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VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES NGUYEN THI THU HUONG LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM THE PRACTICAL VIEW IN HANOI Major: Constitutional Law - Administrative Law Code : 9.38.01.02 SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN LAW HANOI, 2019 The Doctoral thesis was completed at: GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Supervisor: Assoc Prof Dr VU CONG GIAO Reviewer 1: Prof Dr HOANG THE LIEN Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof Dr LE MAI THANH Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Dr NGUYEN THI BAO The dissertation will be defended before the thesis review council of the Academy at the Graduate Academy of Social Sciences at month year The doctoral thesis can be found at: - National Library of Vietnam; - Library of Graduate Academy of Social Sciences hour minute, day LIST OF AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED WORKS Similarities and differences between moral obligations and legal obligations, Journal of Scientific Information on Political Theory, edition 6(7)/2015 Legal education and moral education in high schools today, Journal Journal of Theoretical Education, edition 232/2015 Integrating international legal education for students on history subject in high schools currently, International Scientific worshop, Faculty of History, Hanoi National University of Education, 2017 Legal education for high school students - terminology and constituent elements, Scientific workshop - Hanoi National University of Education, February, 2017 Implement law on legal education for high school students in Hanoi today, Industry and Trade magazine, edition 13, (Dec 2017) Legal education for high school students in some countries and referral values to Vietnam, Industry and Trade magazine, edition 01 (Jan/2018) INTRODUCTION Rationale Vietnam has increasingly advanced in integration process In the upcoming period, our country has to fully implement commitments in the ASEAN community and the WTO That creates opportunities to develop the country but also brings great challenges The problems of infrastructure, superstructure, which still exist many obstacles will be barriers in the integration process, especially the legal consciousness of the people in general, of the young labors in particular To overcome those barriers, it is very important to equip the people legal knowledge, especially for young people right from school time It can be said that high school students are the subjects of transition time between schools and society Many high school graduates can become an immediate workforce for society as true citizens They have full citizenship obligations and rights after leaving high school What are the consequences that society must bear if this force is not taken care of legal education from school? Legal education for high school students is both important and specific, requiring close contact with different target groups in different areas In this thesis, the author chooses high school students in Hanoi as the specific group because Hanoi has high population and high numbers of high schools as a “hot area” of the country in the process of socioeconomic development today Legal education in general and legal education in schools in particular have been studied by many authors both in theory and practice that have also achieved certain achievements However, there are still many disadvantages that need to continue to study On the basis of inheriting the achievements, the thesis desire to fill the gaps in science as well as to meet the requirement of for education in general and legal education in particular The PhD student chose “Legal education for high school students from practical view in Hanoi” as the research topic Purposes and missions of the thesis 2.1 Purposes Purposes of the thesis is contributing to pefecting theoretical and sciencetific basic in order to improve legal education for high school students in Hanoi in particular and in Vietnam in general Therefore, research results meet the requirements of a legal state and integration process recently 2.2 Missions - Studying theoretical issues on legal education for high school students in our country recently, including: clarifying concept, elements, roles, characteristics and affecting factors to legal education for high school students Besides, the thesis analyses, evaluates good experiences from other countries on legal education for high school students - Analysing current legal frameworks on legal education for high school students and evaluating those suitability in our country's today - Analysing practical issues on legal education for high school students in Hanoi recently; evaluating achivements as well as limitations and those causes - Determining neccessary requirements of legal education for high school students in Hanoi recently Proposing points of view, solutions in order to improve legal education for high school students in Hanoi in particular and in Vietnam in general in future Objects and scope of the thesis Objects of the thesis Objects of the thesis is theoretical, legal and practical issues of legal education for for high school students in Hanoi recently 3.2 Scope of the thesis Scope of the content: The thesis only focus on theoretical, legal and practical issues of legal education for high school students Legal education in general and legal education for other subjects in other fields in particular are only basics for analysing legal education for high school students Scope of place: The thesis focus on theoretical, legal and practical issues of legal education for for high school students in Hanoi Analysing legal education in countries and other provinces aims to compare generally Besides, with scope of time, the thesis focus on legal education methods in high schools whose subjects are teachers and somehow it connects to Youth Union, Clubs Those are the most formal, important methods of legal education for high school students in Hanoi in particular and in Vietnam in general over the time Scope of time: The thesis only researchs and evaluates legal education for high school students in Hanoi over last 10 years Research method of the thesis 4.1 Methodology The thesis uses dialectical materialism and historical materialism of MarxismLeninism; Ho Chi Minh Thought; and some common theories, scientific ideas over the world that are related to legal education as the methodology to continue to analyse, evaluate, resolve research questions 4.2 Research methods The PhD student applyed combinedly research methods of social sciences including