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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES BUI NGOC MAI APPLYING STORYTELLING TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILL FOR THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT THAI NGUYEN COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE (Ứng dụng hình thức kể chuyện để cải thiện nói cho sinh viên năm thứ trường Cao đẳng Kinh tế Tài Thái Nguyên) M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 THAI NGUYEN – 2018 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES BUI NGOC MAI APPLYING STORYTELLING TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILL FOR THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT THAI NGUYEN COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE (Ứng dụng hình thức kể chuyện để cải thiện nói cho sinh viên năm thứ trường Cao đẳng Kinh tế Tài Thái Nguyên) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Dr Nguyen Thi Viet Nga THAI NGUYEN – 2018 DECLARATION -***** I certify that the minor thesis entitled “Apply storytelling to improve speaking skill for the first year students at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance” is my own study in the fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts at Foreign Language Faculty, Thai Nguyen University Signature: Bùi Ngọc Mai Thai Nguyen, 2018 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research has enabled me to investigate a new aspect of storytelling when introduced as a curricular innovation and gain more insights into my teaching practice I am grateful to many people who have supported and encouraged me to complete this minor thesis I would like to express my gratitude to Dr Nguyen Viet Nga, Academy of Journalism and Communication Without her insightful advice, encouragement and dedication, this thesis would not have been successfully completed My sincere thanks also go to my colleagues and students at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance for their assistance during the process of data collection I am also grateful to 50 students who took part in my research Their efforts and cooperation during the innovation are highly appreciated My final indebtedness goes to my family, colleagues and friends who have given me in-time support and encouragement Their care and sharing have enabled me to complete this thesis Bùi Ngọc Mai ii ABSTRACT Previous research has been conducted related to the effectiveness of storytelling towards different aspects of language learning, especially speaking skill It has been established by many researchers that storytelling can positively improve learners’ speaking skill and be used as a useful method to engage students in the classroom While research to date has been launched outside Vietnam at different levels of education, it has not been adequately done to investigate the relationship between storytelling and speaking skill within the Vietnamese context That is the main reason for the researcher to carry out a form of action research as a trial to check the effectiveness of storytelling in teaching students English speaking skill This minor thesis reflects on a qualitative research project to explore the effectiveness of storytelling on 50 first year students’ speaking skill during five weeks of learning and interaction Three research instruments including observation, evaluation sheet, and semi-structured interview were designed to investigate the improvement of the students’ speaking skill via telling stories and their engagement in the classroom activities over the given period of introducing storytelling as a curricular innovation The results showed that the students’ speaking skill, especially pronunciation, intonation, body language and eye contact, were improved It also showed that students were engaged by listening attentively to their classmates’ stories in the classroom iii LIST OF CHARTS Chart 1: Elements of speaking skills improved by storytelling - Individual presentations .25 Chart 2: Elements of speaking skills improved by storytelling - Group presentations 27 Chart 3: Determinants of a logical story - Individual presentation 29 Chart 4: Determinants of a logical story – Group presentation 30 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i LIST OF CHARTS iv CHAPTER INTRODUCTION .1 1.1 Rationale for the study 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Research