“A Study on the Humanity in the Novel “White Fang” by Jack London”

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i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude for all who have supported me during the process of writing the graduation paper First of all, I would like to show my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to my mentor, Mrs Pham Thi Thu Huong, MA – Foreign Language Department – Hung Vuong University, who has offered me patient instruction, meticulous critisim, and constant encouragement which are extremely helpful to me to complete my graduation paper In addition, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mrs Vu Thi Quynh Dung, Deam of Foreign Language Department who has created good condition for me to complete my graduation paper and to all the lectures for their teaching In addition, I would like to thank all the lectures, teachers and staffs at Hung Vuong University, especially those in the Department of Foreign Language who have created favorable conditions for me to complete my graduation paper Last but not least, I am deeply grateful to my family, my friends for their support and encourage during my work Viet Tri, May 2016 Nguyen Thi Kim Anh ii ABSTRACT In America literature‟s history, especially in the early 20 th century, the literature of United State continued developing with many famous authors and works So as to have information about American humanity, the study deeply analyzes the novel “White Fang” by Jack London In this study, the researcher begins from the idea of understanding the humanity in the novel “White Fang” The research supposes the background on American society in the 20th century, American literature in the 20th century, humanism and humanity, the humanity in literature, Jack London‟s life and his novel “White Fang” The study has analyzed the humanity in the novel “White Fang” expressed through three aspects: the humanity expressed through the struggle and desire for life, through the humanity expressed through the evolution of White Fang in the relationship with his masters and, and the humanity expressed through the effort of White Fang to become a civilized wolf The major findings of the study can help readers have more understanding about literature, the country and language they are studying In addition, the messages withdrawn from the novel can lead readers to explore the profound meaning of life iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i ABSTRACT ii Part A: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale Research purpose 3 The Object and Scope of the research 3.1 The Object of the research 3.2 The scope of the research The significance of the research Research methods Research questions Research design Part B: THE OVERALL STUDY Foreign Research Research in Vietnam Part C: THE STUDY Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 American society in the 20th century 1.2 American Literature in the 20th century 1.3 Definition of Humanity 10 1.3.1 Definition 10 1.3.2 Features 11 1.4 Jack London and his works 12 1.4.1 Jack London‟s life time 12 iv 1.4.2 Jack London‟s works 14 1.5 “White Fang” by Jack London 16 1.5.1 The historical context of the novel 16 1.5.2 The plot of the novel 17 1.5.3 The characters 20 Chapter 2: THE HUMANITY EXPRESSED IN THE NOVEL “WHITE FANG” 23 2.1 The struggle and desire for life 23 2.1.1 The harsh environment and the famines 23 2.1.2 The enemies and the death 26 2.2 The evolution of White Fang in the relationship with his masters 30 2.2.1 The relationship between White Fang and Gray Beaver 30 2.2.2 The relationship between White Fang and Beauty Smith 34 2.2.3 The relationship between White Fang and loving master 38 2.3 The efforts of White Fang to become a civilized wolf 42 Chapter 3: JACK LONDON‟S MESSAGES THROUGH THE NOVEL “WHITE FANG” 46 3.1 Life lessons 46 3.2 The power of love 47 Part D: CONCLUSION 51 Major findings 51 Implications 52 Limitations and suggestions for further research 53 Conclusion 53 REFERENCES 54 Part A: INTRODUCTION Rationale Ethics is the notions of good and evil, conscience, honor, responsibility for dignity, justice, happiness, the evaluative rules, the behavior between people and people, and the individual and society Ethical values are regarded as ethical tradition of each country Nowadays, the phenomenon of moral decadence becomes the concern of many countries around the world Many problems which relate to human moral issue are increasing Never before, unmoral and inhuman behaviors appear with dense frequency in the press at present Some bad acts such as unmindfulness and emotionlessness of people when see an injured person on the street, they not help them, even the passers-by also take their wealth; doctors kill their patients and non-evidences determination; children kill their parents or siblings because of a little money, even fellow citizen others harm by chemical food which cause silently the death of many people if they use it in a long time and so on There are many reasons that cause the bad reality, include both of direct reasons and indirect reasons Some reasons that effect directly to human‟s awareness are the education at family, school and society or the process management and dissemination But the deep reason for the problem is the lack of belief about life and good things As a result, the bad deeds influence on psychology, awareness of people, especially, the young This make them look misconception about human society, even they lose gradually their human part and approach their animal part Like this, there are a lot of adverse effects on future generations This is a generation that will not sympathy, ready to step on each other for survival, cannot distinguish good or bad things The society without human love is not different from the world wild of animals See above, researcher has shown somewhat decadent moral situation in society today It relates to good and evil aspects between people and people, this mention on the humanitarian nature Thus, what can we to spread the humanity into spirit and action in each person This is the question that make researcher have to worry and want to a study to propagandize and impact to others, especially students who are easily to approach it The study concerns to literature, because learning through literature is an effective method It is regarded as a bridge which connect people to people and countries to countries