jurisprudence, philosophy, education and sociology in research process New scientific contributions of the thesis The thesis is the first doctoral thesis in Vietnam to study on legal education for high school students in Hanoi Therefore, the new scientific contributions of the thesis are supplement and reinforcement theoretical basics on legal education for high school students in our country with experimental research results in basic level Specifically, by the research results, that could be affirmed that it is very important and neccessary to educate legal contents for high school students although there are still diffirent points of view Therefore, the thesis provides a clear orientation for legal education for high school students in our country recently Especially, the thesis results show that in addition of applying general principles of legal education, legal education for high school students requires specific and suitable approach methods to education subjects that are teenagers, young citizens Scientific and practical meanings of the thesis Scientific meanings of the thesis are included two (2) followings: First, affirming scientific and practical basics of legal education for high school students in our country Second, clearly and exactly evaluating charecteristics of legal education for high school students in comparison to legal education for other subjects, thence giving suitable orientations, solutions for improving legal education for high school students in our country in future Practical meanings of the thesis are research results will be a valuable reference for authorities, organizations in Hanoi and other provinces for perfecting legal policies and legal mechanism to improve legal education for high school students in future On the other hand, the thesis can be used as a valuable reference for teaching, researching in constitutional law - admintrative law in Graduate Academy of Social Sciences of Vietnam Academy of cocial sciences and other Institues in our country Structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusion, references and list of works related to the thesis has been published; the thesis consists of chapters: Chapter 1: Overview about research and theories Chapter 2: Theoretical matters on legal education for high school students in Vietnam recently Chapter 3: Practical situation on legal education for high school students in Hanoi recently Chapter 4: Orientations and solutions to improve legal education for high school students from practical view in Hanoi Chapter OVERVIEW ABOUT RESEARCH AND ORIENTATIONS OF THE THESIS 1.1 Domestic studies 1.1.1 Domestic studies about theoretical matters 1.1.1.1 The concept of legal education In the early of the past, the concept of legal education did not have clear and consistent identification There are many different idemtifications about legal education, including some points of view such as: legal education was a part of political education, ideology and moral education; legal education was homogeneous with propagation, dissemination or explaination the law; an arguing that there was not legal education concept; or an considering that legal education was synonymous with legal teaching and learning in schools and there was not legal education outside of schools… 1.1.1.2 Purposes of legal education About the the purposes of legal education, there are also different interpretations Some ideas showed that legal education had a very broad purposes, including forming a right attitude to labors and social ownership, fostering feelings of mastery, comradeship, patriotism and forming habits to follow the legal rules, consolidating legislation, establishing legal order Others ideas have determined that the purposes of legal education were creating the ability to develop political culture in citizens, forming in the sense of civic orthodox moral views 1.1.1.3 Roles of legal education The roles of legal education primarily come from the social roles and value of the law While the law is the first means of the State to manage society, the means of each citizen to protect their legitimate rights and interests, legal education helps the State agencies and citizens know how to use those means In our country, when the majority of people not know how to use the legal methods, legal education plays an important role The roles of legal education also come from its nature Legal education is the process of impacting legal emotions, behaviors and knowledge in accordance with the requirements of current legal system Therefore, the achieved results by the directional impacts have contributed to building legal consciousness and legal culture of citizens 1.1.1.4 Elements of legal education Object and the impact of legal education object Subject of legal education Content of legal education Forms, means and methods of legal education 1.1.2 Domestic studies about legal framework and practical matters of legal education for high school students in Vietnam and in Hanoi 1.1.2.1 Current legal framework Along with the unifying legal system of the Vietnames government, the issue has a great important meaning to institutionalize the Party's views and to propagate and disseminate the legal education of the State By Party guidelines and leading measures since the independence day of the country (1975), especially in the years of Revolution, it has been shown that legal education is valued by the Party and the State; greatly contributed to the successful implementation of the country’s mission The Party's views on legal education has developed in accordance with the historical situation of the country, reflected in the awareness, content and direction of the Party in each period At the Congress V, legal education objects, legal education subjects and legal education forms have been identified But the points of view about legal education only focus on legal explanation and not focus on the form of legal education or focus to clearly define subjects of legal education 1.1.2.2 Practical matters of legal education for high school students About organizational mechanism About legal education content About legal education methods About the achieved results and causes About limitations and causes About the solutions 1.2 Abroad studies about the thesis topic Legal education is a research topic in many countries, of many scholars Some typical studies can be mentioned such as: discussing the legal spirit of Montesquieu; Modern teaching theory - the basis of innovating the goals, content and teaching methods of Bernd Meier and Nguyen Van Cuong; Citizenship Education at School in Europe of Guyot, Citizenship Education in China and the UK: Key Features anh Contemporary