THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG

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THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ BÍCH PHỤNG STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF NOMINALISATIONS DENOTING MINDFULNESS IN "ĐƯỜNG XƯA MÂY TRẮNG" AND “PHÉP LẠ CỦA SỰ TỈNH THỨC” BY THICH NHAT HANH MASTER THESIS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Da Nang, 2017 I THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ BÍCH PHỤNG STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF NOMINALISATIONS DENOTING MINDFULNESS IN "ĐƯỜNG XƯA MÂY TRẮNG" AND “PHÉP LẠ CỦA SỰ TỈNH THỨC” BY THICH NHAT HANH Major : The English Language Code : MASTER THESIS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUPERVISOR: LÊ THỊ GIAO CHI, Ph.D Da Nang, 2017 II STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP Except where reference is made in the text of the thesis, this thesis contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a thesis by which I have qualified for or been awarded another degree or diploma No other person‘s work has been used without due acknowledgements in the thesis This thesis has not been submitted for the award of any degree or diploma in any other tertiary institution Da Nang, October 2017 Nguyen Thi Bich Phung III ABSTRACT This is a study on the strategies used in rendering Vietnamese nominalisations denoting mindfulness into English In this paper, 650 samples of Vietnamese nominalisations in the book ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and 250 samples of Vietnamese nominalisations in ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ by Thich Nhat Hanh denoting mindfulness and their English translational equivalents were extracted and analysed, which based on Vinay and Darbelnet‘s (1995/2000) methodology of translation and the other strategies such as explicitation and simplification according to translation theory of Baker (1996) and Blum-Kulla (1986/2000) This research is also intended to draw out some implications in teaching, learning and translating Besides, some suggestions are made for further study in this area IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS After conducting a research on the topic ―strategies in English Translation of Nominalisations Denoting Mindfulness in Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖, I would like to give many words of thanks to many peoples that supported and helped me First at all, I want to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Mrs Le Thi Giao Chi, Ph.D who has given me her devoted guidances and valuable comments as well as provided me with useful sources of materials and spent her priceless time for my paper Next, I would like to thanks my master and my loving family for encouraging and supporting me with the best advices Finally, I wish to give my sincere thanks to my close friends who always assisted me in the process of completing this research V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V TABLE OF CONTENTS VI LIST OF TABLES XI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS XII Chapter One INTRODUTION - 1.1 Rationale - 1.2 Aims and Objectives - 1.2.1 Aims - 1.2.2 Objectives - 1.3 Scope of study - 1.4 Research questions - 1.5 Definition of terms - 1.6 Organisation of the Study - Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND - 2.1 Literature Review - 2.2 Theoretical Background - 2.2.1 Definition of Translation - - 2.2.2 Translation Equivalence - 10 - 2.2.3 Translation Universals - 12 - 2.2.3.1 The Notion of Translation Universals - 12 2.2.3.2 Common Translation Universals - 13 2.2.3.2.1 Explicitation - 13 2.2.3.2.2 Simplification - 16 - VI 2.2.4 Vinay and Darbelnet’s Methodology of Translation - 17 - 2.2.5 Nominalisation in English and Vietnamese - 19 - 2.2.5.1 The Notion of Nominalisation - 19 2.2.5.2 Nominalisation in English - 21 2.2.5.2.1 Nominalisations Derived by Affixation - 21 2.2.5.2.2 Nominalisations Derived by Conversion or Zerosufixation - 22 2.2.5.3 Nominalisations in Vietnamese - 23 2.2.5.3.1 Nominalisations Derived by Nominal Classifiers - 23 2.2.5.3.2 Nominalisations Derived by Conversion or Zerosufixation - 24 Chapter Three RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - 26 3.1 Research Design and Methodology - 26 3.1.1 Research Design - 26 3.1.2 Methodology - 26 3.2 Research Procedures - 27 - 3.2.1 Data collection and corpus building - 27 - 3.2.2 Data Analysis - 28 3.2.3 Research Procedures - 29 Chapter Four DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS - 30 4.1 An overview of nominalisations formulation in Vietnamese - 30 4.1.1 De-verbal nominalisations with sự, việc, cái, nỗi, cuộc, đường, nếp sống, đạo, đạo lý, tình, cơng phu, trạng thái, cánh cửa, chìa khóa, hạt giống - 31 - VII 4.1.1.1 De-verbal Nominalisation with Sự - 31 4.1.1.2 De-verbal nominalisation with Việc - 32 4.1.1.3 De-verbal nominalisation with Cuộc - 32 4.1.1.4 De-verbal nominalisation with Cái - 33 4.1.1.6 De-verbal nominalisation by conversion - 35 4.1.2 De-adjectival nominalisations with Sự, Niềm, Lòng, Cái - 36 4.1.2.1 De-adjectival nominalisation with Sự - 36 4.1.2.2 De-adjectival nominalisation with Niềm - 37 4.1.2.3 De-adjectival nominalisation with Lòng - 37 4.1.2.4 De-adjectival nominalisation with Cái - 37 4.1.2.5 De-adjectival nominalisation by conversion - 38 4.2 Strategies in English Translation of Nominalisations Denoting Mindfulness in “Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” - 39 4.2.1 Literal Translation in Translating Nominalisations denoting mindfulness in “Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” - 39 4.2.1.1 Literal Translation in translating de-verbal nominalisations denoting mindfulness - 39 4.2.1.2 Literal Translation in translating de-adjectival nominalisations denoting mindfulness - 45 4.2.1.3 Literal Translation in translating Nominalisations derived by conversion denoting mindfulness - 46 4.2.2 Transposition in Translating Nominalisations denoting mindfulness in “Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” - 50 - VIII 4.2.2.1 Transposition in translating de-verbal nominalisations denoting mindfulness - 53 4.2.2.2 Transposition in translating de-adjectival nominalisations denoting mindfulness - 55 4.2.2.3 Transposition in translating Nominalisations derived by conversion denoting mindfulness - 56 4.2.3 Explicitation in translating nominalisations denoting mindfulness in “Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” - 59 4.2.3.1 Lexical Explicitation in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 60 4.2.3.2 Syntactic Explicitation in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 64 4.2.3.3 Stylistic Explicitation in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 65 4.2.4 Simplification in Translating Nominalisations denoting mindfulness in “Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” - 69 4.2.4.1 Lexical Simplification in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 70 4.2.4.2 Syntactic Simplification in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 74 4.2.4.3 Stylistic Simplification in translating de-verbalised, deadjectivized and converted nouns - 75 4.2.5 Summary - 78 4.3 Summary of the chapter - 80 - IX Chapter Five - 82 CONCLUSION - 82 5.1 Conclusion - 82 5.2 Some Implications for Teaching, Learning and Translating Vietnamese Nominalisations in "Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and “Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức” into English - 85 5.2.1 Implication on the Language Teaching and Learning - 85 5.2.2 Implication on Translation Work - 86 5.3 Limitation of the study - 87 5.4 Suggestions for the study - 87 REFERENCES - 89 - X Chapter Five CONCLUSION 5.1 Conclusion This thesis has investigated the strategies in the English translation of Vietnamese nominalisations denoting mindfulness in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ by Thich Nhat Hanh basing on Vinay and Darbelnet‘s (1995/2000) theory and Baker and Blum-Kulka (1986/2000)‘s approaches as well as Vanderauwera (1985)‘s model of translation features, finding out the universal strategies that are adopted in rendering Vietnamese nominalisations and their English translational equivalents The phenomenon of nominalisation can be seen as one of the language features, which makes the messages more condensed and sophisticated in the written discourses and the act of communication more efficient Researching on nominalisations expressing mindfulness in Buddhism via translation strategies will have a remarkable contribution for better teaching, learning and translating of language To begin with, in chapter one, this thesis is presented the introduction with the rationale of study, the aims and objectives, the questions of research, the scope of the study and definitions of related terms Chapter two in my research expounded the brief review of the previous studies and the theoretical background for the subsequent chapters In the latter, the study provides the basic notions and knowledges such as translation, translation universals (e.g explicitation and simplification), translation equivalence and the methodology of translation of Vinay and Darbelnet (e.g literal translation, transposition, etc), which lay the foundations for the investigation Also, it also gives an overview of the definitions and construction or formation of nominalisations in English and Vietnamese Basing on the light of the former, the thesis is conducted in the scope of the study to find out the universal strategies such - 82 - as literal translation, transposition, explicitation and simplification using in translating Vietnamese nominalisations expressing mindfulness in both texts of Thich Nhat Hanh master into English