questions .3 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Design of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Storytelling 2.2 Speaking skill and speaking competence .7 2.3 Storytelling and digital storytelling as a useful pedagogical tool to improve speaking skill .7 2.4 Storytelling as a method of engaging students 10 2.5 The objectives and the steps of applying storytelling in speaking class .11 2.6 Review of Related Studies 13 2.7 Theoretical Framework 14 2.8 Summary 15 CHAPTER METHODOLOGY 16 3.1 Research approach .16 3.2 Participants, Course Syllabus and Materials 16 3.2.1 Participants………………………………………………………………… 16 3.2.2 Course Syllabus…………………………………………………………… 16 3.2.3 Materials……………………………………………………………… 16 3.3 Research Methods 17 3.3.1 Observation .17 3.3.2 Evaluation Sheet 19 3.3.3.Interview 20 3.4 Data collection and data analysis .22 v 3.5 Triangulation 23 CHAPTER FINDINGS 24 4.1 Elements of English grammar and speaking skills improved by storytelling…24 4.2 The ways storytelling helps students engage into the classroom activities 31 4.2.1 The shift from being passive to active 31 4.2.2 Factors that help engage students 32 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 35 5.1 Recapitulation 35 5.2 Limitations of the study .36 5.3 Suggestions for further study .36 vi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study Nowadays, English has become an officially international language in the world Due to its popularity, in Vietnam, the teaching of English is taken into consideration and paid more attention in terms of the attitudes in society, the policies of government and the efforts from teachers It is an undeniable fact that English is also a very important subject at college today However, the results of the English learning are not very good due to a number of reasons One of which is that the teaching of English has been strongly influenced by the teaching traditional methods in which teacher played the role of the knowledge provider and the students were the passive knowledge recipients Teachers as well as students focus on grammatical structures whereas four English skills especially speaking skill is not considered As a result, they have encountered a number of problems when dealing with spoken English in real life Vietnamese students have lots of difficulties practising speaking skill because they are often shy or even express fear toward public speaking However, many students show their desire to learn speaking skill; some of them even urge teachers to include speaking activities in the lessons It is the fact that speaking English well depends on the numer of factors They are personal characteristics of the learners, chances to communicate with native speakers, or motivation of learners, methods of teachers….For college students, these factors can only work well with the help of the teachers using different methods in language teaching We cannot deny that traditional teaching methods are slowly moving towards more innovative practices in Vietnam particularly in the Teaching English as a Second Language (TESOL) which is an educational priority in Vietnam (London 2014, p.4) The Ministry of Education and Training, (MOET) has legislated farreaching changes that insist on all students in Vietnam learning English as a second language (MOET 2020 Policy) This project is the result of a modest classroom innovation where students were asked to construct brief stories and convey them orally to each other This process is called storytelling The stories were based on familiar Vietnamese proverbs and folk tales which the students then translated into English and presented to the group Processes such as storytelling allow for a more student-centred approach to learning, and have received very positive anecdotal responses to date Student-centred approaches have a long history in Western-based learning, but are still rather new and under-researched in the Vietnamese context An Indian well known proverb says ‘tell me a fact and I’ll learn Tell me the truth and I’ll believe But tell me a story and it will live in my heart forever’ In the Vietnamese educational context, historical figures did use storytelling in their teaching, and storytelling has, in the past, been a widely ‘accepted practice’ used by them (London, 2011, p.6-7) Recent researchers beyond Vietnam share the view