Challenges (Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University) of Kan Wei; Lu Dat and Chu Man Sinh (2010), Educational reform in developed countries: Educational reform in Japan – Australia; John A.Sebert (2002), The American Bar Association and Legal Education in the United States of America; Edward Rubin (2012), Legal Education in the Digital Age, Cambridge University Publishing House 1.3 Overview about research and issues that need further study 1.3.1 Overview about research From the overview of the above research situation, it can be seen that the issue of legal education in general, legal education in schools and for high school students in particular have been mentioned by many scientists and authors The analysis is quite diverse and rich in both theoretical and practical aspects, reflected in scientific topics, monographs, references, scientific papers and also is the subject of many doctoral thesis Specifically: • On theoretical aspects: The authors have generalized the theoretical aspects of legal education and legal education in schools such as: concepts, roles, purposes, contents, methods and forms of legal education In relation to the thesis topic: “Legal education for high school students in Hanoi” Those books and research above are useful references that the PhD student can inherit • On practical and solutions aspects: Referring to the legal education content for high school students, there are somes studies on the status of legal awareness, contents and methods of legal for high school students; some other research on the assessment of the organization of implementing legal education in high schools and found out the causes and proposed solutions Those studies are limited valuable reference for the PhD student about some contents which are related to legal education for students in Hanoi 1.3.2 Issues that the thesis continues to conduct research - On theoretical aspects, the thesis needs to continue: + To synthesize and further analyze the theory of education in general and lagal education in particular to find out a scientific perspective on lagel education for specific target groups + To interpret and deepen issues such as legal objectives, subjects, methods, forms for specific target groups of high school students + To sesearch and learn the views and experiences on legal education for high school students in some other countries to find out value reference for legal education activities for high school students in Vietnam - On practical aspects: the thesis continues to: + Investigate legal education activities for high school students that are being conducted in Hanoi in the last 10 years; combinedly use interdisciplinary research methods in law, sociology then comprehensively and objectivele analyze and assess the achievements, limitations and causes of those activities + Find out and analyze necessary issues that are required to resolve in legal education for high school students recently which are related to requirements of building a law state anf integration of our country + Find out comprehensive and strategic orientations and solutions to improve the effectiveness of legal education for high school students in Hanoi particularly and in our country generally in the future The thesis also explains about scientific and feasible reason of thóe orientations and solutions 1.4 Research questions, research hypothesis and approach of the thesis 1.4.1 Research questions From the overview about research, the Phd student has a main question throughout the thesis and research questions for chapters of the thesis The main question is: Why and how to improve legal education for high school students in Hanoi recently? The research questions for chapters are: (1) Why is legal education neccessary for high school student recently? (2) What are legal education for hight school students special characteristics and requirements in comparison to legal education generally? (3) How is practical situation about legal education for high school students in Hanoi recently? (4) What are orientations and solutions to improve legal education for high school students in Hanoi particularlly and in oir country generally in the future? 1.4.2 Research hypothesis From overview about research anf research questions, the PhD student determines research hypothesis of the thesis as follow: Legal education for high school students in Hanoi has been implemented and obtained certain results But those activities are still formal and not meet the actual requirements of building a law state There are many causes that are mainly related to the content, methods and subjects of legal education In order to strengthen legal education for high school students in Hanoi, it is necessary to apply many solutions simultaneously, in which the focus is on reforming the content, forms Firstly, legal education for high school students has specific characteristics, because the beneficiaries of this educational process are high school students with different physiological characteristics of the age compared to other educational objects Secondly, legal education for high school students can be conducted in many different forms, in different spaces, including inside and outside the schools, but the most important activity is conducted in school education by citizenship education subject, in addition to being integrated by other subjects Citizenship education with the advantage of being a subject to equip students with integrated political, social, ethical, legal, life skills to form and develop abilities and quality of Vietnamese citizens, global citizens However, according to the evaluation of educational experts, the structure and content of legal education in citizenship education has not met the objectives of the subject To solve this problem, the Ministry of Education and Training is planning a citizenship education program in the new general education program towards renaming the subject “Economic and legal education” aiming to turn this subject at the heart of legal education activities in high schools 2.1.3 Role of legal education for high school students Firstly, legal education contributes to educating morality, lifestyle, forming personality, training behavior for students to “live and work follow constitution and law” Secondly, legal education aims to comprehensively develop students, because the final product of education is the people who have all the elements: Morality Knowledge - Fitness - Beauty The highest manifestation of “Knowledge” is a citizen in countless situations takes place in personal life, in interactions with family and society, knows how to choose civilized behavior, obey the law, create