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VIETNAM ACEDAMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES LE THI THU HIEN THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR PROMOTING RESIDENTIAL SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION PHÁT TRIỂN HỢP TEECÃ VẬN TÀI THỦY-BỘ NỘI ĐỊA Ở ĐỒNG BẰNG SÔNG CỬU LONG Major Code : : Development economics 9.31.01.05 SUMMRY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN ECONOMICS HANOI – 2019 The work was completed at: VIETNAM ACEDAMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Scientific Advisors: Dr Vu Quoc Huy Associate Professor Dr Nguyen Chien Thang Reviewer 1: Professor Dr Ngo Thang Loi Reviewer 2: Associate Professor Dr Vu Thanh Son Reviewer 3: Associate Professor Dr Nguyen Trong Xuan The thesis will be defensed before the Academic Thesis Review Board meeting at the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, 477 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi At …… hour ……min, date…… month … 2019 The thesis can be found at: - National Library - Library of the Academy of Social Sciences INTRODUCTION The urgency of the topic Nowadays, sustainable development has been not only an inevitable trend but also a necessary target in many countries all over the world, specially in Vietnam Of all a vast number of factors which are required to ensure the sustainable development, consumption is a key area Moreover, residential consumption has been an important subject to promote sustainable consumption The target named sustainable development has been concerned in global in the recent years Goal number 12 in UN Sustainable development Goals by 2030 (SDG) is also about ensuring the sustainability of production and consumption Therefore, promoting sustainable consumption is important and essential in the general strategy of human development Decision No.76/QD-TTg , dated in 11/1/2016 of the Prime Minister approving the National Action Program on Sustainable production and consumption by 2020, vision to 203, shows the targets to change producing and consuming patterns, consumption in the direction of improving the efficiency of using renewable resources and energy; environmentally friendly products; reducing, reusing and recycling waste In Vietnam, there have been a lot of changes in residential consumption Almost the needs of people about food, dress, transport, education, health care and entertainment are met However, there are also many negative trends in consumption that have been revealed and they influenced directly to the successive generations Residential consumption still has many traditional habits that consists some problems such as using raw materials, low quality products that harms to human health and misspending natural resources Besides, ostentatious and prodigal consumption in some residential groups is not suitable with the low living standard and the income of the majority population Some products which is detrimental to human health from producing process to consumption still are used widely and unreservedly At the same time, there are some alternative products that manufactured to replace the unfriendly goods are not interested properly To promote the residential consumption toward sustainable and environmentially friendly way, and to ensure the needs of consumption in generations, using the policy intrusments for regulating and orientating are crucial Thus they have been applied in Vietnam in recent years, especially the economic intrusments which are used in protecting environment However, their efficiencies are not as good as expected On the other hand, there has been any studies that is specific and composites about the policy intrusment impacting on residential sustainable consumption Therefore, studying on economic intrusments in the policies of promoting sustainable consumption is much necessary The results of this study will indicate a general review about the role of economic intrusments in the policies for promoting sutainable consumption, the policy directions as well as the procedures to imply these intrusments in practice It is hopefully expected to draw some new polices to promote sustainable consumption in Vietnamese in future From the reasons above, I chose the topic “The economic instruments for promoting residential sustainable consumption” In this study, economic intrusment will be examined in the comparation with other policy intrusments such as administrative intrusment, communicative intrusment to indicate the advantages and disadvantages of these intrusments to propose the solutions in using policies to promote sustainable consumption in residents Along with researching the economic intrusments in promoting sustainable consumption policy, the thesis will focus on studying specific cases of restriction on using plastic bag and incentive policy to apply E5 biofuel Plastic bags and E5 bio-fuel are chosen to be the target products because they are related directly to environmental challenges Polluted environment, especially white pollution and pollution due to traffic dust, often develop on a wide scale and high speed in large urban areas and municipalities Plastic bags and E5 bio-fuel are the products that has conflict features in environmental aspect Therefore, to protect the environemt and toward to sustainable consumption, Vietnamese Government has applied many action programs and policy intrusments to restrict the ulilization of plastic bio-fuel and to encourage residents in using E5 bio-fuel However, after many years, the results is still limited Plastic bags have been used ubiquitously and E5 bio-fuel has not yet to be trusted by consumers This study also identifies the situation and the reasons for those restrictions