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Sử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng SơnSử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ năng nói cho học sinh của trường tiểu học Hùng Sơn THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRUONG THI KIM NHI USING ROLE PLAY TO DEVELOP SPEAKING SKILL FOR STUDENTS IN HUNG SON PRIMARY SCHOOL (Sử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển nói cho học sinh trường tiểu học Hùng Sơn) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Dr Nguyen Thi Viet Nga THAI NGUYEN – 2018 i DECLARATION -***** I certify that the minor thesis entitled “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” is my own study in the fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts at Foreign Language Faculty, Thai Nguyen University Signature: Truong Thi Kim Nhi Thai Nguyen, 2018 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the process of completing this graduation paper, I have been fortunate to receive much support, assistance, guidance encouragement from many people First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Mrs Nguyen Thi Viet Nga, Ph.D who has kindly given me constructive comments, criticism, suggestions In addition, my thanks also are sent to all the teachers of College of Foreign Languages at Thai Nguyen University who have taught me with all their heart in unforgettable two years They have directly and indirectly contributed to the completion of this research I also wish to give my deepest thanks to my family who has been wholeheartedly supporting me They are always beside and motivate me in my study and my life Finally, I also would like to thank all my friends for their discussions, opinions and encouragements Without their instructive contributions, my research could have been finished Moreover, the shortcomings in this study are unavoidable Therefore, I hope to receive the sympathy from teachers and friends Thai Nguyen, 2018 Truong Thi Kim Nhi iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION……………………………………………………………….… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………….… ii TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………… ……… iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….… vi LIST OF FIGURES, ABBREVIATIONS, TABLES AND CHARTS ……….….viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Research questions .2 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the research 1.6 Structure of the thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Speaking 2.1.1 Definition of speaking .4 2.1.2 Elements of speaking 2.1.3 Types of speaking 2.2 Teaching speaking for primary students 2.2.1 Teaching speaking 2.2.2 How to teach speaking for primary students 2.3 Using role-playing activities teaching speaking for primary students 2.3.1 Role- play 2.3.2 Types of role play .10 2.3.3 The organization of a role - play activity 10 2.3.4 The teacher’s and student’s role in role play activity 11 2.3.5 The advantages of role play activity 12 2.3.6 The disadvantages of role play activity 13 iv 2.4 Review of Related Studies 14 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 16 3.1 Research questions .16 3.2 Participants 16 3.3 Data collection instrument 16 3.3.1 Observation 17 3.3.2 Interview 17 3.3.3 Test .18 3.4 Research procedure 20 3.5 Data analysis 23 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 25 4.1 Findings of the Observation 25 4.1.1 The result of pre observation .25 4.1.2 The result of observation after implementing the Class Action Research 25 4.2 Findings of the Interview 26 4.3 The result of the test 28 4.3.1 The result of pre – test 28 4.3.1 Findings of the first cycle 28 4.3.2 Findings of the second cycle .34 4.4.3 Findings of the Test Results .38 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 46 5.1 Recapitulation 46 5.2 Suggestions 46 5.2.1 For teachers 46 5.2.2 For students .47 5.2.3 For the researchers: 48 5.3 Limitations: 48 REFERENCES 49 APPENDIXES I v ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to enhance students’ activity in learning speaking skill, to check whether role play is effective learning technique, to know advantages and disadvantages of role play The research subject is fifth grade students of Hung Son Primary School which is located in Hung Son town, Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province This research was classroom action research that conducted into two cycles In each cycle was consisted of plan, action, observation, and reflection Data collection techniques used are interviews, observations and tests In this research, the researcher acted as the practitioner The tests were in the form of pretest conducted in the pre-research and post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle These tests were conducted to know how well students speak English by using role play in teaching English The results of this research showed that the use of role-play can improve the students’ speaking competence, role play is an effective technique of learning, and there are some advantages besides the disadvantages From the observations, it can be seen that the students could speak well and improve their vocabularies and grammatical structure Using role play in speaking class could increase the student’s scores in learning speaking It can be proved by the improvement of motivation of students There were students or 11.67 % of students in the class who achieved the minimal mastery level criterion or KKM (65) in the pre – test In the result of post – test in cycle 1, there were 22 or 36.67 % of the students who