that storytelling is instrumental in the learning and teaching language According to Ohler (2007), as cited in Somdee and Suppasetseree (2011), and Yuksel, Robin, and McNeil (2011), storytelling has increasingly been applied as a useful teaching technique They point out that storytelling is more actively engaged in many countries both inside and outside the classroom for educational purposes Indeed, storytelling has long been used in the practice of teaching and has been suggested by many researchers to be both a powerful tool to develop oral skill and a useful method of getting students engaged in the lessons Previous research has been launched outside Vietnam at different levels of education However, the particular elements of speaking skills and the degree to which students are engaged in speaking while telling and listening to stories are areas which are under-researched In addition, research to date has not been adequately done to investigate the relationship between storytelling and speaking skill within the Vietnamese context Being a teacher of English at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance, the researcher is well aware of the importance of applying storytelling in English classes to improve speaking skill for students This led me to the choice of the study: “Applying Storytelling to Improve Speaking Skill for the first year students at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance” as a trial to investigate the effectiveness of storytelling in teaching students speaking skill and detect an effective way to improve speaking skill for the first year students at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance It is also hoped that this study may mistakes, the anxiety of speaking in front of a crowd and a feeling of getting lost are the reasons why some students are put off participating in the storytelling This is supported by Wiriyachitra (2003), Kartini (2010), Murni and Siambotan (2012) The responses from the interview from the two students suggest that if a friendly study environment where students feel no distance and have adequate support from both their friends and teacher may help them have confidence to take part in speaking activities 5.2 Limitations of the study Although this research obtained entirely original data which supported previous studies within the topic of the correlation between storytelling and speaking skills, there are several limitations Firstly, the amount of data could be seen as limited and accordingly may not represent the whole population of participants’ responses The reason for this is that only individuals and groups on the chosen days were recorded and assessed Secondly, the research was conducted in a short period of time Therefore, the data gained might be insufficient to come to appropriate conclusions Finally, this current research is limited because only one researcher undertook the analysis processes without constant and regular inter-observer checks to ensure reliability 5.3 Suggestions for further study Overall, storytelling plays a significant role in enabling students to make improvement in speaking skills and can be used as a pedagogical technique to engage students in the classroom In the future, it is recommended that more research will be conducted to discover new aspects of the influence of storytelling on speaking skills It would be interesting to work with younger students and with adults, to determine whether or not the age of the students is relevant to the success or otherwise of this approach In Vietnam, there is also a frequently made distinction between students from rural areas and students from towns and cities It would be interesting to discover whether or not rural students responded to storytelling in a similar way to the urban students who took part in this research project A recommendation from this project would be for further research of this 36 sort to be conducted In the interim, this minor thesis has provided evidence for the benefits of storytelling as a pedagogical approach which is useful in teaching English as a foreign language Because of the positive outcomes of this research, it is also possible to recommend that storytelling should be employed as a curriculum innovation more extensively throughout Vietnam to enhance not only speaking but also other skills in acquiring a second or foreign language It