and find out the reasional solutions for future Aims of the topic General aims: Based on analyzing the policy intrusments of promoting sustainable consumption, the study will indicate the situation and the role of economic intrusments in the policy of promoting sustainable consumption through cases which focus on limiting plastic bags and encouraging E5 bio-fuel Specific aims: - Clarify the theorical base of economic intrusments in the policy of promoting sustainable consumption of residents - Analyzing the situation of using policy intrusments in sustainable consumption through cases of studying: restriction policies on plastic bags and encouraging policies in usig E5 bio-fuel - Proposing solutions in using policy intrusments to promote sustainable consumption of Vietnamese people and specific policy recommendations for the cases above Objectives and scope of the topic 3.1 Researching objectives The objectives is economic intrusments in policy for sustainable consumption in residents Therefore, this study will review generally all the policy intrusments which promote sustainable consumption, include: economic intrusments, administrative intrusments and communitive intrusments 3.2 Scope of study * Time scope: From 2010 to 2018 * Spacial scope: In Vietnam, specific cases in Ha Noi * Scope of study content: Based on studying the issues of policies for sustainable consumption, this study identifies some policy intrusments for sustainable consumption in residents, focuses on economic intrusments Administrative and communicative intrusments will be refered in this study to compare to economic intrusments in order to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each intrusments in policy for residential sustainable consumption In detail: - Review literature about economic intrusments which are used in other countries - Studying, analyzing the economic intrusments which promote sustainable consumption through cases: restriction of using plastic bags and encouraging E5 bio-fuel - The study focuses on analyzing the policy for sustainable consumption from the perspective of demanding The issues from the other side, supplement side, will be refered as the evidents for proposing the policy implications Researching methods Desk study, review: Collecting, aggregating, evaluating and analyzing the documents which are related to the researching topic from: - The projects that were conducted in primary, basic and developing researchs related to the contents of study - Documents from libralies in Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences such as: Institute of Regional sustainable development, Institute of social sciences information; Institute of Vietnam Economics, Graduate Academy of Social Sciences,… - The researchs, articles in Vietnam and the world through websites - The documents and data from related Departments, Agencies - Policy documents of Vietnam related to the policy for promoting sustainable consumption, the policy that restricts using plastic bags, policy that encourages bio-fuel, E5 bio-fuel Method of systematic, statistic, comparative analyzing From researching approaches, author uses systematic analysis, statistis with comparative division to evaluate the effectiveness of the policies that impact on promoting sustainable consumption behaviours This method will be used in analyzing and finding the advantages and disadvantages of policies, the proposing some solutions in improving the efficiencies of the policies, toward to promote the sustainable consumption Method of policies analyzing: To study the policy intrusments, it is very essential to use this method The policies will be studied and analyzed through types of intrusments including: administrative intrusments, economic intrusments and communicative intrusments Besides, the restriction policies of using plastic bages or the encouraging policies about using E5 bio-fuel will be examined in order to understand the strengths and weakness of each policy before proposing the appropriated policy implications Field trip: * Objective of the field trip: Author conducts the field trip with the objectives related to restriction of using plastic bags and encouraging to use E5 bio-fuel, including: + In term of the restriction of using plastic bags: survey on consumers about their situation in using plastic bags, their awareness of the harmfulness of plastic bags and their opinions about the solutions for the issue, the draw some appropriated policy in future + In term of encouraging to use E5 bio-fuel: survey on the consumers about their situation in using bio-fuel, their awareness about bio-fuel and E5 bio-fuel, their opinion about the policies to promote the utilization of E5 bio-fuel, then propose some solution in using policy intrusments more effective in future * Place of field trip: Ha Noi is chosen to be the place of the survey because it is a big city, where the majority of Vietnamese population is living in Therefore, for the new approval policies, Ha Noi people have the chance to access and comply much better Besides, within this big city, sustainable consumption behavior such as limiting using plastic bags and using E5 bio-fuel will be much more significant in statistic aspects * Sampling methods: This study uses simple random sampling method Subjects are selected randomly to interview at gas station (for E5 bio-fuel) and markets, supermarkets and residential areas (for plastic bags) in districts of Hanoi, including: Tay Ho, Ba Dinh, Cau Giay and Ha Dong Survey sample: 100 questionaires about plastic bags and E5 bio-fuel Survey results will be processed through SPSS and STATA New contribution to the science of the thesis The thesis provides a scientific basis on the use of