Nghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt Nam (Luận văn thạc sĩ)

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Nghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt NamNghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt Nam THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRAN THI THUY AN AN INVESTIGATION ON PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN VIETNAMESE EFL REFUSALS (Nghiên cứu chuyển đổi ngữ dụng học cách nói từ chối sinh viên Việt Nam) M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 THAI NGUYEN – 2018 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRAN THI THUY AN AN INVESTIGATION ON PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN VIETNAMESE EFL REFUSALS (Nghiên cứu chuyển đổi ngữ dụng học cách nói từ chối sinh viên Việt Nam) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Dr Duong Duc Minh THAI NGUYEN – 2018 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deep thanks to people who have assisted me when I carried out the research I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Dr Duong Duc Minh for his encouragement and guidance throughout the research who gave me his precious comments, expert advice and most of his kind encouragement during my doing research Also, I would like to acknowledge my gratitude to all of the lecturers and the staff of the Department of Post-Graduate Studies at School of Foreign Languages, Thai Nguyen University for their valuable lectures and supports I am greatly indebted to my colleagues and students at Thai Nguyen College of Education, Thai Nguyen School of Foreign Languages, University of Wollongong, Australia for their enthusiasm, helpfulness, care and patience towards my data collection which grant great contributions for my thesis Finally, I would like to express my special thanks to my parents, my husband and other members in my family for their love, care, support and encouragement so that I could accomplish my study i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I hereby declare the thesis entitled An Investigation on Pragmatic Transfer in Vietnamese EFL Refusals is the result of my own research for the Degree of Master of Arts at the School of Foreign Languages - Thai Nguyen University and this thesis is in total fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Arts This thesis has not been submitted for any degree and any other university or institution Signed Date ii ABSTRACT This study is an attempt to investigate similarities and differences in the speech acts of refusals among native Vietnamese speakers (NVs), Australian native speakers of English (NEs), and Vietnamese learners of English (VEs) The Written DCT (Discourse Completion Test) was used for data collection Research subjects included 90 people in three groups: 30 native Vietnamese speakers, 30 Vietnamese English learners, and 30 Australian native English speakers The performance of three groups were compared to find out the differences in semantic formulae of refusals made by Vietnamese, Vietnamese English learners and native English speakers, the characteristics of pragmatic transfer in EFL learners The responses were coded according to the classification of refusal strategies as outlined by Beebe et al., (1990) The findings reveal that pragmatic transfer exists in choice and content of semantic formulae Native speakers liked to use more direct refusal strategies and positive feelings than Vietnamese speakers and the pragmatic transfer occurred in Vietnamese EFL learners iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS B.A: Bachelor of Arts DCT: Discourse Completion Task EFL: English as a Foreign Language ESL: English as a Second Language L1: First Language L2: Second Language NE: Native English NNSs: Non-native Speakers NSs: Native Speakers NV: Native Vietnamese VE: Vietnamese EFL learners iv LIST OF TABLES Table Page Table 3.1: Classification of DCT 19 Table 3.2 The semantic formulas used in the analysis of data (Beebe et al., 1990 and modified by Phuong, 2014) 20 Table 4.1: Refusals to a request of higher status person 23 Table 4.2: Examples of semantic formula 24 Table 4.3: Refusals to a request of lower status person 25 Table 4.4: Examples of semantic formula 25 Table 4.5: Refusals to an invitation of higher status person 26 Table 4.6: Examples of semantic formula 26 Table 4.7: Refusals to an invitation of lower status person 27 Table 4.8: Examples of semantic formula 27 Table 4.9: Refusals to an offer of a higher status person .28 Table 4.10: Examples of semantic formula 28 Table 4.11: Refusals to an offer of a lower status person .29 Table 4.12: Examples of semantic formula 29 Table 4.13: Refusals to a suggestion of a higher status person 30 Table 4.14: Examples of semantic formula 30 Table 4.15: Refusals to a suggestion of a lower status person .31 Table 4.16: Examples of semantic formula 31 v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Outline of the study CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Pragmatic Transfer 