benefits for himself, for community and for society The manifestations of the comprehensive developed human are people who know how to behave follow standards prescribed by law, have ways of living according to “legal culture”, overcoming the limitations of legal awareness and legal ethics Thirdly, legal education for high school students is contributing to training high quality human resources for society and the country In fact, every year there is a large force of high school students graduating but is not continuing to study at university and immediately participating in the labor market Such human resources must have legal knowledge to be able to behave follow the law Therefore, it is necessary to promote legal education for high school students 2.2 The elements of legal education for high school students 10 2.2.1 Purposes of legal education for high school students Purposes of legal education for high school students are: Firstly, legal education for high school students in aims to form, deepen and gradually expand the legal knowledge system for high school students Secondly, legal education for students in high school aims to form and develop their believes in the law Thirdly, legal education for high school students aims to educate the sense of personality, practice habits and law-abiding behavior of students 2.2.2 Subjects of legal education for high school students In some studies about legal education of former Soviet scholars, two concepts were often raised: legal education subjects and legal education leadership system in which subjects are individuals and the leadership system is the Party, State, social organizations and the relationship between them in coordinating leadership and directing legal education Accordingly, legal education subjects are understood as a person who follows their functions or social responsibilities to contribute to the implementation of the legal education objectives or legal education subjects are organizations and individuals that have the functions or responsibilities to transmit legal knowledge to objects 2.2.3 Contents of legal education for high school students Contents of legal education is an important element of legal deucation progress Correctly and fully determining contents of legal education ensures the effectivenees of legal education Contents of legal education are determined by purposes, psychological characteristics of the age and awareness level of legal education objects in order to form in them the legal knowledge system, belief and habit of acting follow the law There are some issues referring to the contents of legal education such as: the scope of legal education contents in comparison to other education contents, the basic contents of legal education and requirements of the implementation of legal education contents Accordingly, the legal education contenst are determined by the following levels: First, the minimum requirement for legal education content for all citizens; Second, separated requirements for legal education according to career needs; Third, the requirement for specialized legal education for legal practitioners 2.2.4 Forms of legal education for high school students In fact, without a suitable form of legal education, the contents of legal not or get difficulties to achieve the desired results The legal education process is done through specific types of activities, that are called education forms For high school 11 students, legal education is mainly implemented in the form of teaching main courses of citizenship education and legal education activities outside of class time 2.2.5 Methods of legal education for high school students Education methods are the way of operation to dominate the education content and achieve the education purposes Accordingly, the methods of legal education are the way of organizing the legal education process From the approach of law, methods of law education includes the applied methods in a specific legal education activity (presentation method, problem-raising method, role-play method, discussion method ) and legal education methods From the perspective of educational science, legal education methods include a group of persuasive methods, a group of organizing activities methods, a group of methods to stimulate and regulate behaviors 2.3 Subjects and factors affecting legal education for high school students 2.3.1 Families Families have a great influence on the effectiveness of legal education for high school students The family is a place to create motivation to live, study and work under the Constitution and laws for them The family is also the place where students reveal all their abilities, strengths and weaknesses Therefore, legal education in the families is always very effective for them At the same time, the family is also a place that can capture and verify and be responsible for the results of their legal knowledge and legal compliance 2.3.2 Schools As I mentioned before, legal education for high school students is an activity with the participation of many subjects, taking place in many different environments, but education at the school plays the most important role This is because currently in Vietnam, most high school students have more time in school or more attached to schools in other environments (in big cities, they study both in morning and afternoon per day) Therefore, the schools are the main environment for them to improve themselves and enjoy knowledge and information from legal education 2.3.3 Society The socio-economic context and conditions also have a great influence on legal education activities for high school students This influence is always twodimensional, showing the duality of a problem In developed socio-economic areas, the need to understand and apply legal knowledge into life is very high in order to ensure order and safety for human development However, it is also often the areas that often break the law Therefore, the need to increase legal education and legal 12 education content for high school students should focus on solving difficult issues in living places, such as social evils prevention, crime prevention 2.3.4 The teachers and officials engaged in legal education Due to the characteristics of legal education for high school students, which mainly takes place in the schools environment, the teachers and staff working on legal education play a particularly important role These are the subjects who directly implement legal education activities for students 2.3.5 Material conditions guaranteed for legal education activities Although high schools already have basic facilities (classrooms, teaching equipment), but in legal education