economic instruments to promote sustainable consumption, including: the concepts and factors affecting consumer’s consumption, the impacts of economic instruments on residential consumption, the international experience on the use of economic instruments to promote sustainable consumption The thesis also analyzes the state of affairs and the role of economic instruments in policies to promote sustainable consumption of the residents through two case-studies: limiting the use of plastic bags and encouraging the use of E5 biofuel On that basis, the thesis proposes a number of solutions to improve the effectiveness of the use of economic instruments in policies to promote sustainable consumption in general and specific solutions for two case-studies: restriction on using plastic bags and encouraging E5 bio-fuel use in Vietnam The theoretical and practical significance of the thesis - In theory: Contributing to clarifying the theorical base on the use of policy intrusments to promote sustainable consumption of the population, especially emphasizing economic intrusments - Practice: Providing some policy suggestions to limit the use of plastic bags and encourage to use E5 bio-fuel in Vietnam through specific data from the population survey These policy implications will be valuable for policy makers 11 issues such as meeting demand, improving quality of life, improving resource efficiency and reducing environmental pollution There are many concepts of sustainable consumption, but most of the concepts are unified based on the concept of sustainable consumption at the Oslo Conference in 1994, which is consumption to meet human needs from previous generations to the next ones, ensuring the equality between every people in the context of effective use of natural resources and reducing environmental pollution This thesis only focuses on environmental protection in sustainable consumption Therefore, limiting the use of plastic bags or encouraging the use of E5 gas are activities, that aim to protect the environment, are selected as the target for this study 2.2.2.The elements that affect residential consumption Consumers always tend to maximize their utility and choose goods to maximize their own benefits According to microeconomics approach, the determinants of consumer choice include income, prices of goods, consumer preferences When these factors change, of course, consumer choice will change 2.2.3 Factors to promote sustainable consumption Consumption is also influenced by many factors including subjective factors and objective factors Subjective factors are factors that belong to consumers themselves, objective factors are external factors affecting consumers such as manufacturers, markets or policies In order to promote sustainable consumption, it is necessary to have a coordinated implementation from all these factors 12 2.3 Economic intrusments in the policies to promote residential sustainable consumption 2.3.1 Classification of policy intrusments to promote residential sustainable consumption There are many ways to classify the policy intrusments to promote sustainable consumption How to use the classification depends on the approach and the impact of each policy However, policy tools can be aggregated into three main groups: - Legal and administrative intrusments: including documents on laws and sub – law documents (regulations, decrees, permits, standards…) - Also known as market-based intrusments which are used to influence the costs and benefits of the activities of individuals and economic organizations to create effects tothe behavior of economic actors toward to the benefit of society Economic intrusments include: taxes, fees, permits, refund deposit systems, subsidies - Communicative and educational tools to change consumer’s behavior: through advocacy, providing perfect information to consumers so that they have right awareness and will actively choose behavior to promote consumption lasting This study will use the classification of policy tools to promote sustainable consumption, including: economic tools, administrative tools and communication tools Of all these kinds of tools, the study will focus mainly on economic intrusments In addition, administrative and communication tools will also be addressed because the success of a policy requires a combination of multiple tools 13 2.3.2 The impact of economic intrusment on sustainable consumption Economic intrusments will adjust consumer behavior through regulating prices of goods and consumers' income Economic tools, such as taxes and fees, will push the prices of goods up Taxes and fees will also reduce the relative income of consumers; thus, they will have choices to make their buying decisions in accordance with his conditions Consumption Price (relatively) Income Supplement (Produce, trade, import, export) Economic intrusments Habits Demographi, social and cultural factors Administrative/law intrusments Communicative/ educational intrusments Analyzing framework abuot policies tools which affect consumption 2.4 Experiences in applying economic intrusments in policies to promote sustainable consumption 2.4.1 Expericences in France 2.4.2 Experiences in Canada 2.4.3 Experiences in Neitherland 2.4.4 Experiences in United Kingdom 14 2.5 Theoretical basis for economic intrusments in the policy of restricting the use of plastic bags and encouraging the use of E5 bio-fuel 2.5.1 Theoretical basic for economic intrusments in the policies of restricting the use of plastic bags 2.5.2 Theoretical basic for economic intrusments in the policies of encouraging the use of E5 bio-fuel CHAPTER CURRENT STATUS OF ECONOMIC INTRUSMENTS IN POLICIES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION OF RESIDENTS Vietnam