2.2 Factors affecting pragmatic transfer 2.3 Speech Acts 2.4 Refusal as a Speech Act 2.5 Classification of Speech Acts 2.6 Studies on the Speech Act of Refusals 12 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 17 3.1 Research approach 17 3.2 Subjects of the study 17 3.3 Instrument 17 3.4 Data collection procedure and analysis 19 3.4.1 Data collection procedure 20 3.4.2 Data Analysis 20 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 22 4.1 Refusals to requests 23 vi 4.1.1 Refusal to a request of salary payment (higher) 23 4.1.2 Refusal to a request of staying late (lower) 25 4.2 Refusals to invitations 26 4.2.1 Refusal to an invitation to a restaurant (higher) 26 4.2.2 Refusal to an invitation to a boss party (lower) 27 4.3 Refusals to offers 28 4.3.1 Refusal to an offer to pay for a vase (higher) 28 4.3.2 Refusal to an offer to an executive promotion (lower) 29 4.4 Refusals to suggestions 30 4.4.1 Refusal to a suggestion to have more conversation in Foreign Language (higher) 30 4.4.2 Refusal to a suggestion to write a reminder (lower) 31 4.5 Choice of semantic formulae used in refusals of Vietnamese EFL learners 32 4.5.1 ‘Explanation’ 32 4.5.2 “Gratitude’ 33 4.5.3 Positive feeling & Regret 33 4.5.4 Direct ‘No’ 34 4.5.5 Social Status 35 4.5.6 Social Distance 35 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS 37 5.1 Semantic formulae for the speech act of refusals used by native speakers of Vietnamese, Native English and Vietnamese EFL learners 37 5.2 Pragmatic transfer in the semantic formulae used in refusals of Vietnamese EFL learners 38 5.3 Implications 38 5.4 Limitations 39 5.5 Recommendations for Future Studies 39 REFERENCES 41 APPENDIX 45 vii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study Language is the carrier of culture and culture the substance of language: The two cannot exist separately (Romaine, 2000) To succeed in communicating with others, one must be aware of the culture behind the language used in communication (Tanck, 2004) When speaking a foreign language, the issue of culture becomes critical English as Foreign language (EFL) learners, especially those with languages different and distant from English psychologically, culturally, phonologically, and syntactically, may struggle when attempting to communicate in English Non-proficient language learners are not only jeopardized by their imperfect language knowledge but obstructed by their inadequate knowledge of culture To compensate for their lack of knowledge, EFL learners may fall back on their own linguistic cultural reservoir, translating utterances from their mother tongue and applying their own cultural rules when communicating in English (Al-Eryani, 2007; Lauper, 1997) This might lead to pragmatic errors that could result in misunderstanding and embarrassment or pragma-linguistic failure (Riley, 1989; Thomas, 1983; Umale, 2011) This is especially important nowadays as “cross-cultural communication is becoming an integral part of life, with globalization and rapid advances in new technology” (Umale, 2011, p 19) In addition, employment opportunities in the local and global market increasingly demand good language proficiency and communicative ability Therefore, teaching pragmatic rules in a way that they would involve communication strategies and speech acts will give students the English knowledge and communicative competence that will secure good job placements after graduation The phenomenon of pragmatic transfer and their motivating factors have been investigated in several speech acts in different languages, such as English, Hebrew, Spanish, French, German, Danish, Arabic and Portuguese (Byon, 2004) Several cross-cultural studies proved that pragmatic transfer is evident in L2 speech intimacy between friends and relatives The desire to achieve harmony between the self and the non-self remains an essential preoccupation of the Vietnamese in interpersonal relations Thus VE participants tend to use more speech act of refusals in their refusals to intimates NEs used the least statements of excuse/reason/explanation in their refusals to strangers when compared with intimates and acquaintances The situation is the same for VEs In Australian and Vietnamese perceptions, strangers are considered to be distanced So they not care for them as much as for their intimates and acquaintances, who will be in longer-term relationships with them On the other hand, both NEs and VEs used the highest number of statements of principle when they refused strangers Principles are considered established regulations that are valid over an extended period of time When employing statements of principle, the participants wanted to emphasize that they were not going to change their principles to perform the requests This situation applied mostly with strangers 36 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS For this study, written responses from native Vietnamese speakers, Vietnamese EFL learners and native English speakers to two invitations, two requests, two offers and