >< highly (figurative meaning) e early (adj)  early (adv) innately f good (adj)  well (adv) VERB Differ Invent Compete Fertilize Decide Prohibit Prevent Beautify Originate Emphasize Glorify Mystify Socialize Generalize Simplify Free Construct Live NOUN Difference Invention Competition Fertilizer/fertility Decision Prohibition Prevention Beauty Origin Emphasis Glory Mystery Society Generalization Simplicity Freedom Construction Life ADJECTIVE Different Inventive Competitive Fertile Decisive Prohibitive Preventive Beautiful Original Emphatic Glorious Mysterious Social General Simple Free Constructive Live/living VERB Restrict Cultivate Empower Analyze Familiarize Popularize Classify Categorize Absent Interest Bore Fascinate Produce Necessitate Collect NOUN Restriction Culture Agriculture Power Importance Significance Analysis Familiarity Popularity Classification category Absence Interest Boredom Fascination Production Necessity Collection ADJECTIVE Restrictive Cultural Agricultural Powerful Important Significant Analytical Familiar Popular Classifiable Categorical Absent Interesting Boring Fascinating Productive Necessary Collective FIELD PERSON FIELD PERSON FIELD PERSON Music Poetry Administration Photography Athletics Philosophy Creation Law History Editing Magic Forecast Training Contest Discovery Musician Poet Administrator Photographer Athlete Philosopher Creator Lawyer Historian Editor Magician Forecaster Trainer Contestant Discoverer Surgery Architecture Farming Biology Theory Chemistry Politics Humor Biography Writing Geography Hunting Dance Beauty Carpentry Surgeon Architect Farmer Biologist Theorist Chemist Politician Humorist Biographer Writer Geographer Hunter Dancer Beautician Carpenter Dentistry Engineering Finance Physics Science Invention Crime/criminology Mathematics Manufacture Acting Collection Employment Competition Labor Dentist Engineer Financier Physicist Scientist Inventor Criminal mathematician Manufacturer Actor/actress Collector Employee/er Competitor Laborer - position? Who can deliver this memo to Mr Wantanabe for me? Who’s going to pick him up at the station? Whose coffee cup is this on my desk? Whose scarf is this? - department was chosen I can it when I’ve finished typing this letter I was planning to - I was wondering where I left it! It’s Fran’s - Identifying a thing, an action or idea Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - What …? What kind/type of  Something (…)  I don’t know - What you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms Garcia do? What kind of novel you like? What’s the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? What you plan to when school is finished? What you estimate your firm’s profit will be in December? - A suit and a tie It’s ten cents a day I don’t know She’s a computer programmer I prefer adventure stories I think it’s called All Points Travel - Over 1000 units a week - Work for my father - Optimistically speaking, about 20 percent - Identifying an opinion Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - How What’s your opinion of …? Do you think Tom will ….? What you think of ….?  Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/ excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring…  Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/  Expressions: It’s a good/great idea - How did you like that new movie? What you think of Scott Graham’s latest novel? What you think of your new supervisor? - I enjoyed it, but my husband didn’t It’s terrific - I don’t know her well enough to say - Identifying a choice Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - … A or B? … prefer? … like better?  A/B will be repeated in the answer choice  Neither one/Both, please  Either one - Which does that artist produce more of – paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you back to the warehouse? What you think, plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger, or should I ask Mr Chan to it? Note: The speaker can offer a third option - - Lately, she has been doing a lot of paintings In the morning, I think - Neither one Oh, come with me please - Either one is fine with me - It’s scheduled for this building - I think it looks good where it is - I’ll take it - I’ll have them ready for you in a minute Identifying an invitation, offer, request Words you might hear in the questions - Why don’t we …? Why don’t you…? Don’t you want to ? I was wondering if you’d like to … Let’s … What/How about ….? Shouldn’t we/ Shall we …? Would/Wouldn’t you like me to ….? Words you might hear in the answers OK I’d love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ That’s a good idea/ Great, …  Yes, please (accept the offer)  No, thanks … (turn down the offer)      - Can I…? Couldn’t you …? - Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year? - Shall we send you a reminder for your next dental appointment? Why don’t we go out this evening? Why don’t we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it, sir? Don’t you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if you’d like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldn’t you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over the weekend?  Thank you, but …( turn down the offer)  Sorry, I’ve already made plans/ I have other plans …( turn down the offer)  Sorry, but ……( turn down the offer) - We’d love to – thanks! - Thanks, but I already have one - Yes, that would be helpful - Sorry, I’ve already made plans - Great, I’m exhausted - That’s a good idea - Not at all - Sorry, but I’m not feeling well - Sorry, I have other plans - I might have time after lunch - Wednesday afternoon would be better for me - Identifying a reason Words you might hear in the questions - - Why Why is this train running late? Why didn’t you let us know you’d be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didn’t Mr Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didn’t you get to work on time? Why does Ms Ortiz want to see the invoices? Words you might hear in the answers  To sth  Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given - I think there are mechanical problems - I couldn’t find a phone - There had been too many complaints - Everyone was in a