with the hope of showing a general picture of strategies using in translating nominalisations in the two languages As far as methodology is concerned, the desciptive methods is used as an important analytic tool to point out Vietnamese nominalisations as well as universal strategies found in rendering them into English In addition, the quantitative and qualitative approaches are considered as supporting methods aim to categorize the different types of nominalisations denoting mindfulness and examine the frequency of the different strategies applied in the English translation of Vietnamese nominalisations In respect of findings, this is the main part of the thesis discussed in chapter four This chapter presented the construction of the different kinds of nominalisations denoting mindfulness and analysed them under the light of translation strategies, which are developed on the base of some linguist‘s theory point of views such as Vinay and Darbelnet (1995/2000), Baker (1996), BlumKulka (1986/2000), Laviosa (2002) and Vanderauwera (1985) Furthermore, the study also concentrated on the four common strategies including literal translation, transposition, explicitation and simplification found in rendering Vietnamese nominalisations denoting mindfulness into English Vietnamese nominalisations were extracted from the two books ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ [11] and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ [10] by Thich Nhat Hanh and their English equivalent nominalisations came from the two translated versions ―Old Path While Clouds: Walking in the Footsteps of the Buddha‖ [30] and ―The Miracle of Mindfulness: An Introduction to the Practice of Meditation‖ [29] by Mobi Ho In this findings, we can summary some interesting conclusions of nominalisations through the strategies as follows Due to the fact that there are similarities about word order and word classes between the two languages, Vietnamese nominalisations is literally translated into - 83 - their English equivalents, for example, giác ngộ is translated as enlightenment, đường tỉnh thức is rendered as path of Awakening, and giải thoát is translated as liberation However, following the collected Vietnamese nominalisations and their equivalents, the differences in word class or in the syntactic structures also frequently occur in the process of translation There are the different types of transposition in translating various kinds of nominalisations expressing mindfulness, for instance, - De-verbal nominalisations often have such types of transposition as nominalisation VP transposition; nominalisation NP; nominalisationAdv nominalisation V transposition; transposition; nominalisation Relative Clause - De-adjectival nominalisations also occur with nominalisationNP transposition - Nominalisations nominalisationV by conversion: transposition; nominalisation NP nominalisationAdj transposition; transposition; nominalisationAdv transposition; and nominalisation VP transposition On the other hand, this study considers the two translation universals such as explicitation and simplification, which are observed in the three different perspectives in terms of lexical, syntactic, and stylistic levels These three levels of explicitation and simplicfication are distinguished in translating kinds of nominalisations denoting mindfulness in both "Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ books and their translated versions More remarkable, the findings also detects the appearance of overlaps of types of explicitation and simplification in the English translation of Vietnamese nominalisations expressing mindfulness In summary, after studying, I found that the choice of the different strategies using in translating nominalisations by translators in certain contexts has a large influence on the value of messages The study has attained all the tasks in the part of objectives described in the chapter one, for example, it pointed out the formation - 84 - of Vietname nominalisations and discussed the types of strategies frequently used in rendering them into English Also, through the result analysis and findings of the thesis, I hope to be able to contribute a small part to the field of studying translation and help English learners improve their translation work when translating Vietnamese nominalisations into English 5.2 Some Implications for Teaching, Learning and Translating Vietnamese Nominalisations in "Đường Xưa Mây Trắng” and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ into English 5.2.1 Implication on the Language Teaching and Learning Nowadays, translation is one of essential needs helping convey the messages from the various languages A translator not only equips knowledges about language but also masters the strategies related to translation works Hopefully, with the research we can bring our contribution into the