achieved KKM In the result of post –test in cycle 2, there were 53 or 88.33 % of the students who achieved KKM, and it means this action research is successful Based on the research finding above, at the end of this research, the researcher wants to propose some suggestions to English teachers First, before conducting the instructional process especially in speaking class, choosing the most suitable way of improving the students’ motivation in learning speaking is important because this is the key of the success in teaching-learning process Besides, it is necessary to create an interesting and enjoyable atmosphere in the teaching learning vi process in order to make the students easier in improving their speaking competence vii LIST OF FIGURES, ABBREVIATIONS, TABLES AND CHARTS Figures: Figure 1: Kurt Lewin’s Action Research Design……………………………… 21 Figure 2: The Phases of Classroom Action Research (Adapted from Kurt Lewin’s Action Research Design)……………………………………………….………22 Abbreviations: CLT: Communicative Language Teaching……………………………………12 CAR: Classroom Action Research…………………………………………… 17 KKM: Criterion Minimum of Completeness………………………………….29 Tables: Table 1: Assessing Students’ Progress………………………………………… 17 Table 2: The Rating Scores of Oral Test …………………………….…………18 Table 3: The students’ participation in speaking during CAR………….…….24 Table 4: The students’ participation in speaking during cycle 1…….….……31 Table 5: The students’ participation in speaking during cycle 2…… …… …36 Table 6: The students’ speaking score of pre – test, post – test 1, post - test 37 Table 7: The distribution of the students score…………………………………39 Charts: Chart 1: The Students’ Score Mean Improvement……………………………41 Chart 2: The Students’ Score Class Percentage (pre - test, post - test I, post – test II)……………………………………………………………………………42 viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale English is an international language used in order to communicate in the fields of education, technology, trade and politics so that it is learnt as a foreign language in many countries around the world In Viet Nam, speaking is appreciated as an important skill in teaching English for primary students Nowadays, the students faced a number of difficulties in learning speaking skill The first problem students faced in speaking skill was they did not have sufficient vocabulary, because of this; they found it difficult to express their ideas when the teacher wanted them to speak in English The second problem was the students felt afraid if they made some mistakes when they conversed in English Therefore, many students were not confident to speak and take part in classroom interaction The third problem that the students faced in learning speaking skill was they had very limited time to practice their English because they only practiced their English at school, and after they returned home from school they did not use English anymore Moreover, the students just have an opportunity in classroom which is a contrived situation that does not always make the opportunity for students to practice natural speaking Consequently, the students thought that their performance in English was still low Because of these problems, in order to activate and motivate students in learning speaking, teachers should use effective techniques for the teaching of speaking One of the most popular activities used is role play which is a very useful technique in teaching speaking language Ur (1981) stated that “The use of the play has added a tremendous number of possibilities for communication practice” Barkley (2004, p 150) said that “Role Play is a created situation in which students deliberately act out or assume characters or identities they would not normally assume in order to accomplish learning goal” It means the activity helps create interaction in the language classroom It is practical, entertaining, and gets students to produce authentic English Additionally, it can motivate the learners and establish good relationships between the teacher and the students as well as among the students thereby encouraging a supportive environment for language learning Deriving from the above mentioned reasons, “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” is made The researcher hopes that this study will provide the teachers of primary school a suitable method to teach speaking for primary students 1.2 Aims of the study This study had two aims: - To find out whether role-play improves the speaking competence of students at Hung Son primary school - To find out the advantages and disadvantages while applying role-play to students at Hung Son primary school 1.3 Research questions - How effective are role-playing activities in improving students’ speaking skills at Hung Son primary school? - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using role-play to teach speaking English skill? 