two suggestions were collected and examined The invitations, requests, offers and suggestions came from three types of interlocutors with two contextual variables of power, specifically higher power status person and lower power status person The specific research questions were: What are the semantic formulae for the speech act of refusals used by native speakers of Vietnamese, Native English and Vietnamese EFL learners? and To what extent does pragmatic transfer exist in the semantic formulae used in refusals of Vietnamese EFL learners? The answers to these questions are reviewed and the results of the present study are discussed in relationship to previous research studies Conclusions and recommendations for future studies are also made 5.1 Semantic formulae for the speech act of refusals used by native speakers of Vietnamese, Native English and Vietnamese EFL learners Based on questionnaire data asking what individuals would do, refusals of NEs are different from those of VEs, though they share some similarities All the three examined group demonstrated direct and indirect refusals in this study They all used commonly strategy in refusal including Explanation, Gratitude, Positive feeling and Regret and Direct No However, pragmatic transfer in refusal situations occurs most frequently in a request situation when the refusers were higher status than the requester In other situations, the results of pragmatic transfer were less obvious, but there was small evidence For example, NEs tended to say, “thank you/thanks, anyway” at the end, or started with the word “thank you” when they talked to the same status interlocutor in an invitation situation Besides, a difference was found in the content of reasons for refusals Providing a reason was one of the most frequently used refusal strategies by the NV While the NEs generally provided honest reasons, nearly half of them provided 37 reasons that were specific In a refusal, a reason is provided to soften the face threatening act of the refusal However, if the reason is too specific and appears to be untrue, pragmatic failure could result 5.2 Pragmatic transfer in the semantic formulae used in refusals of Vietnamese EFL learners In the present study, compared to the native English speakers, the foreign language students present a much more native-like production of refusal strategies The VE used almost equal illocutionary acts for production of refusal to the four eliciting acts including invitation, suggestion, offer, and request with regards to the two social variables, the social status of interlocutor (higher/lower) in a very nativelike manner In addition, they applied similar illocutionary acts to initiate and finalize their refusals compared to the native speakers of English Likewise, in refusing the four eliciting acts including invitation, suggestion, offer, and request, there were not any important qualitative differences between the VEs and English native speakers From this result, we can conclude that these learners extended exposure and interaction with native speakers has helped them to overcome social and cultural barriers and developed their pragmatic competence 5.3 Implications Different cultures have different ways of perception and of production of speech acts These differences may cause misunderstanding or pragmatic failure when intercultural communications happen If pragmatic competence is ignored in foreign language class rooms, the learners may encounter misunderstandings when interacting later (Al-Kahtani, 2005) Inferred from the differences between the NV and NE, pragmatic failure can occur in an interaction between individuals from the two groups For example, the findings indicated that NV expressed ‘gratitude’ less frequently than did native speakers of English when refusing invitations by lower status persons and when refusing all situations of offer Therefore, VE learners might risk committing 38 pragmatic failure and be considered rude although this was not found in the VE group in the present study because most VE subjects were students who are studying English as their major In teaching language education, considering the cultural differences that exist in refusals, foreign language teachers should illustrate the typical types of refusal in the target language, which are different from the native ones Overall, teachers should encourage students to have the knowledge of the cultural differences and the diverse use of the target language (AlKahtani, 2005) According to Lingli & Wannaruk (2010) when English refusal patterns are taught to EFL learners, English culture and learners’ native culture need to be included in instruction to give the learners a very clear picture of the differences between the two cultures 5.4 Limitations The present study examined the pragmatic transfer in refusal strategies used by the native Vietnamese, Vietnamese EFL learners and native English speakers However, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other contexts as in different settings and under