Moreover, Literature also gives learners and readers the opportunity to connect the real world issues at the time they can learn true values for their life More detail, researcher wants to research deeply the novel “White Fang” by Jack London The work was published in 1906 and the name of the book is eponymous with character, a wild wolf dog Similarly with “The call of the wild” novel – best known novel of Jack London, the two novels are related to that while “The Call of the wild” tells the story of a dog which becomes wild and “White Fang” is the life story of a wolf which comes back toward civilization, after many hardships dealt him by both man and nature, to live a dog's life with a loving master Both novels are set in the land the author called simply "The North" - the Yukon Territory, Canada “White Fang” of Jack London reflect the real human life There is no essential difference between men and animals The novel is the portrayals of nature's unforgiving harshness, humankind's capacity and both of shocking brutality and unconditional love, and of the struggle for survival that is common to all life Prominently, White Fang shows the power of human kindness to transform a savage beast into a devoted pet The novel offers more than an animal story about the taming of a wild wolf-dog, named White Fang It is also a human‟s life story Owning to the reasons above, I want to carry out a research named: “A Study on the Humanity in the Novel “White Fang” by Jack London” Research purpose The research aims at: - Studying the author Jack London and his novel “White Fang” - Analyzing humanity in the novel “White Fang” - Finding out the messages of Jack London through his novel The Object and Scope of the research 3.1 The Object of the research - The Subject of the research is: “A study on the Humanity” - The Object of the research is: “the Novel “White Fang” by Jack London” 3.2 The scope of the research - The study focus on humanity in the novel “White Fang” by Jack London The significance of the research The results of the study help students and readers understand about the novel “White Fang” as well as know more about Jack London, especially the humanity in the work Besides, it also transmits the love about American Literature to the readers Research methods So as to accomplish this thesis systematically and adequately, the researcher uses some following research methods: - Theoretical study: The method is used to collect and study necessary materials and documents related to the study - Deductive and inductive method: The method is used to analyze humanity expressed in the novel - Systematized method: The method is used to systematize materials related to the study Research questions The research finds the answers to the following questions: - How is humanity expressed in Jack London novel? - What are massages the writer wants to send to readers through his novel? Research design The study consists of four parts and references Part A: Introduction In this part, the researcher gives an overall introduction about rationale, research purpose, the Object and Scope of the research, the significance of the research, research methods, research questions and research design Part B: The overall study This part focuses on some previous researches and books which relate to the humanity and other aspects about the novel “White Fang” Part C: The study Chapter 1: Literature review In this chapter, the researcher summaries the background knowledge of literary context in Jack London‟s time, American Literature in the 20th century, general information about Jack London‟s life and works and his novel “White Fang” Chapter 2: The humanity expressed in the novel “White Fang” This chapter analyzes the humanity expressed through the novel “White Fang” The first part analyzes the struggle and desire for life, the second part shows the evolution of White Fang in the relationship with his masters and the final part indicates the efforts of White Fang to become a civilized wolf Chapter 3: Jack London’s messages in the novel “White Fang” In this chapter, the researcher finds out the messages that the author wants to send to readers through the novel Part D: Conclusion This chapter summarizes the major findings of the study, proves implications and offers the limitations as well as suggestions for further research References Part B: THE OVERALL STUDY Foreign Research There have been different authors doing researches in many aspects related to “White Fang” by Jack London In the world, there are many books and papers review about Jack London and “White Fang” novel such as “In Steps of Jack London”, Vil M Bykov (2004) The book showed that Jack London‟s works are full of sympathy for laboring people, for people of high dignity and courage, the characteristics of his writing Moreover, in a literature essay “The Philosophy of Jack London Exposed in White Fang” from website www.gradesaver.com, establishes the key theme of the White Fang novel Through this novel, London seeks to portray his conception of nature, which is dark, ominous and powerful In order to convey this belief, he utilizes unique personification and symbolism, a wild setting and particular vocabulary In addition, he reveals his belief that human life is infinitesimal when compared to the all-encompassing power of nature Research in Vietnam In Vietnam, there are some researches about Jack London and his works such as “Thế giới nhân vật tác phẩm nhà văn vô sản Mĩ Jack Lodon” by Le Huy Bac (2005) help readers understand clearly about characters in Jack London‟s works and the way to build characters of him Besides, the master thesis named “Loài vật “Tiếng gọi nơi hoang dã” “ Nanh Trắng” Jack London” by Tran Thi Le (2012) points out the special art of building the character of Jack London From the information which are mentioned above, the researcher moves a conclusion that there are many studies and books about the novel “White Fang” by Jack London However, the researcher realizes that many people who not make on humanity in the novel “White Fang” by Jack London, especially at Hung Vuong University.Part C: THE STUDY 41 Step by step, White Fang is in the process of finding himself Despite the maturity of his years and of ferocious rigidity of the mould that had formed him, his nature was undergoing an expansion Gradually, the wolf no longer hate humans, he love his master and like civilized life Like is