process of English language teaching and learning The findings of this study introduced the phenomenon of nominalisation which is one of the language features is formed and very popular in English and Vietnamese This helps the English teachers and learners know how to apply nominalisations in writing in order for the fact that they can improve their writing skill more condensed and concise As well, the study can be seen as useful experience for English teachers and learners who can choose the suitable strategies to overcome difficulties in translating kinds of nominalisations in Vietnamese into English As for language teaching, the objective which teachers should set out in teaching is to provide their students the knowledges related to translation such as translation universals and methods or techniques of translation so that they can achieve successful results in the English translation of Vietnamese nominalisations During the process of translating, learners often face the differences about cultural backgrounds as well as the language structures, which lead to the cases - 85 - without English equivalents Therefore, the teachers need to clearly show the significances of each type of strategy in the translation system in order that learners can handle informations in the SL text and convey them effectively in practicing translation Moreover, the duty of the teachers should build exercises concerned with the translation strategies to help the learners themselves compare, analyse and choose which strategies are appropriate for certain contexts From that, they can draw experiences to have a best way of translation More importantly, the result of the study may be beneficial to teachers and learners of foreign language Teachers can introduce their students to approach documents or books related to Buddhism issues in both English and Vietnamese, which help them enhance not only knowledge about Buddhism but also be confident in transfering effective messages on the basic of the universal strategies in the translation field 5.2.2 Implication on Translation Work In translating, the phonemena of unnaturalness and misunderstanding of the messages in TL text is unavoidable and ussually happens in the process of translation from a SL text This becomes a large challenge for translators Through the study ―strategies in the English Translation of Nominalisations Denoting Mindfulness in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ by Thich Nhat Hanh‖, I would like to put forward some implifications on the teaching and learning translation First of all, because of the fact that the element of nominalisations hides a lot of condensed meanings, when translating, the require of learners is that they need to established the full knowledge and understanding of nominalisations in both English and Vietnamese With these knowledges, learners will have the advantages to decide which strategy is relevant in rendering kinds of nominalisations - 86 - Futhermore, English learners should pay attention to differences in grammar functions as well as lexical classes existing in the two languages so that they can make the translated version natural and closed to the non-translated version Last but not least, teachers distinguish kinds of different nominalisations and their grammatical roles when combining with the other words in the sentence This is very necessary to help learners have the flexibility in choosing methods of translation which lead to the natural and correct TL text 5.3 Limitation of the study Following the scope of the study, the thesis surely has some limitations The first one is that the research only conducts to types of nominalisations denoting mindfulness with 650 samples in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and 250 samples in ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ Nevertheless, there are other nominalisations which are not still investigated Furthermore, the research also studies just on such some universal strategies as literal translation, transposition, explicitation and simplification rather than on the others, for example, modulation, borrowing, and etc in spite of the fact that they also are mentioned in the theoretical chapter 5.4 Suggestions for the study The study has focused on strategies using in transfering Vietnamese nominalisations denoting mindfulness in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ by Thich Nhat Hanh into English However, some other problems has not been still dealt with in this dissertation Hence, some futher investigations are conducted as follows: - 87 - - Strategies in the English translation of Vietnamese nominalisations expressing love of Buddhism in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖ by Thich Nhat Hanh - Strategies in the English translation of Vietnamese nominal groups in ―Đường Xưa Mây Trắng‖ and ―Phép Lạ Của Sự Tỉnh