problems caused is currently by the facing process environmental of pollution industrialization and modernization, especially the problems of dust pollution caused by traffic vehicles and white infection due to widespread use of persistent nylon bags It become as serious as a national environmental disaster The Government has been applying many different policy measures and intrusment to change consumer behavior, towards sustainable consumption and environmental protection To study and understand the current status of economic intrusments in policies to promote residential sustainable consumption, this chapter will focus on two cases (1) restriction on plastic bag use and (2) promotion the use of E5 bio-fuel Limiting the use of plastic bags and encouraging the use of E5 bio-fuel is considered to be the behavior that promotes sustainable 15 consumption; therefore it should be an influence to the policies from management agencies Economic intrusments will be examined in the overall analysis of policy intrusments to promote sustainable consumption, including: administrative tools, economic tools and communication tools 3.1 Policies of restricting the use of plastic bags 3.1.1 Current situation and economic intrusments in restricting the use of plastic bags in Vietnam 3.1.2 Case study of Hanoi Using plastic bags is still popular and there has been an increase in using this kind of products through time Most of consumers have awareness about plastic bags’ harmfulness to human health and environment However, there is a big gap from awareness to behavior Economic tools to restrict the use of plastic bags has not brought the expected effectiveness because the amount of taxes applied is not appropriated This types of intrusment need to be combined with other policy tools to restrict the use of plastic bags, especially communicative intrusments Moreover, there should be a new kind of bags for consumers that can replace the plastic bags 3.2 Policies of encouraging the use of E5 bio-fuel 3.2.1 The situation and policies of encouraging the use of E5 biofuel in Vietnam 3.2.2 Case study in Hanoi 3.2.3 Regression model assesses the factors affecting consumer decisions about using E5 bio-fuel 3.2.4 Review policies for E5 bio-fuel through the case of Hanoi city 16 The policy to encourage the use of bio-petrol to completely replace petroleum and mineral applied in Hanoi city has undergone many times of extension The first time to completely replace biofuel with E5 bio-bio-fuel was on December 1, 2014, the second was on January 1, 2016, then to June 1, 2016; 1/6/2017 and finally on January 1,2018 However, until July 2017, the policy has not brought about the desired results Consumers continue to use traditional biofuel and not care much about the new product as E5 bio-fuel for many reasons - Using economic intrusments, however, the subsidy level from Government is not enough to help encouraging the consumers to change their behavior The price difference between E5 bio-fuel and Ron92 bio-fuel (from 200 – 500 VND) is still low, so it is not attractive to consumers - Strict administrative orders are not flexible so they are not supported by the people - Coordinate between policy intrusments is not really harmonious - Propaganda is almost ineffective 3.3 Compare policy intrusments in restricting the use of plastic bags and promoting the use of E5 bio-fuel Researching two cases of restriction policy on plastic bag use and encouraging the use of bio-petrol E5 showed that the issued policies have some shortcomings In the case of plastic bags, the current economic intrusments are mainly environmental taxes for production units However, this tax is too low compared to the cost of plastic bags Therefore, when it 17 comes to consumers, plastic bags are mostly free of charge, so consumers still cannot give up this product Besides, the production of alternative bags to replace plastic bags has not been focused so consumers not have plastic bags yet Thus, it is necessary to have policies to support the production of environmentally friendly bags to replace the use of plastic bags In addition to using economic tools to limit the consumption of plastic bags and encourage the production and consumption of alternative bags, it is necessary to combine with other tools such as administrative and public communication tools Only when finding solutions to replace plastic bags and other remedies to combine, the application of a ban on using plastic bags as many countries around will be effective In addition, it is necessary to promote advocacy to raise awareness for consumers in limiting the use of plastic bags to protect the environment for sustainable development For E5 biofuel case, the economic tools are used through supporting to lower the price of traditional bio-fuel However, this price difference is assessed as not enough to encourage consumers to change their behavior Economic intrusments have not been effective at all during the implementation of the incentive policy, consumers still prefer to choose traditional bio-fuel instead of bio-fuel despite subsidies 18 CHAPTER PERSPECTIVES AND SOLUTIONS ON ECONOMIC INTRUSMENTS IN POLICIES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION OF RESIDENTS 4.1 International and domestic contect for promoting sustainable consumption 4.1.1 International context 4.1.2 Domestic context 4.2 Perspective on the use of intrusment in policies to promote residential sustainable consumption The policy tools to promote sustainable consumption have been implemented, however, there is still no synchronization, and the effectiveness is not high Economic intrusments based on market factors differ from other tools because it ensures transparency on the basis of