different circumstances, the results may vary Hence, the researcher recommends a replication of this study with larger sample sizes, more role play scenarios to confirm the findings of this study in regard to pragmatic competence in speech acts and particularly the speech act of refusal In addition, In spite of the rationale for the use of a written DCT in this study, artificially collected data and the order of questions in the survey may also have affected the results 5.5 Recommendations for Future Studies In the present investigation, data obtained from a written role play questionnaire might yield data different from naturally occurring data Besides, the subjects representing Vietnamese native speakers and English native speakers are people who aware of being researched, furthermore Vietnamese EFL learners were students who are quite good at English since they were obtaining the B.A in English This might limit the generalization of the results to other groups of Vietnamese and 39 English native speakers As a result, future research in pragmatic transfer should take individual’s level of English proficiency into consideration in order to better understand the occurrence of pragmatic transfer In addition, future studies may employ other research tools such as role play or simulation to support the use of Discourse Completion Task (DCT) Finally, to study pragmatic transfer by EFL learners, a longitudinal approach might be applied for better understanding of the development of pragmatic competence 40 REFERENCES Abdul Sattar, H Q., Lah, S C., & Suleiman, R R (2011) Refusal strategies in English by Malay university students GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 11(3), 69–81 Allami, H & Naeimi, A (2011) A Cross-Linguistic Study of Refusals: An Analysis of Pragmatic Competence Development in Iranian EFL Learners Journal of Pragmatics 43 (1), 385-406 Al-Eryani, A (2007) Refusal strategies by Yemeni EFL learners Asian EFL Journal, 9(2), 19-34 Al-Kahtani, A (2005) Refusals Realization in three different cultures: a speech act theoretically-based cross-culture study Language and Translation, 1246 pp 1-11 Austin, J (1962) How to things with words Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Austin, J L (1975) How to things with words (Vol 1955): Oxford University Press Bach, K (2007) Speech acts In Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy Retrieved from http://www.ucd.ie/artspgs/meaningthree/PhilosophyofLanguage.pdf Retrieved date: 20 Jan 2018 Bardovi-Harlig, K & Hartford H (1998) Pragmatics and Language teaching: Bringing Pragmatics and Pedagogy together Pragmatics and Language Learning pp 21-39 Beckers, A., 1999 How to say ‘‘no” without saying ‘‘no”: a study of the refusal strategies of Americans and Germans Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Mississippi Beebe, L M., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R (1990) Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals In R Scarcella, E Andersen, & S D Krashen (Eds.), On the development of communicative competence in a second language (pp 55-73) New York: Newbury House 41 Belza, A (2008) A questionnaire-based comparative study of Irish 2007English and Polish speech act of requesting Unpublished doctoral dissertation University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Bou-Franch, P (2012) Pragmatic Transfer 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0932 Retrieve date: May 2018 Bruti, S (2006) Cross-cultural pragmatics: The translation of implicit compliments in subtitles The Journal of Specialized Translation Retrieved from http://www.jostrans.org/issue06/art_bruti.php Retrieved date: 20 March 2018 Byon, A (2004) The Korean speech act of refusals: Sociopragmatic Analysis The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 11, 241-270 Che-Lah, S and Suleiman, R (2011) Refusal strategies in English by Malay University Students GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies (12) pp 69-81 Dao, D A (2000) Viet nam van hoa su cuong Hanoi: Nha xuat ban van hoa dan toc Do, X H (2002) Invitations in invitation letters in English composed by Vietnamese people M.A Thesis University of Queensland, Australia Ewert, A and Bromberek-Dyzman, K (2008) L2 users’ sociopragmatic and paralinguistics choices in L1 acts of refusal In L Roberts, F Myle and A David (Eds) EUROSLA yearbook (pp 32-51) Amsterdam; Benjamin Farnia, M., & Wu, X (2012) An intercultural communication study of Chinese and Malaysian university students’ refusal to invitation International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(1), 162–176 Félix-Brasdefer, J C (2004) Interlanguage refusals: Linguistic politeness and length of residence in the target community Language Learning, 54(4), 587-653 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mnsu.edu/login?url=http://search proquest.com/docview/ 85612353?accountid=12259 Retrieved date April 2018 Gass, S., Houck, N., 1999 Interlanguage refusals: a cross-cultural study of Japanese-English Mouton, The