is certainly the intention of this researcher to continue to utilize storytelling in her own classes, and to encourage her colleagues to implement similar techniques 37 REFERENCES: Abdolmanafi-Rokni, S.J & Qarajeh, M (2014) Digital storytelling in EFL classrooms: The effect on the oral performance International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(4), 252-257 Abdolmanafi-Rokni, S.J & Qarajeh, M (2014) Digital Storytelling in EFL Classrooms: The Effect on the Oral Performance International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2( 4), 252-257 doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20140204.12 Abma, T.A (2003) Learning by telling: Storytelling workshops as an organizational learning intervention Management Learning, 34(2), 221-240 Afrilyasanti, R., Basthomi, Y (2011) Digital storytelling: A case study on the teaching of speaking to Indonesian EFL students Language in India, 11 Akhyak, Y & Indramawan, A (2013) Improving the Students’ English Speaking Competence through Storytelling International Journal of Language and Literature, 1(2), 18-24 Anggryadi, M.A (2014) The Effectiveness of Storytelling in Improving Students’ Speaking Skill (Unpublished Bachelor Dissertation) University of Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Indonesia Cangelosi, P.R & Whitt, K.J (2006) Teaching through storytelling : An exemplar International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 3(1), 1-7 Cangelosi, P.R., Whitt, K.J (2006) Teaching through storytelling: an exemplar International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 3,1–8 10 Dang, Q.A (2009) Recent Higher Education Reforms in Vietnam: The Role of the World Bank Danish School of Education, University of Aarhus, Denmark 11 Ferrance, E (2000) Action research Richmond: Brown University 12 Gibbons, B.A (2003) Supporting Elementary Science Education for English Learners: A Constructivist Evaluation Instrument The Journal of Educational Research, 96(6), 371-379 DOI: 10.1080/00220670309596620 13 Golafshani, N (2003) Understanding reliability and validity in quantitative research The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607 38 14 Gold, J & Holman, D (2001) Let me tell you a story: an evaluation of the use of storytelling and argument analysis in management education Career Development International, 6(7), 384-395 15 Haigh, C & Hardy, Pip (2011) Tell Me a Story – a Conceptual Exploration of Storytelling in Healthcare Education Nurse Education Today, 31, 408-411 16 Hinchey, P.H (2008) Action research New York: Peter Lang Publishing 17 Hunter, L.P & Hunter, L.A (2006) Storytelling as an educational strategy for midwifery students Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 51(4), 273-278 18 Hwang, W Y., Shadiev, R., Hsu, J L., Huang, Y M., Hsu, G L., & Lin, Y C (2014) Effects of storytelling to facilitate EFL speaking using web-based multimedia system Computer Assisted Language Learning, (ahead-of-print), 1-27 doi: 10.1080/09588221.2014.927367 19 Isbell, R., Sobol, J., Lindauer, L., & Lowrance, A (2004) The Effects of Storytelling and Story Reading on the Oral Language Complexity and Story Comprehension of Young Children Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(3), 157-163 20 Krashen, S (1981) Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, Pergamon Press, California 21 London, J (2011) Education in Vietnam Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 22 Lever, R & Senechal, M (2011) Discussing stories: On how a dialogic reading intervention improves kindergartens’ oral narrative construction Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 1-24 23 Liu, C.C., Liu, K.P., Wang, P.H., Chen, G.D., & Su, M.C (2012) Applying tangible story avatars to enhance children’s collaborative storytelling British Journal of Education Technology, 43(1), 39-51 24 London, J.D 2011, Education in Vietnam Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 25 Marginson, S et al (2014) Characteristics England: Palgrave Macmillan 39 Modernization with Vietnamese 26 McAndrews, S & Ellis, B.F (2015, February 6) Storytelling Magic Enhancing Childrens' Oral Language Reading And Writing Fox Tales International Retrieved from http://www.foxtalesint.com/library-1/82-articles/259storytelling-magic-enhancing-children-s-oral-language-reading-and-writing 27 Mokhtar, N.H., Halim, M.F.A., & Kamarulzaman, S.Z.S (2010) The Effectiveness of Storytelling in Enhancing Communicative Skills Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 18, 163-169 28 Mokhtar, N.H., Kamarulzaman, S.Z.S., & Halim, M.F (2012) Storytelling: The Way to Build Confidence among Low Proficiency Students International Journal of Learning, 18(9), 227-238 29 Murni, S.M & Siambotan, P.K (2012) Improving student’s achievement in speaking through paired telling technique Indonesian Publication Index Retrieved from download.portalgaruda.org/article.php?article=126869&val=3895 30 Nguyen, K., Stanley, N., & Stanley, L (2014) Storytelling in Teaching Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language Linguistics and Literature Studies, 2(1), 29-38 31 Palmer, B.C., Leiste, S.M., James, K.D., & Ellis, S.M (2000) The Role of Storytelling in Effective Family Literacy Programs Reading Horizons, 41(2), 93103 32 Patton, M.Q & Cochran, M (2013, March 12) A guide to using qualitative methodology The Vienna Evaluation Unit Retrieved from http://evaluation.msf.at/fileadmin/evaluation/files/documents/resources_MSF/MSF_ Qualitative_Methods.pdf 33 Pratt, N (2013, March 12) Qualitative research Education Retrieved from http://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resined/qualitative%20methods%202/qualrshm.htm #1 FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 34 Sadik, A (2008) Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(4), 487-506 40 35 Samantaray, P (2014) Use of Story Telling Method to Develop Spoken English Skill International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 1(1), 40-44 36 Somdee, M & Suppasetseree, S (2013 June 6) Developing English speaking skills of Thai undergraduate students by digital storytelling through websites Language Institute Thammasat University Retrieved from litu.tu.ac.th/FLLT%202013%20Program%20Book.pdf 37 Thuy Minh, N.T (2008) Research methodolody Hanoi: Dai Hoc Quoc Gia Publishing House 38 Widdershoven G A M and Sohl, C (1999) Interpretation, action and communication: four stories about a supported employment program In Abma, T A (ed.) Telling Tales On Narrative and Evaluation, Advances in Program Evaluation (pp 109–130) Standford, CT: JAI Press 39 Yuksel, P., Robin, B & McNeil, S (2011) Educational Uses of Digital Storytelling all around the World In M Koehler & P Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp 1264-1271) Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) 41 APPENDIXES Appendix Evaluation sheet This evaluation sheet is adapted and downloaded from http://cd1.edb.hkedcity.net/cd/languagesupport/resource/english/76S/downloads/04 _PeerEvaluationSheetForStorytelling.doc with a slight change Peer Evaluation Sheet for Storytelling Listen to your classmate’s story and tick the appropriate boxes: Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly agree disagree The speaker’s voice was loud enough for me to hear 2.1 The speaker pronounced the words clearly 2.2 The speaker pronounced the words correctly The speaker showed some feelings in his/her voice The speaker made eye-contact The speaker used movements to help me understand the story The speed was just right, not too fast or too slow I could understand what happened in the story I knew when different characters were speaking The story had a clear ending 10 The speaker made the story interesting for me Suggestions for improvement I Appendix Course Outline and Research plan Week (optional) Focus  Lesson 1: Orientation + Introduction of the innovation Sampling/modeling imaginative story telling (2) Practice  Lesson 2: sampling/modeling What’s on the news? (1) Giving feedback guidelines Individual and Group Presentations  Lesson 3: Practice What’s on the news (presentation + giving feedback) Practice telling free-style stories (individual stories + giving feedbacks)  Lesson 4: More practice on Introduction of story project (3) (group work)  Lesson 5: Individual/peer presentations: what’s on the news + free-style stories Story project (cont.) Sampling story projects  Lesson 6: Individual/peer presentations: what’s on the news + free-style stories Practice story projects Final presentation of story project guidelines  Lesson 7: Individual/peer presentations: what’s on the news + free-style stories More practice on story projects (group work) Project rehearsal  Lesson 8: Final presentation of story projects  Final presentation