adjusting individual behavior based on market signals and enticing participationpositively and proactively fromthe central government, local authorities, producers to the final consumers in the commodity market In the world, the use of economic intrusments on the basis of market factors in environmental protection is a key trend and is increasingly being expanded In the context of Vietnam today, the use of economic intrusments based on market factors in policy in general and policies to promote sustainable consumption in particular are very important and necessary This is also consistent with the general trend of the world and the transformation fromthe administrative and administrative economy to the market economy currently implemented in Vietnam 19 The application of market-based economic intrusments can yield the expected effects at the lowest possible cost, which is very vital for a developing country with financial resources restrictions, budget deficits and public debt as high as Vietnam today 4.3 Solutions on using economic intrusments in the policies of promoting sustainable consumption in residents 4.3.1 Solutions on economic intrusments in the policies to restrict the use of plastic bags Plastic bags are a convenient and popular type of packaging, but in parallel with this advantage, there are many serious impacts on the environment, society, the country's economy and people To limit the use of plastic bags, it is essential to have appropriate policies and certain routes The policy tools applied in our country, especially economic tools, have not been effective because of many reasons such astax tools are not strong enough to affect consumer behavior, communication tools are notstrong and regular enough, while administrative tools are lacking many conditions about environment as well as legal corridors in the implementation of monitoring In order to limit the use of plastic bags in the coming time, some solutions are mentioned for reference for policy makers as follows Regulations to prohibit retailers from distributing free plastic bags to customers The goal of these regulations is to force the retailers to ask customers to pay for plastic bags or switch to alternative bags to change customers' habits of using plastic bags with anappropriate roadmap, then the objects of this regulation will be gradually expanded This regulation can begin to be applied insupermarkets 20 and shopping centers and then to agency stores and markets The fact that customers have to spend money to share the cost of using plastic bags will cause customers to gradually change their behavior However, how much the customer has to pay for plastic bags needs to be calculated more specifically so that the value can be large enough that people change their behavior Taxations on plastic bags Taxes will be applied to plastic bags ditributors manufacturers, based on the unit of plastic bags produced The manufacturer and distributor will publicly add this cost to the cost of plastic bags and the retailer/consumer must pay for this The application of this tax will directly affect retailers' habits in giving free plastic bags to customers and thereby changing the habit of using plastic bags of customers It is important that the tax rate is calculated high enough to change the retailer's and consumer's habit of using plastic bags Taxes will be collected from manufacturers or distributors Supporting to produce the alternative goods to replace plastic bags In fact, the survey shows that most people are aware of the harmful effects from plastic bags and are willing to change their behavior However, there are no items that can replace plastic bags because of its convenience and low cost When asking people about the necessary conditions for people to stop using plastic bags, most respondents think that there is a need for substitutes to stop using plastic bags So applying a ban or restriction on plastic bags in 21 Vietnam may not be effective without finding a solution to produce other alternative bags There are already some types of bags that can be replaced for plastic bags including cloth bags, paper bags, biodegradable bags There are many conditions and solutions that promise the ability to replace plastic bags with different types of environmentally friendly packaging The study and introduction of biodegradable packaging to replace plastic bags should receive support from the State through regulations, rules and policies to encourage changes in the habit of using plastic bags and strategic orientation in environmental protection and proper waste treatment However, it is necessary to calculate measures to work towards the use of reuse plastic bags which would be more economical, more natural and more environmentally friendly than biodegradable bags Besides the use of economic tools, communication tools are indispensable in environmental programs, which significantly influence the success of other tools to reduce the use of plastic bags These communication programs should be organized regularly and periodically under propaganda campaigns The target groups include: consumers, retailers / distributors and plastic bag manufacturers and each community member The process of planning and carrying out propaganda to raise people's awareness of the use of plastic bags needs the coordination of authorities, political organizations, civil society and to encourage the participation of communities, individuals and local people 4.3.2 Solutions on economic intrusments in policies to promote the use of E5 22 In the context of the depletion of oil resources and the destruction of the natural environment, the use of bio-fuel is a trend towards sustainable development According to prediction by many