1.4 Scope of the study The scope of the research focused on developing speaking skill for students in grade in Hung Son Primary School by using role play Any other related issues should be included in further research 1.5 Significance of the research “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son Primary School” is a research which is expected to be able to give some benefits for teachers, learners and readers For teachers, this study can give more meaning and deeper understanding for the English teachers for the innovative and creative methods that can be applied in teaching speaking S23 56 61 63 S24 51 63 66 S25 58 67 72 S26 56 64 72 S27 52 64 77 S28 59 65 71 S29 55 63 70 S30 54 60 76 S31 66 72 79 S32 52 61 63 S33 56 67 77 S34 59 69 76 S35 62 71 78 S36 56 64 74 S37 55 63 70 S38 52 63 70 S39 51 62 63 S40 56 64 75 S41 54 62 71 S42 59 65 75 S43 57 64 75 S44 61 69 73 S45 66 70 76 S46 53 62 72 40 S47 58 64 70 S48 55 64 73 S49 60 69 76 S50 57 67 73 S51 52 63 77 S52 59 65 73 S53 56 62 74 S54 53 62 73 S55 67 75 79 S56 58 64 72 S57 55 63 73 S58 55 62 78 S59 65 71 76 S60 60 67 73 TOTAL 3426 3885 4375 MEAN 57.1 64.75 72.65 P 11.67 36.67 88.33 Table 6: The students’ speaking score of pre – test, post – test 1, post - test Highlight Score: Students pass the criterion minimum 65: Criterion Minimum of Completeness (KKM) From the table above, the highest score of the pre - test is 68, while the lowest score of pre – test is 50 For the post – test 1, the highest score is 76 and the lowest is 58 While for post – test the highest score is 80 and the lowest is 63 The distribution of the score is showed in the table 41 Score 45 – 54 55 – 64 65 – 74 75 – 84 Total Pre – test 16 37 60 Post– test 22 36 60 Post – test 26 27 60 Table 7: The distribution of the students’ score To compare the data result among pre – test, post – test and post – test 2, the writer calculated the students mean score of the test, the class percentage and the students’ improvement score from pre - test to post - test and In the pretest, the mean score of students on speaking test before carrying out CAR is 57.1 It is students’ speaking score before they use role play technique It is calculated as following: Σx 3426 Xo = = n = 57.1 60 Meanwhile, the class percentage which passes the KKM is 11.67% It means that there are only students who are able to pass the KKM (65) and there are 53 students are out of the target It is calculated as following: P0 = F X n 100% = x 100% = 11.67% 60 In the post – test 1, the mean score of the post – test is 64.75 It means that there are some students’ score improvement from the previous test (pre - test), that is 7.65 (64.75 – 57.1) Meanwhile, the class percentage which passes the KKM in post test is 36.67% It shows that there are 22 students who pass the KKM and there 42 are 38 students whose score still under KKM The students’ improvements which pass the KKM are 25% (36.67% - 11.67%) However, it is still needed more improvement because it could not achieve the target yet of success CAR, that is 75% from the class percentage That is why the writer and the teacher continue to the second cycle Based on the result of post – test 2, it can be interpreted that the mean of students’ posttest scores was: Σx 4375 X2 = = = 72.92 60 n From this data, the researcher calculates students’ pre - test score with students’ post - test score by using this formula below to find the improvement of students score in the form of percentage, it will be as follow: y1 - y P= 72.65- 57.1 x 100% = y 57.1 x 100% = 27.23% After finding the improvement of students’ score, then the researcher tried to find the class percentage of the whole students who able to pass the KKM as follow: P2 = F X n 100% = 53 x 100% = 88.33 % 60 In the second cycle, the writer also calculates the mean score of the class which is 72.92 It showed the students’ improvement score 8.17 (72.92 – 64.75) from the posttest (64.75) Meanwhile, the class percentage which passed KKM is 88.33% This class percentage shows some improvement 76.66% (88.33% - 11.67%) from 43 the pretest (11.67%) or 51.66% (88.33% - 36.67%) from the posttest (36.67%) in the class percentage The writer obtained that there are 27.23 % of students score had improved within the second cycle, or 53 of 60 students are passed the KKM while the other students are still below the KKM The posttest of cycle has fulfilled the target of CAR success, that is above 75% students could pass the KKM It can be said that CAR is success and the cycle of CAR is not continued From all the calculation above, the researcher could interpret the result after the implementation of Classroom Action Research from cycle I up to cycle II It could be seen from the result of pre-test, post-test I and post-test II Here the writer describes the result from pre-test, post-test I and post-test II through diagram below: Chart 1: The Students’ Score Mean Improvement NB: Pretest = 57.1 Post - test I = 64.75 Post - test II = 72.92 44 Chart 2: The Students’ Score Class Percentage (pre - test, post - test I, post – test II) NB: pre – test: 11.67 % Post – test 1: 36.67% Post – test 2: 88.33% After being taught by using role play, most students got better achievement except seven students who got the lowest score Her lower score was caused by her inadequate knowledge even after he was involved in the treatments The result of data analysis revealed that the students’ scores of speaking taught by implementing role play was better The highest score of pre - test was 68 and the lowest one was 50 The highest score of post - test was 76 and the lowest one was 58 Meanwhile, the highest score of post - test was 80 and the lowest one was 63 The mean score of the class in the second cycle was 72.92, whereas the mean score before the implementation of role play technique was 57.1 It can be concluded that the students was a significant improvement, which can be seen from the score that got higher from pre – test, post – test 1, and post – test 45 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Recapitulation The study “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” used Classroom Action Research (CAR) method in which to identify the problem on students’ speaking ability It was applied for students in grade at Hung Son Primary school, which is