of story projects  Evaluation II Research methods Observation (taking notes) Evaluation Sheet Recording and video tape Observation (taking notes) Focus: students’ engagement + accuracy Observation Observation Tape recording Interview Video recording Video recording Interview Notes: (1) What’s on the news is a small presentation which acquaints students with general speaking Students are required to search for and take notes on their favourite pieces of news which they bring to the next class and share with their classmates Each presentation will last no more than two minutes (2) Individual/peer free-style stories are stories which each or a pair of students works out The stories may be their own narrations of a past event or their imagination written after students see a video or watch a short film or read a short passage (3) Story project is a long story prepared by a group of five students The group will choose their favourite stories, i.e fairy tales, then make a plan to tell them, preferably, in form of a play or in a way they find interesting (with the presence of visual aids) Each group will be given maximum 15 minutes to deliver their story III Appendix Elements Loudness Pronunciation Intonation Eye contact Body language Week – lesson – Individual score Mean 4,4,4,3,3,4,4,3,4,4,4,4,4,3,4,3,4,3,3,4,4,4,3,3 ,3,4,3,4,3,3,4,3,4,3,2,3,4,3,3,2,3,3,2,2,3,3,2, 3,3,3 Mean: 3.3 2,3,4,2,2,3,3,4,4,4,3,3,3,4,3,4,3,4,4,3,4,4 2,3,4,2,2,3,3,4,4,4,3,3,3,4,3,4,3,4,4,3,4,4 2,2,3,2,2,2 Mean: 3.18 3,3,3,3,5,4,4,3,2,2,4,2,3,4,2,2,3,3,3,4,4,2 2,4,2,3,2,3,2,3,3,4,3,2,3,3,4,4,3,3,4,4,4,4 3,3,2,4,2,2 Mean: 3.06 1,3,3,2,3,4,4,3,3,3,3,3,3,2,3,2,2,2,1,3,1,3 1,2,1,3,2,1,2,3,2,3,2,1,2,1,2,3,3,2,1,2,3,2 1,2,1,2,2,2 Mean: 2.22 4,2,3,2,3,4,4,2,3,4,3,4,3,4,2,4,2,4,3,2,4,3 3,3,2,4,2,3,3,4,2,4,2,3,3,3,2,3,3,4,3,4,3,3 2,2,3,2,4,3 Mean: 3.02 SD 0.64 0.76 0.81 0.83 0.86 0.66 Speed 3,4,4,4,4,4,5,4,3,5,4,5,3,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,4,4 4,4,4,5,5,3,3,4,3,4,3,4,5,4,4,4,5,5,5,4,4,5 3,4,4,3,4,4 Mean: 4.08 Story Comprehension 3,4,4,3,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,3,3,3,3,4,2,3,4 3,2,3,4,4,4,4,5,4,3,3,3,4,4,5,3,3,4,4,4,3,3 4,4,3,4,4,3 Mean: 3.62 Character identification 5,2,1,4,4,2,1,3,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,4,4,3,2,1,2,1 Mean: 2.4 1.2 Clear ending 5,5,4,5,4,4,4,3,2,3,4,2,2,3,2,2,3,2,3,3,3,1 5,5,4,5,4,4,4,3,2,3,4,2,2,3,2,2,3,2,3,3,3,1 3,3,2,1,3,3 Mean: 3.06 1.08 Interesting 3,3,4,3,3,5,5,5,2,2,3,4,4,2,3,3,2,3,3,3,4,3 3,3,4,3,3,5,5,5,2,2,3,4,4,2,3,3,2,3,3,3,4,3 3,3,4,2,3,2 Mean: 3.22 0.9 IV Notes 0.66 22 responses Others no comments Week lesson – Individual scores Elements Loudness Pronunciation Intonation Eye contact Body language Speed Story comprehension Character identification Clear ending Interesting Mean 4,5,4,5,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 4,5,4,5,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 5,5,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.62 4,4,4,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,4,5,4 4,4,4,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,4,5,4 4,4,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.42 5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,3,4,5,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,3 5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,3,4,5,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,3 4,4,3,4,5,4 Mean: 4.2 2,3,3,2,3,3,3,4,3,3,3,2,3,4,2,3,2,2,3,3,3,3 2,3,3,2,3,3,3,4,3,3,3,2,3,4,2,3,2,2,3,3,3,3 3,3,2,3,4,4 Mean: 2.86 3,4,4,4,4,3,4,3,4,3,3,5,3,3,4,3,4,4,3,4,4,3 3,4,4,4,4,3,4,3,4,3,3,5,3,3,4,3,4,4,3,4,4,3 4,4,4,4,3,4 Mean: 3.62 5,4,4,5,4,4,5,5,3,3,3,4,3,3,3,4,5,4,5,5,5,4 5,4,4,5,4,4,5,5,3,3,3,4,3,3,3,4,5,4,5,5,5,4 4,4,5,4,4,4 Mean: 4.1 SD 0.48 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.56 0.75 5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,4,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,4 5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,4,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,4 0.5 5,5,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.54 5,5,4,5,4,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,4 5,5,4,5,4,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,4 0.59 4,4,4,3,4,4 Mean: 4.18 5,5,5,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,5 5,5,5,5,5,5,4,4,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,5 