activities for students, it is necessary to invest more in resources to highly improve those activities effectiveness 2.4 Legal education for high school students in some countries and reference values for Vietnam 2.4.1 Content of legal education program for high school students in Korea In the high school program in Korea, legal education for high school students through teaching politics and law This course focuses on the basic and necessary concepts and principles for the analysis of political - legal phenomena, based on the understanding of constitution and democracy - which are called basic knowledge of a citizen in a democratic society 2.4.2 Legal education for high school students in the United Kingdom The legal program for high school students in the United Kingdom is primarily through citizenship education and moral education This is based on the belief that high-quality citizenship education will provide students with the knowledge, skills to prepare them to participate actively and fully in society 2.4.3 Legal education for high school students in Singapore Legal education for students in Singapore is also achieved through citizenship education and moral education programs The programs of citizenship education and moral education (high school) are designed to fasten the young generation of the country with "right moral principles" It is important that students have moral development and understand the relevance of moral values in modern society In addition, students are also equipped with the ability to express emotions in communication to demonstrate human qualities effectively This will allow them to make wise decisions among a variety of choices 13 2.4.4 Reference values for Vietnam From the legal education experience for students in the above-mentioned countries, it is possible to draw some reference values for legal education activities for high school students generally, high school students in Vietnam in particularly Chapter Conclusion After studying of theoretical issues about legal education for high school students, some of the following statements can be drawn: Legal education for high school students is the activity that the subject of education organizes, controls, orients and impacts on students to equip them with basic and universal legal knowledge, and to form for students to believe in the law, have a sense of foloowing law that is the basis for the formation of behaviors and habits in accordance with the law Legal education for high school students is an open concept, can be understood as a subject in the school or a system of pedagogical activities taking place inside and outside the classroom to achieve the goal of legal education The elements of legal education for high school students include: objects; subjects; contents; forms and methods of legal education In order to operate legal education in high schools to achieve high efficiency, it is necessary to systematicly and deeply approach the elements of legal education There are many factors affecting legal education activities for high school students, including the following factors: families, schools, society Each factor can affect the determination of elements of legal education in a a specific way to achieve the legal education goals Chapter PRACTICAL SITUATION ON LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN HANOI RECENTLY 3.1 Overview of the political, economic and social context of Hanoi and the high schools in Hanoi currently 3.1.1 Overview of the political, economic and social context of Hanoi Since the reunification of the country in the state (1976), Hanoi has been chosen as the capital of our country Through the ups and downs of history, according to the development of the country, the economic, political and social situation of the capital is increasingly stable, developing in all aspects, worthy of an economic, politics, culture center of the country However, this is also a place where 14 people generally and students particularly are under pressure on excessive urbanization and of the heat of employment, income, living environment 3.1.2 Overview of characteristics of high school students in Hanoi 3.1.2.1 High school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development earlier than their ages Like high school students nationwide, high school students in Hanoi have a strong development in intellectual capacity However, because of living in the dynamic socio-economic environment of the capital, they have many advantages such as standard voice, ability to express themselves, confidence, vigor, especially in the city center Many students have high achievements in studying, participating in many clubs and other social activities In particular, they are proactive and creative in their awareness, especially in some schools disseminate actively teaching and learning methods, aiming at international integration 3.1.2.2 High school students in Hanoi have high self-awareness This is a prominent charateristic of the development of high school students in Hanoi Living in the capital whose an environment with many advantages, but also harsh, challenging, they are soon forged to be independent to overcome many temptations and difficulties even in families, schools and society But it is also a process of self-training of themselves, stemming from the psychological life itself, not only due to the prompting, sharpening of family, school, society Children have a clear sense of “myself” They often ask questions: Who am I? How am I? What strengths I have? What I like? They find the answers on their own and set goals and plans for implementation 3.1.2.3 High school students in Hanoi have attitudes, feelings and good communication ability, high independence Due to access to a comprehensive educational environment, high school students in Hanoi are generally able to communicate well This helps the them to see their position, while showing respect and sharing with others Thereby, they can accumulate more knowledge and necessary life experiences In high school age, the desire to be affirmed and the need for independence is a natural development, but this characteristic of school students in Hanoi is superior than the students in other provinces This causes from their living environment, especially due to the pace of economic and social development in the capital, the business of parents that makes them self-reliance, self-control very early However, the children cannot avoid the impulses, transient and over-age of young people, so they are easy to fall into personal interests such as gaming addiction and social 15 networks, excesses in friendships and love In addition, the lack of experience and