hurry - He though he could handle it himself - The traffic was terrible - There’s a problem with the shipment Identifying a description Words you might hear in the questions - Words you might hear in the answers What is … like? What does ….look like? What are your new co-workers like? What’s the weather like here in the winter? - an adjective or adjectives - They seem very pleasant It’s cool and often rainy Identifying manner or a method Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - How will/can ? - By ( a means of transport …) With … - How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How you handle inquiries? - I’ll get my car back from the mechanic Express service is very reliable - Contact Ms McKay in the stockroom - I send out this pamphlet - 10 Identifying a location Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - Where…? - - How far …? - Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of… … minutes away/ walk/drive … km - Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here? 11 - Let’s meet at the stadium entrance - At the Grand Hotel She put it in Ms Garcia’s mailbox - It’s about 10-minute walk Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - Do/Does/Did/ Have….? - Yes /No/ Not - Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t …? Have they delivered our lunch yet? - Yes, it’s here - Has the director already left? - Yes, he had an appointment - Didn’t anyone train the new employee to use - Mike showed him everything works the copier? - Did you ask them what time their flight would - No, I didn’t think of it - Yes, it was quite a surprise - Yes, but she has to submit a claim form - Yes, it is priced fairly - I would appreciate it - I still have time arrive? - Your managing director resigned yesterday, didn’t he? - Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving her car to the meting, doesn’t she? - This new product should sell well, shouldn’t it? - You want me to retype this document, don’t you? - You don’t want to start a new project this late in the day, you? Part 3: Short Conversations I Strategies Between each question is an eight-second pause That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation You can accomplish quite a bit during this time You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices They tell you what to listen for While listening to each conversation, keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices Don't close your eyes or look away Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation If the correct answer is not obvious, try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect If more than one answer choice is left, take a guess Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item Never leave any answers blank If you are not sure, always guess II Question types A Overview questions B Detail questions C Inference question A Overview Questions Types of over view questions Questions about locations Questions about occupations Questions about activities Questions about topic Question Words Where ? Who…? What …doing? What…talking about? Questions about locations Questions  Where are they? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated M: We don’t have any  Where are the speakers? with a certain location reservations Is it still  Where is the man/woman? - Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure possible for us to get a  Where is the conversation taking place? Examples lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way  table for two? Airport F: You’re in luck — a party - Rolls/cake/bread  Bakery of two just canceled their - Stage/cast/scene/box office/  Theater reservations We can - Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet  Jewelry seat you in about fifteen or store - Menu/terminal/keyboard  Computer store - Bulldozer/hard hat/crane  Construction site - Dryer/hangars/detergent  Laundromat - Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard  Post office - Account/balance/statement /checkbook / deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates  Bank - Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe  Beach - Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury  Courtroom - Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player  Stadium - Lane/driver/exit  Freeway - Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper  Hotel twenty minutes M: Great! I was worried, but I guess this is our lucky night! Where are they? A At a theater B At a party C At an airport D At a restaurant - Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation  Restaurant Questions about occupations Questions  Who is the man/woman? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated M1: There’s something  Who are they? with a certain occupation wrong with this switch  What is he/she? - Kitchen/pot/knife  Cook Can you fix it? - Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine  M2: It’s not just the switch,  What are they?  What is the man/woman’s profession / occupation/jon? Police officer Examples I’m afraid This whole - Class/exam/student  Teacher building needs rewiring - Software/keyboard/monitor  M1: But that will cost a Computer programmer - Money/deposit/withdrawal  Bank teller - Order/tip/guests  Waiter fortune! Who is the second speaker? A An electrician - Runner/training/game  Athlete B A banker - Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient  C An engineer Doctor - Instrument/orchestra/note  Musician - Stage/drama/theater  Actor - Passenger/Fare/Tip  Taxi driver - Cash register/change/receipt  Sales clerk - Newspaper/write/report/article  Journalist - Switch/rewiring/ fix  Electrician D A jeweler F: I want to put a new deck on the back of my house Do you know anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why don’t you ask Thomas? He did a great - Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix  Plumber job repairing the wooden - Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ stairway in my house hammer/nail  Carpenter F: I asked him, but he’s working on a new construction job Who is Tomas? A A sailor B A mechanic C A plumber D A carpenter Questions about activities  What are they doing? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated M: I’ve been waiting here  What is happening now? with a certain activity 15 minutes How often  What is the man doing? - Drinking coffee: cup, spoon, sugar, the buses come? Questions  What is going to happen? cream, coffee break - Watching a movie: film, screen, theater, popcorn - Going to the post office: mail, stamps, Examples W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good, we only have five minutes to wait, then postal clerk, letter, package - Reading a book: novel, pages, cover, character - Making a telephone call: number, receiver, dial, answer, hang up - Using a computer: keyboard, monitor, screen, software, crash - Ordering food at a restaurant: menu, waiter, waitress, table, drink - Buying clothes: suit, pants, dress, skirt, jeans, dressing room - Eating dinner: - Waiting for a bus: - Moving furniture: - Buying a plane ticket: - Parking a car: What are the speakers doing? A Getting on a bus B Waiting for a bus C Taking a taxi D Paying a fare - Driving a car: Questions about topics Questions  What/ whom are they discussing? - Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is  What are they referring to? associated  What topic is the topic of the conversation?  What are they talking about?  What is the conversation about?  What is the conversation subject of the - with a certain Examples W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No, but most of the The answer choices will be men wear coats and four plausible topics Incorrect ties, and the women answers may include details wear dresses or suits that are mentioned in the W: Oh, it’s pretty formal conversation but that are not the main conversation subject of then the What are they discussing A A new outfit that the B woman is wearing How people dress at C the man’s company Where to buy D clothes for work A social event that the man attended B Detail Questions Types of over view Question Words Examples questions Questions about time  When….? When does Claudia want to go  How often…? to the play? A Monday  At what time…? B Wednesday  How long…? C Thursday D Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday W2: Why don’t you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through Questions about  Why did … happen…? Thursday Why is Mrs Sompong leaving? reasons  Why is the man/woman going A To join another company B To start her own business to…?  Why does the man/woman want to…?  Why is the man/woman upset/ happy/ puzzled…?  Why did … not happen?  Why does the man/woman not want to…? C To enter a race D To have a break from working M: Do you hear about Mrs Sompong’s resignation? W: Yes Our competitors made her an offer she couldn’t resist M: I’ll wonder if they’ll appoint her as their new marketing Questions about plans  What is the man/woman planning/going to do? manager? What is the woman going to do? A Sell the camera  What does the man/woman C Fill out a form plan to next?  What plan B Pay by check has been D Write her name on the card suggested?  What does the man/woman plan to do? M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? W: Could I write you a check? M: Certainly I’ll need some form of identification or a major credit card Questions about  What is the matter with …? What is Ms Kim worried about? problems  What is the problem here? A Whether she has enough  What’s wrong with  What is the man/woman money for her vacation B Whether she returned the book on labor concerned/ worried about?  What is the man/woman’s problem?  What is bothering the man/woman? dispute C Whether the airline will be operating or not D Whether her union will get higher wages M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday, Ms Kim? W: Yes, but now I’m waiting to see if the airline we’ve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day M: Oh yes I head that’s a possibility The company claims it has no money to meet the union’s demands Questions about opinions  What does the man/ woman think of/ about …?  What is the man/woman’s opinion of …?  How does the man/woman Questions about advice feel about …?  What is the man/woman’s suggestion? What does Martha advise Dan to do?  What does the man/woman A make is the better work schedule advise … to do?  What a B Walk to the office man/woman C Turn on the lights suggesting?  What is the man/woman’s advice? D Give a shorter report M: I’ll never get this report finished before the weekend W: You’ve got to allocate your time more carefully, Dan M: I guess you’re right I’ll probably wind up working at the office all night again (See the strategies for part 2) C Inference Questions Questions  What does the man/woman imply? -  What is the man/woman saying about …?  What can be said about…?  What is known about …?  What can be inferred from the conversation?  What does the man/woman mean?  What is probably true about?  What are they likely to…? - Tactics The answers for inference Examples What are they likely to eat questions are not directly stated out for lunch? in the conversations Instead you A Soup have to draw a conclusion based B Salad on the information that is C Sandwiches presented by the speakers D Hamburgers Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words M: I’ve heard nothing but Listen for key words that help praise for that new health you make a logical conclusion food restaurant W: Same here And I’ve got a coupon for the salad bar – buy one, get one free M: I’m always looking to save some money Let’s check it out for lunch ... adjective) 20 ) among (3 or more) >< between ( 2) 21 ) and (conjunction) >< also (adverb) 22 ) beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition) 23 ) costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice) 24 )... further (= more) 25 ) formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously) 26 ) hard >< hardly 27 ) imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative) 28 ) later >< latter 29 ) lay laid laid... roof – roofs a cliff – cliffs a safe – safes a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a belief- beliefs NOUN 2: Compound Nouns Normally the last word is made plural boyfriends city streets college travel agents
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