5,5,5,5,4,4 0.48 Mean: 4.64 3,5,5,5,4,4,3,4,3,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,3,3 3,5,5,5,4,4,3,4,3,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,3,3 0.74 5,5,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.18 V Notes ` Week lesson – Group presentation score Elements Loudness Pronunciation Intonation Eye contact Body language Speed Story comprehension Character identification Mean 5,4,3,3,3,4,4,3,4,4,4,4,4,3,4,4,4,4,3,3, 4,3 5,4,3,3,3,4,4,3,4,4,4,4,4,3,4,4,4,4,3,3, 4,3 4,3,4,3,4,4 Mean: 3.68 3,3,4,2,2,3,3,2,2,2,3,2,2,4,3,2,3,2,4,3, 4,3 3,3,4,2,2,3,3,2,2,2,3,2,2,4,3,2,3,2,4,3, 4,3 2,2,3,4,3,3 Mean: 2.78 3,2,3,1,2,2,3,2,4,2,3,3,2,4,2,2,4,2,3,2, 5,3 3,2,3,1,2,2,3,2,4,2,3,3,2,4,2,2,4,2,3,2, 5,3 3,2,1,3,2,2 Mean: 2.62 2,2,2,1,1,1,2,1,2,1,4,2,2,3,2,2,2,2,3,3, 1,2 2,2,2,1,1,1,2,1,2,1,4,2,2,3,2,2,2,2,3,3, 1,2 1,1,2,1,1,1 Mean: 1.86 2,2,3,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,3,2,2,2,3,2,1,3,3,4, 2,2 2,2,3,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,3,2,2,2,3,2,1,3,3,4, 2,2 1,1,1,2,1,1 Mean: 1.86 5,3,4,4,3,2,4,3,4,3,5,4,3,4,4,3,4,3,4,5, 5,2 5,3,4,4,3,2,4,3,4,3,5,4,3,4,4,3,4,3,4,5, 5,2 5,4,3,4,3,3 Mean: 3.68 3,4,5,3,3,3,4,2,3,4,5,4,3,4,4,3,4,4,3,3, 5,3 3,4,5,3,3,3,4,2,3,4,5,4,3,4,4,3,4,4,3,3, 5,3 2,3,4,3,4,4 Mean: 3.56 4,5,5,1,1,2,1,1,4,1,4,4,3,4,3,3,4,4,2,4, 4,1 VI SD 0.54 0.73 0.91 0.54 0.87 0.86 0.78 1.38 Notes Clear ending Interesting 4,5,5,1,1,2,1,1,4,1,4,4,3,4,3,3,4,4,2,4, 4,1 1,2,1,4,4,3 Mean: 2.9 5,5,5,3,4,3,4,2,5,3,4,4,3,4,4,3,5,5,4,5, 5,2 5,5,5,3,4,3,4,2,5,3,4,4,3,4,4,3,5,5,4,5, 5,2 4,4,3,4,5,4 Mean: 3.96 3,4,5,2,2,2,3,2,4,2,3,1,2,5,5,2,4,4,3,4, 4,2 3,4,5,2,2,2,3,2,4,2,3,1,2,5,5,2,4,4,3,4, 4,2 2,2,3,4,4,4 Mean: 3.1 VII 0.93 1.13 Week – Group presentation scores Elements Loudness Pronunciation Intonation Eye contact Body language Speed Story comprehension Mean 4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,5,5,3,4,4,5 ,4,5,5 4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,5,5,3,4,4,5 ,4,5,5 5,5,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.66 4,3,5,5,4,5,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,3,5,5,5 ,5,5,5 4,3,5,5,4,5,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,3,5,5,5 ,5,5,5 3,4,5,5,5,5 Mean: 4.62 5,5,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,5,4,2,4,4,5 ,5,5,5 5,5,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,5,5,4,2,4,4,5 ,5,5,5 4,4,5,5,5,5 Mean: 4.6 3,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,4,2,3,2,3,3 ,1,1,1 3,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,4,2,3,2,3,3 ,1,1,1 5,4,5,4,5,5 Mean: 3.64 3,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,3,3,3,4 ,5,4,2 3,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,3,3,3,4 ,5,4,2 5,5,4,5,4,5 Mean: 4.2 4,1,5,5,3,3,5,3,5,4,5,4,5,3,5,1,2,2,3 ,2,2,2 4,1,5,5,3,3,5,3,5,4,5,4,5,3,5,1,2,2,3 ,2,2,2 1,2,2,4,3,3 Mean: 3.2 SD 0.55 0.66 0.69 1.32 0.84 1.42 4,3,4,5,5,4,5,4,4,5,5,4,4,4,5,3,3,3,5 ,3,5,2 4,3,4,5,5,4,5,4,4,5,5,4,4,4,5,3,3,3,5 0.84 ,3,5,2 4,4,5,3,4,4 Mean: 4.04 VIII Notes Character identification Clear ending Interesting 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,5,4 ,3,5,5 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,4,4,4,4,5,5,4 0.56 ,3,5,5 4,4,5,4,5,5 Mean: 4.62 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 ,3,4,5 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 0.47 ,3,4,5 5,4,5,5,5,5 Mean: 4.82 4,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,4,3,3,5 ,4,4,4 4,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,5,5,4,5,5,4,3,3,5 0.64 ,4,4,4 5,5,4,5,5,5 Mean: 4.54 IX ... COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE (Ứng dụng hình thức kể chuyện để cải thiện kĩ nói cho sinh viên năm thứ trường Cao đẳng Kinh tế Tài Thái Nguyên) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English... UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES BUI NGOC MAI APPLYING STORYTELLING TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILL FOR THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT THAI NGUYEN COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE (Ứng dụng hình thức kể chuyện. .. the local accents All of them have learnt English for at least years at their secondary school and high school However, in term of knowledge and learning environment, they are quite different The
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