easy life skills pushes children into embarrassing, uncontrollable behavior 3.2 Political and legal basis of legal education activities for high school students in Hanoi The system of policies and laws on Legal Education has been built and put into operation more and more deeply in recent years Thoroughly grasping the guiding spirit of the Party and The Party in Hanoi has directed the implementation of legal education in the city The Party in Hanoi developed a plan to implement the Directive No 32-CT/TW dated December 9, 2003 of the Party Central Committee's Secretariat on strengthening the Party's leadership in the dissemination of legal education; The Directive No 45/2007/CT-BGD&ĐT dated August 17, 2007 of the Minister of Education and Training on education dissemination, implementing legal education in schools through political activities, building law bookcases in school libraries (according to guidelines in Circular No 02/2006/TTLT-BTP-BCA-BQPBLĐTBXH-TLĐĐVN) Especially from 2008 up to now, the legal documents on legal education in Hanoi have been strengthened 3.3 Organizing legal education for high school students in Hanoi in recent years 3.3.1 Legal education subjects for high schools students Legal education subjects are managers who usually manage the board of directors, advisors, heads of social groups in schools Usually, they are the ones to thoroughly grasp legal documents on legal education, work out plans and organize implementation, check and evaluate, review and draw experiences Subjects who directly teach students are direct teachers The majority of the team is in charge of legal education for students in high schools as citizenship education teachers (90%) In addition, there are teachers of other subjects such as literature, history, and geography (5%), teachers are Youth union officials (5%) In particular, citizenship education teachers play a key role 3.3.2 Legal education contents for high school students In the current high schools, the content of legal education for students is expressed in two parts: The first part is defined in the content of the citizenship education program, the second part is included in the outside class activities 3.3.3 Forms and methods of legal education for high school students 3.3.3.1 Form of legal education for high school students Like students in other provinces in over the country, currently high school students in Hanoi receive legal education through the main course of citizenship 16 education and extracurricular activities The main form of teaching citizenship education courses is compulsory and implemented according to the program and plan of the Ministry of Education and Training, the form of extratime legal education are conducted by the schools according to the specific local situation 3.3.3.2 Methods of legal education for high school students According to our survey, most of the methods of legal education for high school students in the city today mainly are using pedagogical methods to equip knowledge and abilities for the students These methods have closely followed the orientation of taking learners as a center, using flexibly, diversifying teaching methods such as presentations, conversations, raising issues, group discussions 3.3.3.3 Educational means Educational means play an important role in all educational activities The schools in Hanoi are now equipped with modern teaching facilities, basically meeting the needs of teaching and learning 3.3.4 Some general remarks about the current situation and causes of legal education situation for high school students in Hanoi today Legal education for high school students in Hanoi is taking place with elements and has achieved certain results but there are still limitations and shortcomings that need to be overcome Chapter Conclusion Through studying practical issues of legal education activities for high school students in Hanoi, the PhD student found that: Hanoi's socio-economic context creates certain favorable conditions but also poses difficulties for the development of legal education generally and legal education for high school students in Hanoi particularly Through research and analysis, it can be seen that the physiological characteristics of high school students in Hanoi can identify differences such as: most high school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development earlier than ages; high school students in Hanoi have better cognitive development than students in other localities; high school students in Hanoi have better social development than students in other localities Diversified legal documents system has created a legal foundation for legal education activities for high school students in Hanoi, which is the basis for organizing and adjusting legal education activities in schools are diversified and more suitable and effective However, the legal documents still have certain 17 limitations that one of those is the legal education activity for students are not included in the program as an independent projects but are in the propaganda and dissemination legal education for people generally and youths particularly Therefore, in the process of implementing the above-mentioned legal documents, the authorities of Hanoi tend to propagate and disseminate laws to people and youth, and pay little attention to school students, including high school students Legal education for high school students in Hanoi has been playing an important role and becoming an indispensable learning content in high schools However, in the process of implementation, in addition to the remarkable results, this activity still reveals many shortcomings regarding the contents of the program, forms, methods, subjects and conditions that make those activities not really effective in the process of educating students as citizens Legal education effectiveness for students in terms of awareness, attitude, behavior, skills is not high, not meeting the requirements of human capital development for the capital in present and in the next years This fact requires educators to make more efforts in finding steps and strengthening action to improve legal education activities in the capital Chapter ORIENTATIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM PRACTICAL VIEW IN HANOI 4.1 The requirement of increasing legal education for high school students from practical view in Hanoi From a macro perspective, legal education comes from the requirement of building a socialist law state Among the basic characteristics of the socialist law state in Vietnam, the Constitution and the law uphold the fundamental role This requires each citizen to have knowledge and culture, legal acts, consider