Thức‖by Thich Nhat Hanh - 88 - REFERENCES In English Baker, M (1992) In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation London: Routledge Baker, M (1995) Corpora in Translation Studies: An Overview and Some Suggestions for Future Research, Target (2), 223-243 Barnwell, K (1980) Introduction to Semantics and Translation, Summer Institute of Linguistics Bartolomé, A I H and Cabrere, G M (2005) Grammatical conversion in English: Some new trends in lexical evolution Translation Journal, (1), January 2005 Retrieved, 12 September 2017, from http://translationjournal.net/journal/31conversion.htm Bassnett, S (2002) Translation Studies London and New York: Routledge Bauer, L (1983) English Word-Formation Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Bell, R.T (1991) Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice London: Longman Blum-Kulka, S (1986/ 2000) Shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation In Vetuni L (ed), 298-313 Catford, J.C (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation London: Oxford University Press 10 Catford, J.C (2000) ―Translation Shifts‖ In Venuti L (ed), 141-147 11 Chomsky, N (1970) Remarks on Nominalization Retrieved 31 August 2017, from http://babel.ucsc.edu/~hank/mrg.readings/Chomsky1970_Nominalization.pdf 12 Dobric, N., Graf, E.M., and Onysko Alexander (2016) Corpora in Applied Linguistics: Current Approaches Cambridge Scholars Publishing 13 Duff, A.(1988) Translation Oxford: OUP - 89 - 14 Jackson, H and Amvela, E Z (2000) Words, Meaning and Vocabulary: An Introdution to Modern English Lexicology London: Continuum 15 Jakobson, R (1959/2000) On Linguistic Aspects of Translation In Venuti L (ed), 113-118 16 Halliday, M.A.K (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar Second edition, London: Edward Arnold 17 Halliday, M.A.K., and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M (2004) Halliday‟s Introduction to Functional Grammar Fourth edition, London and New York: Routledge 18 Hamawand, Z (2008) Morpho-lexical Alternation in Noun Formation London: Macmillan Palgrave 19 Koller, W (1979/1989) ‗Equivalence in translation theory‘, translated from the German by A Chesterman, in A Chesterman (ed.), pp 99–104 20 Kuhiwczak, P and Littau, K (2007) A Companion to Translation Studies Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 21 Kroeger, P (2005) Analyzing Grammar – An Introduction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 22 Halliday, M.A.K (1976) An Introduction to Functional Grammar London: Edward Arnold 23 Hatim, B &Mason, I (1990) Discourse and Translation, London: Longman 24 Jakobson, R (1959/2000) ―On Linguistic Aspects of Translation‖ In Venuti L (ed), 113-118 25 Larson, M L (1884) Meaning-based Translation: A Guide to Cross- language Equivalence Lanham, MD: University Press of America 26 Laviosa, S (2002) Corpus-based Translation Studies: Theory, Findings, Applications Amsterdam: New York 27 Laviosa, S (2008) ―Description in the translation classroom: Universals as a case in point‖ In Pym et al., 119-133 - 90 - 28 Le, Thi Giao Chi (2014) Grammatical Metaphor in English Official Documentation A Corpus-based Approach to the Vietnamese Translation of Nominalisation PhD Thesis England: University of the West of England 29 Mobi Ho (1976) The Miracle of Mindfulness: An Introduction to the Practice of Meditation Boston: Beacon Press 30 Mobi Ho (1991) Old Path White Clouds: Walking In The Footsteps Of The Buddha Berkeley, California: Parallax Press 31 Munday, J (2008) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications London: Routledge 32 Munday, J (2009) The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies London: Routledge 33 Newmark, P (1991) About Translation Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 34 Newmark, P (1988) A Textbook of Translation London: Prentice Hall 35 Nida, E A (1964) Toward a Science of Translating, Leiden: Brill 36 Nida, E., A (1964/2000) ―Principles of Correspondence‖ In Venuti L (ed), 126-140 37 Nida, E., A (2001) Contexts in Translating Amsterdam: John Benjamins 38 Nida, E A and Taber, C R (2003) The Theory and Practice of Translation Leiden: Brill 39 Olohan, M (2004) Introducing Corpora in Translation Studies London: Routledge 40 Plag, I (2003) Word Formation in English Cambridge: Cambrige University Press 41 Prasithrathsint, A (2014) Nominalization as a Maker of Detachment and Objectivity in Thai Academic Writing MANUSYA: Journal of Humanities, special Issue No 20, Retrieved 30 August 2017, http://www.manusya.journals.chula.ac.th/files/essay/Amara%201-10.pdf - 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92 - from In Vietnamese Diệp Quang Ban (2004) Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Việt Nxb Giáo dục Đỗ Hữu Châu & Bùi Minh Toán (2007) Đại cương ngôn ngữ học Nxb Giáo dục Jeremy Munday (2009) Nhập môn nghiên cứu dịch thuật lý thuyết ứng dụng