Hague, Berlin Horn, R & Ward, G (Eds.) (2004) The handbook of pragmatics Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd 42 Inook, L (1992) The art of refusal: comparison of Korean and American cultures Harthi Trust Online Library Jamieson, N L (1991) Culture and development in Vietnam Honolulu: East-West Centre Justo, V (2006) Direct and indirect speech acts in English Unpublished BA thesis Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Retrieved from http://is.muni.cz/th/109677/ff_b/bachelor_thesis.pdf Retrieved date May 2018 Lauper, J (1997, March) Refusal strategies of native Spanish speakers in Spanish and in English and of native English speakers in English Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Orlando, FL Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED408845.pdf Retrieved date May 2018 Lingli, D and Wannaruk, A (2010) The Effects of Explicit and Implicit Instruction in English Refusals Chinese Journal of Linguistics, 33 (3) pp 91-111 Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A (1989) Speech act behavior across languages In H W Dechert & M Raupach (Eds.) Transfer in language production (pp 53-67) Norwood, NJ: Ablex Phan, T.V.Q (2001) Some English - Vietnamese cross-cultural differences in refusing a request MA thesis Hanoi Phuong, N.T (2006) Cross cultural pragmatics: Refusals of requests by Australian native speakers of English and Vietnamese learners of English The University of Queensland Riley, P (1989) Well don’t blame me! On the interpretation of pragmatic errors In W Olesky (Ed.), Contrastive linguistics pp 231-249 Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Robinson, M (1992) Introspective methodology in Interlanguage pragmatics research In G Kasper (Ed.) Pragmatics of Japanese as a native and foreign language (pp 27-82).University of Hawai Press Romaine, S (2000) Language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics (2nd ed.) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 43 Searle, J (2001) Rationality in action Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Takahashi, S (1993).Transferability of L1 indirect request strategies to L2 contexts Pragmatics and Language Learning, 4, pp 50-84 Takahashi, S (1996) Pragmatic transferability Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), pp 189-223 Takahashi, T., & Dufon, M (1989) Cross-linguistic influence in indirectiveness: The case of English directives performed by native Japanese speakers [ERIC Document ED 370 479.] Tanck, S (2004) Speech act sets of refusal and complaint: A comparison of native and non-native English speakers’ production TESOL Working Papers, 4(2), 1-22 Thomas, J (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure Applied linguistics, 4(2), 91-112 Tran, N T (1998) Co so van hoa Viet nam Hanoi: Nha xuat ban giao duc Umale, J (2011) Pragmatic failure in refusal strategies: British versus Omani interlocutors Arab World English Journal, 2(1), 18-46 Wolfson, Nessa (1989) Perspectives Cambridge, Mass.: Newbury House 44 APPENDIX Discourse Completion Test Directions: Please read the following situation and then complete them by refusing Do not spend a lot of time thinking about what answer you think you should provide; instead, please respond as naturally as possible and try to write your response as you feel you would say it in the situation Example: You work in a department store You are busy helping someone when one of your regular customers asks to see something in the display case You: I’m sorry, I’ll be with you in a minute Customer: Okay, I’ll wait then You are the owner of a bookstore One of the best workers asks to speak to you in private Worker: As you know, I’ve been here just a little over a year now, and I know you’ve been pleased with my work I really enjoy working here, but to be quite honest, I really need an increase in pay You: Worker: Then I guess I’ll have to look for another job You are the president of the printing company A sales man from a printing machine company invites you to one of the most expensive restaurants in New York Salesman: We have met several times to discuss your purchase of my company’s products I was wondering if you would like to be my guest at Lutece/Hanoi in order to firm up a contract You: Salesman: Perhaps another time 45 You are a top executive at a very large accounting firm One day the boss calls you into his office Boss: Next Sunday my wife and I are having a little party I know it’s short notice but I am hoping all my top executives will be there with their wives What you say? You: _ Boss: That’s too bad I was hoping everyone would be there You’re at your desk trying to find a report that your boss just asked for While you’re searching through the mess on your desk, your boss walks over Boss: You know, maybe you should try to organize yourself better I always write myself little notes to remind me of things Perhaps you should give it a try! You: _ Boss: Well, it’s an idea anyway You arrive home and notice that your cleaning lady is extremely upset She comes