the law to be supreme, none of individual or organization will stand up on the law In order to gain understanding of the law, in addition to relying on the sense of self-study, learning of each citizen, the dissemination, propaganda and legal education are indispensable, especially for the young people, including high school students 4.2 Practical viewpoints on strengthening legal education for high school students in Hanoi 4.2.1 Legal education for high school students in Hanoi city must be comprehensive 18 The current goal of general education is towards the holistic development of learners, including the formation of students' moral standards that are consistent with the universal values of the international and Vietnam communities; with knowledge, understanding of the fields of science, physical, aesthetic and basic competencies, building sentiments, attitudes and civic responsibilities To achieve those goals, tt is necessary to integrate and combine cultural education (scientific knowledge) with moral education and legal education In other words, legal education must be considered as one of the important contents, contributing to the formation of comprehensive qualities and capabilities of students the current life 4.1.2 Legal education for high school students in Hanoi must be combined between theoretical principles and practice, between studying with practice Law is “the rules of behavior promulgated by the state and every citizen must follow in order to regulate social relations and protect social orders Legal education does not stop at providing the systematic learners with legal knowledge but rather forming in the students the sense of law and the right feelings, training them skills to practice behavior according to legal standards To achieve this comprehensive goal, legal education for students generally, high school students particularly should adhere to the principle of “learning in practice” Resolution no 29 of the Party in 2013 on “Fundamental and comprehensive innovation of Education and Training” emphasized: “Learning goes together with practice; reasoning with practice; school education combined with family education and social education” 4.1.3 Legal education for high school students in Hanoi city must be combined between family and social education The fact in Hanoi shows that education generally and legal education for high school students particularly need to have a unified action between the three basic subjects: families, schools and society In those subjects, the school plays an important and dominant role, then family and society 4.2.4 Legal education for high school students in Hanoi needs a capacityoriented approach Recently, according to the Party's guidance on reforming education and training, “shifting the educational process from mainly equipping knowledge to comprehensively developing capacity and learners' qualities”, such as changing from traditional approach to a competency approach This approach sees education as the process of developing learners' capacity, preparing people to learn the necessary competencies into life Accordingly, the program will focus on identifying the outputs that competencies (general competence, specialized competence) need to be 19 achieved in learners This approach should be applied in all areas of education, particularly in legal education, because legal education is one of the education sectors with the most clear and specific requirements for the ability to use knowledge, direct behaviors in learners’ life 4.2 The solution is to strengthen legal education for high school students from practical view in Hanoi 4.2.1 Group of solutions for managers and agencies involved in legal education activities for students 4.2.1.1 Perfecting the legal framework on legal education for students Although the issue of legal education for pupils and high school students particularly and legal education for people generally in the past has been very concerned by the State, however, from the fact in Hanoi, the State still has not a specialized legal document that regulates and guides the organization of legal education activities for high school students Therefore, the State should soon issue legal documents on legal education for pupils and students in schools 4.3.1.2 Strengthening the leadership of the Party Directive No 32/CT-TW has affirmed that legal education is a part of political, ideological and tasks of the whole political system under the leadership of the Party Therefore, strengthening the leadership of the Party is a decisive factor with increasing legal education activities for pupils and students in the schools 4.3.2 Group of solutions for teachers and officials participating in legal education The staffs of legal education plas a decisive role in improving the quality of teaching and learning legal knowledge in schools This team consists of teachers of citizenship education, teachers in some of capable subjects of legal education, direct teachers, staff working in Youth union… Currently, over the country, those staffs need to meet the quantity and standardization requirements of the training level 4.3.3 Group of solutions about programs, curricula, textbooks, teaching forms and methods 4.3.3.1 Standardizing programs and textbooks Citizenship education textbooks will be more quality when the following requirements are met: - Keeping abreast of the goals, the legal education program has provided enough knowledge, focused on strengthening beliefs, positive attitudes, training skills, forming habits of using the legal standards of students - Making sure the content is streamlined, close to reality, fit with students, 20 avoid embracing specific knowledge and legal documents because it will be very outdated - Creating conditions for students to improve their self-learning ability and teachers innovate active teaching methods, present simple but focused - Using Clear language, easy style to understand in all regions, attaching importance to both letter channel and image channels, reasonable prices… - Textbook structure should be open, focusing on practical close legal situations for students to use in life In terms of organization, the State should allow many institutions and subjects to write textbooks and create conditions for schools to choose textbooks 4.3.3.2 Diversify legal education forms In addition to the form of education in class, in the school, from the reality of Hanoi, it is necessary to design other forms of legal education for high school students, such as: Organize playground by studying law or training capacity to solve legal situations in the form of “playing and learning” 4.3.3.3 Innovating legal education methods