Trịnh Lữ dịch Nxb Tri thức Hồ Ngọc Trung (2015) Đặc trưng ngữ pháp tượng chuyển loại từ phận thể người tiếng Anh (trans Grammatical characteristics of conversion of English words denoting human body parts) Ngôn Ngữ & Đời sống, 236 (6) Retrieved 14 September 2017, from http://www.vjol.info/index.php/NNDS/article/viewFile/19869/17474 Lê Hồ (2003) Vấn đề cấu tạo từ tiếng việt đại Nxb Khoa hoc xã hội Lưu Trọng Tuấn (2009) Dịch thuật văn khoa học Nxb Khoa học xã hội Nguyên Hiển (2015) Từ Điển Phật Học Tuệ Quang: Việt – Hán – Phạn Anh Nxb Phương Đơng Nguyễn Thị Bích Ngoan (2013) So sánh đối chiếu tượng danh hóa động từ tiếng Việt tiếng Anh Tạp chí Khoa học ĐHSP TPHCM, 46 Retrieved, 12 September 2017, from http://www.vjol.info/index.php/sphcm/article/viewFile/11831/10790 Nguyễn Thị Bích Ngoan (2016) So sánh đối chiếu tượng danh hóa tiếng Việt tiếng Anh, Luận văn Tiến sĩ Tp Hồ Chí Minh 10 Nguyễn Quốc Hùng (2007) Hướng dẫn kỹ thuật phiên dịch Anh-Việt Việt-Anh Nxb Tp Hồ Chí Minh 11 Nguyễn Thượng Hùng (2005) Dịch thuật: từ lý thuyết đến thực hành Nxb Văn hóa Sài Gòn 12 Thích Nhất Hạnh (1975) Phép lạ tỉnh thức Nxb Tơn giáo - 93 - Thích Nhất Hạnh (2005) Đường Xưa Mây Trắng: Theo Gót Chân 13 Bụt Nxb Tôn giáo Trương Thị Diễm (2005) Các cấp bậc khác tượng 14 chuyển loại tiếng việt (trans Different levels of conversion in Vietnamese) Tạp chí khoa học cơng nghệ, 11 Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:f_iK9WdDcUEJ:www.khsdh.udn.vn/zipfiles/So11/7_DIEM_TRUONGTHI.doc+&cd=3&hl=vi&ct=clnk&gl =vn - 94 - APPENDIX Samples of the case of nominalisations denoting mindfulness in DXMT Vietnamese and English with analysis VIETNAMESE Bụt kết thúc buổi pháp thoại cách yêu cầu Rahula lặp lại phép quán niệm thở ENGLISH The Buddha then concluded t he Dharma talk by asking Rahula to recite the sixteen methods of conscious breat hing Ta muốn ăn cơm I like to eat silently im lặng để thấy so that I can đƣợc giá trị appreciate them fully hạt Siddhatta cho cô he told Sujata that his bé thí chủ biết meditation practice to cơng phu thiền quán was beginning ngƣời mang bear fruit lại nhiều hoa trái quan trọng thân thể ta bị If physical desires are vật dục khống chế not mastered, it is tâm ta khó đạt tới difficult for the heart to attain giải enlightenment Hơm trời mát, sau The day was cool the bữa cơm trưa, ăn After eating noon meal in quán niệm mindfulness Siddhatta thấy he fel t t hat her p đuờng nàng chưa at h alone could not phải đƣờng có bring true peace thể thực đem lại an lạc cho tâm linh - 95 - ANALYSIS  LEXICAL EXPLICITATION N(CLF+Adj) => ADV =>TRANSPOSITION Equivalent N (CLF+N) => Poss+verbal-N => LEXICAL SIMPLIFICATION reference Equivalent N=>DevNment  LITERAL TRANSLATION Equivalent N=>N(ness) (Contemplation+right mindfulness) =>LITERAL TRANSLATION N => NP (Adj+N) LEXICAL EXPLICITATION APPENDIX Samples of the case of nominalisations denoting mindfulness in PLCSTT in both Vietnamese and English with analysis VIETNAMESE Vừa tỉnh giấc, mong cho người sớm đạt trạng thái tỉnh thức lớn, hiểu biết thấu suốt mươi phương Khi múc nước rửa tay, ông sử dụng ý tưởng để tự đưa trạng thái ý thức : ―múc nước rửa tay, tơi mong cho người có bàn tay để đón nhận lấy chân lý‖.p24 Trong tác viên đường đất đỏ để tới đầu làng, anh thực tập quán niệm.p28 Ta đường đầu làng, trời lạnh trời mưa đường khô hay đường lầy lội Anh trì chánh niệm.p28 Quán niệm phép lạ mà ta có thề sử dụng để khơi phục thâu hồi tự thân.p33 ENGLISH "Just awakened, I hope that every person will attain great awareness and see in complete clarity." When he washed his hands, he used this thought to place himself in mindfulness: "Washing my hands, I hope that every person will have pure hands to receive reality."p23 When you are walking along a path leading into a village, you can practice mindfulness ANALYSIS  LEXICAL SIMPLIFICATION embedding  LEXICAL SIMPLIFICATION embedding  LITERAL TRANSLATION Whether it's sunny or  STYLISTIC rainy, whether the path is SIMPLIFICATION dry or wet, you keep that one thought but not just repeating it like a machine, over and over again.p29 Mindfulness is the Equivalent miracle by which we N=>N_ness master and restore (Contemplation+right ourselves.p31 mindfulness)  LEXICAL SIMPLIFICATION - 96 - ... presents the reason why the topic is chosen, the aims and objectives, the scope of the study, research questions, the justification for the study The definition of key terms such as strategies of translation,... be the almost inevitable - 12 - by-products of the process of mediation between two languages rather than being the result of the interference of one language with another‖ Many translation theorists... refer to the general subject field, the product (the text that has been translated) or the process (the act of producing the translation, otherwise known as translating) The process of translation
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