experts, bio-bio-fuel will become the main fuel source to replace fossil fuels in the near future Therefore, it is necessary to gradually switch from using mineral gas to bio-petrol This policy has been paid attention by the State for over 10 years However, the implementation of the State's guidelines and policies encountered some difficulties from both supply and demand sides of the product Economic intrusments are market-based tools which are based on the harmonization of interests and costs of stakeholders Therefore, when applying to the use of bio-fuel to use in Vietnam, it is necessary to have a more careful calculation and consideration of the benefits and costs of the whole society, the production and business enterprises and consumer.The investment in fuel production plants but not being put into work at present has caused great losses and waste of funds It is necessary to review the continued investment in bankruptcy factories to avoid further state budget losses Some petroleum enterprises which are not state-owned enterprises are not interested in E5 bio-fuel business because it is not as profitable as petroleum business due to high loss rate and expensive investment costs When the benefits of businesses are affected, they will tend to shift to selling bio-fuel Ron 95 more than E5 bio-fuel This will cause unnecessary waste for society Should it be more careful in maintaining existing bio-fuel types and continuing to use E10? 23 Moreover, the price policy that needs to be carefully considered when applying the price for new items to encourage consumers Currently, the bio-fuel price difference compared to traditional petrol is considered low, not enough to encourage users According to the survey results on the price difference between mineral petrol and E5 gas so that consumers can accept E5 bio-fuel, the expected gap is about 10% Thus, the price of E5 gas must be lower than petrol Ron 92 about 1,500-2,000 VND and lower than Ron 95 bio-fuel about 3,000-4,000 VND Therefore, the difference between E5 and Ron 95 is not attractive enough to change consumer behavior In order for consumers to change their choice to switch to E5 bio-fuel, it should have a more attractive price, particularly it should be lower than Ron 95from 3000 to 4000 VND Experiences from other countries also show that, when putting bio-fuels into use, it is necessary to introduce thesupporting policies in price to stimulate the market and when the ethanol industry goes into stability, subsidies can be stopped to save State budget Besides the use of economic tools, the coordination of tools such as combining administrative tools and communication tools are also essential for promoting the use of E5 bio-fuel in Vietnam 24 CONCLUSION Researching policy intrusment to promote sustainable consumption around the world shows that many countries have achieved success in using them as a driving force for sustainable consumption The use of economic, legal, and communication intrusments has created a change in consumer behavior, creating a habit of choosing sustainable consumer behavior In the policy intrusments used, economic intrusments play an important role and the use of market-based economic intrusments is a major trend in the current market economy in Vietnam nowadays Studying two cases of applying economic tools to limit the use of plastic bags and encourage the use of E5 bio-fuel, it indicates that economic tools may not be able to show its advantages in these two cases In order to improve the efficiency of the use of economic intrusments, it is necessary to clearly define the goals and objectives to which the policy is aimed at, and to have a detailed calculation of the benefit and cost norms in each case for the tool, thus economics with market-based advantages can work In addition, when the policies are implied, in addition to using economic tools, there should be a coordination between this type of intrusment with administrative and communication tools This can bring much more effective consequencies LIST OF ANNOUCED WORKS BY THE AUTHOR RELATED TO THE THESIS Le Thi Thu Hien, Vu Quoc Huy (2018), Encouraging the use of E5 bio-fuel petrol: the case of Hanoi, Economic studies, No 9/2018, p62-73 Le Thi Thu Hien (2018), Restrictions on using plastic bags in Hanoi: Current status and solutions, Review of Regional Sustainable Development, No 1/2018, p105-115 Le Thi Thu Hien (2017), Policy tool for popularizing sustainable consumption: International experience and lesson for Vietnam, Review of worlds economic and political issues, No 9/2017, p46-54 Le Anh Vu, Le Thi Thu Hien (2017), Policy tool for promoting sustainable consumption models of the population and international experience, Economic studies, No 11/2017, p 20-27 Le Anh Vu, Nguyen Cao Duc, Le Thi Thu Hien (2017), Consumption of population – the economic growth engine of Viet Nam, Tiêu dùng dân - động lực tăng trưởng kinh tế Việt Nam, Economic studies, No 7/2017, p18-23 Le Thi Thu Hien (2013), Consumption structure of urban residents, Review of Regional Sustainable Development, No 4/2013, p 56-62 ... (2017), Consumption of population – the economic growth engine of Viet Nam, Tiêu dùng dân cư - động lực tăng trưởng kinh tế Việt Nam, Economic studies, No 7/2017, p18-23 Le Thi Thu Hien (2013),... effective because of many reasons such astax tools are not strong enough to affect consumer behavior, communication tools are notstrong and regular enough, while administrative tools are lacking... between E5 and Ron 95 is not attractive enough to change consumer behavior In order for consumers to change their choice to switch to E5 bio-fuel, it should have a more attractive price, particularly
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