Legal education for high school students is necessary to apply softly and in accordance with the following teaching methods: Presentation method; Visual methods; Role play method; Conversation method; Method to raise the problem; Group discussion method; Method of instruction; Project method; Method of stageizing the legal situation It is necessary to innovate not only teaching methods but also examining and evaluating methods Besides, it is necessary to pay attention to legal education on the basis of the soft skills of teachers, the feelings and ideas that teachers build to contribute to sensitizing and persuading students 4.4.4 Group of solutions to strengthen facilities and conditions to ensure legal education activities - Ensuring documents and equipment for legal education activities in schools - Ensuring funding for legal education activities in schools 4.4.5 Other solutions In addition to the above solutions, it is possible to identify other solutions such as: reforming legal education forms; renewing the legal education content and program; renewing the legal education methods 21 Chapter Conclusion From practical view about legal education for high school students in Hanoi, the PhD student found out: The increase in legal education for high school students in Hanoi is an urgent issue today Legal education activities for students should be carried out on the basis of perspectives associated with reality, ensuring comprehensiveness, ensuring the principle of learning together with practice, school education combined with family and commune education To enhance legal education for high school students, it is necessary to follow general solutions such as strengthening the leadership of the Party, raising awareness of related subjects, improving institutions on legal education activities, building teachers, ensuring material conditions, funding Besides, the PhD student also proposed some specific solutions, with specific characteristics for legal education activities for high school students from the reality of Hanoi in terms of contents, programs, forms and methods of legal education In particular, as a lecturer of teaching and training legal education teachers for high school students, the author proposes specific contents in the legal education program at high schools that is suitable with the requirements of current educational innovation 22 CONCLUSION Legal education is the first step of implementing the law, which is a bridge to convey the law to life Moreover, legal education also aims to improve the legal consciousness into legal culture for people in the context of building a socialist law state of the people, by the people and for the people in our country today In fact, it is necessary to pay attention to legal education for citizens in school The age of high school students is the transition age between children and adults, the legal education activities for this group play an important role in training human resources for the country Legal education for high school students is a very wide-ranging issue and has many different approaches In the scope of the research, the thesis has drawn the following main findings and conclusions: Legal education for high school students is an oriented, organized, intentional activity on students to equip them with knowledge, affection, and belief in the law, thereby forming the students' sense of law, being the basis for the formation of behavior and the habit following the law right from the schools and after graduation Legal education contributes to moral education, lifestyle, character formation, behaviors for students who “live and work under the Constitution and the law” Legal education also aims to comprehensively develop students, because the final product of education is the people who have all the elements: Morality - Knowledge - Fitness - Beauty Especially, legal education for high school students is contributing to training high quality human resources for society and the country Therefore, legal education is a matter of great concern to the Party and State of Vietnam In recent years, the Party and the State have issued many documents of policies and laws on legal education for many different subjects, including pupils and students Hanoi is the capital, the heart of the country, where the largest population and high school students in the country is concentrated so that the legal education activities for students soon becomes one of the important tasks of the Department of Education and Training and matches with Department of Justice and other departments Through surveys in 12 high schools in Hanoi, legal education for students in recent years has achieved certain results, contributing significantly to the education of the younger generation However, the determination of purpose, design of program content, selection of forms and methods of legal education still have 23 shortcomings that are leading to the effectiveness of legal education activities for high school students in Hanoi is not high In order to constantly improve the effectiveness of those activities, it is necessary to apply a system of solutions focused on changing educational thinking about legal eduation in the direction of harmonious combination of scientific knowledge and social consciousness At the same time, it is also necessary to innovate the contents, methods of legal education; consolidate the structure, the staff legal education teachers; associate legal education with cultural education activities in schools and in the society Legal ecuation in general, legal education in high schools in particular is a strategic activity Therefore, in order for those solutions to promote its positiveness, it is necessary to coordinate with the state, relevant departments, high schools, families and students themselves This is a condition to ensure legal education activities in particular, as well as education and training in general to fulfill the role and mission in the human training strategy 24 ... but education at the school plays the most important role This is because currently in Vietnam, most high school students have more time in school or more attached to schools in other environments... characteristics of high school students in Hanoi 3.1.2.1 High school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development earlier than their ages Like high school students nationwide, high school students... high school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development earlier than ages; high school students in Hanoi have better cognitive development than students in other localities; high school
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