rushing up to you Cleaning lady: Oh God, I’m sorry! I had an awful accident While I was cleaning I bumped into the table and your china vase fell and broke I feel just terrible about it I’ll pay for it You: (Knowing that the cleaning lady is supporting three children.) Cleaning lady: No, I’d feel better if I paid for it You’re a language teacher at a university It is just about the middle of the term now and one of your students asks to speak to you Student: Ah, excuse me, some of the students were talking after class recently and we kind of feel that the class would be better if you could give us more practice in conversation and less on grammar You: _ Student: O.K., it was only a suggestion 46 You’ve been working in an advertising agency now for some time The boss offers you a raise and promotion, but it involves moving You don’t want to go Today, the boss calls you into his office Boss: I’d like to offer you an executive position in our new offices in Hicktown/ Hanoi It’s a great town - only three hours from here by plane And, a nice raise comes with the position You: Boss: Well, maybe you should give it some more thought before turning it down You are at the office in a meeting with your boss It is getting close to the end of the day and you want to leave work Boss: If you don’t mind, I’d like you to spend an extra hour or two tonight so that we can finish up with this work You: _ Boss: That’s too bad I was hoping you could stay THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION 47 BẢNG CÂU HỎI HOÀN THÀNH TÌNH HUỐNG Hướng dẫn: Vui lòng đọc tình sau sau từ chối tình cách điền vào chỗ trống cho sẵn Đừng dành nhiều thời gian suy nghĩ câu trả lời; thay vào đó, vui lòng trả lời cách tự nhiên tình Ví dụ: Bạn làm việc cửa hàng bách hóa Bạn bận giúp đỡ khách quen bạn u cầu xem thứ kệ hàng Bạn: Em xin lỗi, anh/chị chờ em phút Khách hàng: Được rồi, đợi Bạn chủ hiệu sách Một nhân viên tốt yêu cầu nói chuyện riêng với bạn Nhân viên: Như anh/chị biết, em làm năm em biết anh/chị hài lòng với cơng việc em Em thực thích làm việc đây, thành thật mà nói, cần tăng lương Bạn: Nhân viên: Em hiểu rồi, em phải tìm cơng việc khác Bạn chủ tịch công ty in ấn Một nhân viên bán hàng từ công ty máy in mời bạn đến nhà hàng đắt Hà Nội Nhân viên bán hàng: Chúng ta gặp nhiều lần để thảo luận việc bạn mua sản phẩm công ty Tôi muốn mời anh/chị đến Hà Nội để thiết lập hợp đồng Bạn: Nhân viên bán hàng: Có lẽ để lúc khác Bạn giám đốc điều hành hàng đầu cơng ty kế tốn lớn Một hơm ơng chủ gọi bạn vào văn phòng Sếp: Chủ nhật tuần sau vợ tổ chức bữa tiệc nhỏ Tôi mời riêng hy vọng tất giám đốc điều hành giỏi đến dự Bạn từ chối nào? Bạn: _ Sếp: Chán Tôi hy vọng tất người đến 48 Bạn bàn làm việc cố gắng tìm báo cáo mà sếp bạn vừa yêu cầu Trong bạn tìm kiếm đống lộn xộn bàn, sếp bạn bước tới Sếp: Từ có lẽ cậu nên cố gắng gọn gàng Tôi viết mẩu ghi nhỏ để nhắc nhở thứ Có lẽ cậu nên thử! Bạn: _ Sếp: Ái chà, dù ý tưởng Bạn đến nhà nhận thấy người phụ nữ giúp việc bạn vơ khó chịu Nhìn thấy bạn, cô chạy đến chỗ bạn Người giúp việc: Trời ơi, xin lỗi! Tôi vừa làm chuyện tày trời Trong dọn dẹp, va vào bàn bình sứ rơi vỡ tan Tôi sợ Tôi đền tiền cho anh Bạn: (Biết người giúp việc nuôi ba đứa trẻ.) Người giúp việc: Không, cảm thấy tốt đền tiền cho anh Bạn giáo viên ngôn ngữ trường đại học Bây học kỳ học sinh bạn yêu cầu nói chuyện với bạn Sinh viên: Em xin lỗi, số sinh viên nói chuyện sau học gần chúng em cảm thấy lớp học tốt thầy cho chúng em thực hành giao tiếp nhiều trọng ngữ pháp Bạn: _ Sinh viên: Vâng, em gợi ý Bạn làm việc công ty quảng cáo lâu Sếp đề nghị bạn tăng lương thăng chức, lại liên quan đến việc chuyển chỗ làm việc Bạn không muốn đâu Hơm nay, sếp gọi bạn vào văn phòng Sếp: Tơi muốn đề bạt cậu lên vị trí văn phòng Hà Nội Đó thành phố tuyệt vời, cách bay Và, tất nhiên cậu giám đốc điều hành Bạn: Sếp: Chà, có lẽ cậu nên suy nghĩ thêm trước từ chối 49 Bạn họp với sếp văn phòng Đã gần đến cuối ngày bạn muốn sớm Sếp: Nếu cậu khơng có việc gấp, tơi đề nghị làm thêm hai tối để hồn thành cơng việc Bạn: _ Sếp: Tệ thật Tôi hy vọng cậu lại làm thêm TRÂN TRỌNG CẢM ƠN 50 ... THUY AN AN INVESTIGATION ON PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN VIETNAMESE EFL REFUSALS (Nghiên cứu chuyển đổi ngữ dụng học cách nói từ chối sinh viên Việt Nam) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English... Vietnamese by the researcher herself Then, the Vietnamese version was assessed by five experienced teacher who hold a PhD in teaching Vietnamese at Thai Nguyen University Finally, the Vietnamese... refusal by native speakers of Vietnamese, native English and Vietnamese EFL learners then explore whether the pragmatic transfer exist in the semantic formulae of Vietnamese English language learners
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Xem thêm: Nghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt Nam (Luận văn thạc sĩ), Nghiên cứu sự chuyển đổi về ngữ dụng học trong cách nói từ chối của sinh viên Việt Nam (Luận văn thạc sĩ)

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