considered as the class whose speaking ability is quite low The amount of students of that class was 60 In this CAR, the research was conducted in two cycles which followed the Kurt Lewin’s design It consisted of four phases: Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting Meanwhile, the data is derived from the test, interview and observation Based on the result of this study “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school”, which was conducted in Grade at Hung Son Primary School, the writer concluded that role play activity can develop students’ speaking skill showed by the score they got Moreover, by observing the students’ participation in the class conversation, discussions, perform in front of the class, it showed that the students were more creative, active, confident and independent in express what they have known Furthermore, thanks to the result of interview and observation during implementing the Class Action Research., it also indicated the advantages and advantages of role play activity in teaching speaking English for primary students Although there are some disadvantages such as wasting time, causing embarrassment, losing control during the lesson, role play is an activity which helps the students improve their speaking English skill Role play activity provides students with the opportunity to practice the language in different real – life situations Thus, role play activity adds interest to speaking English classes and motivates students to learn the language, increasing their vocabulary, intonation, fluency and pronunciation 5.2 Suggestions In this part, the writer would like to recommend some suggestions for English teacher, students and other researcher The suggestions are as follows: 5.2.1 For teachers 46 Firstly, role play is a helpful technique which is used to improve students’ speaking ability; therefore, the teacher needs to maintain applying role play activity as alternative activity of the teaching process in grade students of Hung Son Primary school Secondly, the teacher should learn the characteristics of the students, including the psychological condition before conducting the teaching learning process Moreover, teacher should have good preparations A various materials for lessons with pictures and information should be prepared carefully They should create a good atmosphere for students to take part in role play activity Thirdly, the teacher’s attitude toward students during the time of conducting role play activity will decide the success of the lesson such as: observe, listen and how to help students, encouragement and even giving feedback When giving feedback, the teachers should give feedback on both form and content It is advisable that teachers should encourage students to self- correct Giving feedback and correcting errors is also a good way to motivate students as it is a useful comprehension for students and it shows that the teachers really listen to what they say However, the teacher only gives feedback and correct errors after students already finish their performance Furthermore, the teacher should give clear explanation and instruction in directing the students using role play Before assigning the role play to the students, the teacher should make sure that the students have fully understood and have the information they need Lastly, the teacher should control the students’ activities One of the issues that may reduce the effectiveness of role – play activities is students’ Vietnamese use They may use Vietnamese during discussion or even chat with each other The best way to keep students speaking English is that the teachers should try their best to put an eye on all groups, remind students, model them the language use and provide their students with vocabulary or grammatical structures that may help them to solve the tasks When students have enough background knowledge, they not have the need to use mother tongue – Vietnamese 5.2.2 For students 47 First, the students are hoped to be active in learning and teaching process Next, the students are expected to use English when they practice role play activity although it is a bit difficult for them for the first time In addition, the students not feel shy if they make mistakes in pronunciation and grammatical errors but try to keep speaking well 5.2.3 For the researchers The result of the study can be used as an additional reference or further research with different discussion Each researcher not easily satisfied with the research that has been done, but must continue to be developed so that it can continue to work and innovate for the advancement of education in Viet Nam 5.3 Limitations Although the research was carefully prepared and obtained it aims, I am still aware of some unavoidable limitations and shortcomings of the research First of all, the research was conducted only on a small size of population, only sixty students who were in Grade at Hung Son Primary school and might not represent the majority of the students of the level Second, the research was conducted in a short period of time Because the students had to be part of the research and to attend to their regular classes, the teacher could not apply many techniques and strategies within the ten weeks’ time Therefore, the data gained might be insufficient to come to appropriate conclusions Thirdly, the lack of basic vocabulary, incorrect pronunciation, poor intonation and fluency as well as shyness in the majority of students made role-play activities difficult to perform at the beginning of the intervention Finally, because the pre – test and post – test were assessed by the writer herself, it is unavoidable that the degree of subjectivity can be found 48 REFERENCES Anas Sudijono (2009), Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, (Jakarta: P.T Raja Grafindo Persada),p.43 Arikunto, Suharsimi (2009), Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Bailey, K.M & Nunan, D (2005), Practical English language teaching speaking NewYork : MecGraw-Hill Education Barkley, Elizabeth F., K.Patricia Cross, and Claire Howell Major (2005), Collaborative Learning Techniques A handbook for College Faculty San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher Brown, H Douglas (2001), Language Assesment Principles and Classroom Practises New York: Longman Brown, Douglas (2000), Principles of language learning and teaching San Francisco: State University Byrne, Donn (1996), Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher Singapore: Longman Groups Candace Matthews (1994), Speaking Solution: Interaction, Presentation, Listening, and Pronunciation Skills, (New Jersey: Prentice – Hall Inc), p.111 Carol Livingstone (1983), Role Play in Langauge Learning, (Burnt Mill: Longman Group Limited), p.30 David E Meltzer (2008), The Relationship between mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Scores, (lowa: Department of Physics and Astronomy) , p.3 Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2009), Model Pembelajaran yang Efektif, (Jakarta: Dekdiknas), p.4 Gower, Roger and Diane Philips, Steve Walters (1995), Teaching Practice Handbook, Oxford: Heinemann English Language Teaching 49 Heaton, J.B (1990), Classroom Testing: Longman Keys to Language Teaching, New York: Longman James H Mcmillan and Sally Schumacher (2006), Research Education: Evidence – Based Inquiry, (New York: Pearson Education, ), p.194 JO Mc Donough and Christopher Shaw (2003), Materials and Methods in ELT, (Melbourner: Blackwell Publishing,), p.134 Kayi, Hayriye (2006), Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language The Internet TESL Journal,12 (1), accessed on December 2010 Ladousse, Gillian Porter (1995), Role Play: Resources Book for the Teacher Series New York: Oxford University Press Luoma, Sari (2004), Assesing speaking Cambridge: Cambridge university press McKay, P (2006) Assessing young language learners Cambridge: CUP Mustafa, N (2011), Teaching language functions by implementing communicative activities, English Education Journal, (1), p 65-77 Nurmaida (2011) Implementation of key word tasks using cooperative stad in speaking class, English Education Journal, (1), 78-95 Richards, Jack C., Theodore S Rodgers (1986), Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching A Description and Analysis Cambridge University Richards, J C., & Renandya, W A (Eds.) (2002) Methodology in language teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Richards, J C (2005), Communicative Language Teaching Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center Richards, J C (2008) Teaching Listening and Speaking Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 50 Sarah Lynne Bowman (2010), The Function of Role-Playing Games, (Britain: Mc Farland & Company, Inc Publisher), p 49-50 Ur, Penny (1981), Discussions that work: Task-Centered Fluency Practice Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Ur, Penny (1996), A Course in Language Teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman (1998), An Introduction to Language, (New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers), p.14 W James Popham, Educational Statistic, (New York, Harper & Row Publishers), p 21 - 18 51 APPENDIXES Appendix The Questions of Pre - test (Interview) What is your name? How you spell your name? How are you today? How old are you? Can you speak English? Do you like speaking English? What you do? How many people are there in your family? Who are they? Where did you go for last summer? 10 What did you there? 52 Appendix The Questions of Post – test 1, 2(Role playing) Situation 1: Image you are a waiter in “Family Restaurant” A customer wants to order food and drink Help her/ him order Situation 2: Image you are a journalist You have to write an article which tells about a good student Interview about his her background Situation 3: Image you go to the supermarket You have to help your mother buy something Situation 4: Image your family are planning for the summer holiday Talk about the plan 53 Appendix The procedures of the test: Pre – test: The test was done in front of the teacher desk It means the students faced the teacher - The teacher called students one by one and asked students the questions - The students answered what the teacher had asked Post – test: - The teacher gave the instruction of the post – test - The teacher showed some envelopes, which contained some role cards - The student took one role card - The student acted out as role play together with teacher based on the role card 54 ... develop speaking skill for student in mountainous schools, for instance, Hung Son Primary School Therefore, it was a great motivation for the writer to choose the topic for research The author would... develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” is made The researcher hopes that this study will provide the teachers of primary school a suitable method to teach speaking for primary... competence of students at Hung Son primary school - To find out the advantages and disadvantages while applying role-play to students at Hung Son primary school 1.3 Research questions - How effective
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