replaced by love which the wolf uses for Weedon Scott White Fang love his master that he can refuse meat to receive a caress from the owner or to accompany him down into the town White Fang is not demonstrative because of his selfpossessed strongly poised in his own isolation, but he expresses his love by only the steady regard of his eyes and by “The increasing following with his eyes of his god‟s every movement” However, White Fang only obeys his loving master, he does not comply anybody, even Matt who gives directly food for him in everyday Matt fails in the putting harness on White Fang‟s backs except Weedon Scott Day after day, White Fang has strong attachment for the young master During his life, it is the first time White Fang is sick when Weedon Scott disappears suddenly “He became very sick, so sick that Matt was finally compelled to bring him inside the cabin Also, in writing to his employer, Matt devoted a postscript to White Fang” ( Part IV, chapter 6, page 83, 84 ) He does not eat and does not work, too, though all the dogs are licking him “Aint got no spunk left”, and, may be, he is going to die However, he regains his spunk when Weedon Scott comes back the cabin This is the first time he wags his tail as a pet dog when he feels happy “Look at „m wag his tail! Weedon Scott strode half across the room toward him, at the same time calling him White Fang came to him not with a great bound, yet quickly He was awakened from self-consciousness, but as he drew near, his eyes took on a strange expression Something, an incommunicable vastness of feeling, rose up into his eyes as a light and shone forth” ( Part IV, chapter 6, page 84 ) 42 The return of his master replaces the encouragement for him “Life was flowing through him again, splendid and indomitable” the transformation in the attitudes and actions of White Fang proves his true love for the loving owner The grey wolf‟s love for Weedon Scott is more and more profound White Fang‟s love for his loving master is the love that transcends class and instinct, goes through bitter and painful, and also it is the love of loyalty and sacrifice In front of a reckless and dangerous thief, White Fang does not hesitate to attack the murder to protect his owners, then, he turns to nearly the death “One broken hind-leg… Three broken ribs, one at least of which has pierced the lung He has lost nearly all the blood in his body There is a large likelihood of internal injuries He must have been jumped upon To say nothing of three bullet holes clear through him One chance in a thousand is really optimistic He hasn‟t a chance to ten thousand” ( Part V, chapter 5, page 103 ) Like this, the bad situation is a trap which kills the innocent souls But, it should be happy because the poor wolf has finally found true love He does not fight or feel nervous, anxious as the previous days Loving environment moves White Fang from a wild and ferocious wolf-dog to a civilized wolf-dog which knows smile The relationships of White Fang with three masters show his evolution The process of his growth goes through some different stages, and, he changes himself to become better Because he receives the love from human, and he feels it through their treatment to him This mentions to a feature of the humanity “Evolution is a part of life” 2.3 The efforts of White Fang to become a civilized wolf White Fang is really a wild wolf before he comes to civilized world He does not know about extinction of men, in his eyes, he only knows the lives 43 things which can move or cannot move and he hunts for food to survive following his instinct After he experiences some adventures, he realizes some laws of life They are “the law of meat”, eat or be eaten” and “killer or be killed” That is all lessons which he has to learn and use in his life However, when he gets out the wildness and enters the human world, he learns many useful lessons which help him to live in a civilized society In other words, the lessons are the rules to become a civilized wolf All the rules prove the efforts of White Fang to become a civilized wolf The first rule is about the obedience After the first meeting with human, the grey cub comes and lives with Kiche in Indian camp Day after day, White Fang – named by Indian master, learns more many new lessons as well as new rules in the society White Fang realizes early the power of human who are almighty God, so he submits himself right from the start “When they walked, he got out of their way When they called, he came When they threatened, he cowered down When they commanded him to go, he went away hurriedly” (Part III, chapter 2, page 43) He dislikes this type of like, although he is learning to like it In the bondage time, he learns another lesson, “Never, no matter what the circumstance, must he dare to bite the god who was lord and master over him” (Part III, chapter 2, page 45) Afterwards, when he lives under Beauty Smith‟s regime, because of the power of beatings, White Fang loath to obey his master “White Fang remained on the Yukon, the property of a man more than half mad and all brute… To White Fang, Beauty Smith was a veritable, if terrible, god He was a mad god at best, but White Fang knew nothing of madness, he knew only that he must submit to the will of this new master, obey his every whim and fancy” (Part IV, chapter 3, page 67) Under the rule with a rod of iron of two first masters, White Fang begins to owe allegiance to human whether he obeys unwilling However, when the wolf lives under Weedon Scott, he always shows his obedience to his loving- 44 master White Fang has enough strength to defeat any dogs, but he obeys his owner to leave others dogs alone, he lives with them together in the peace He does not perturb with others dogs until he receives the permission of his owner When Scott gives an order “Go to it”, White Fang cannot believe, he looks eagerly and questioningly at the owner Contrast to his two old gods, White Fang shows completely his obedience to Weedon Scott The submission is useful for the grey wolf, it helps him close to human society It is condition that changes him to become a civilized wolf The second rule is about the killing The young master forbids White Fang to kill any animals Weedon Scott never encourages the wolf to fight, so he always dominates his passion even if it is so difficult The condition to survive in a civilized world is not the killing or the war; it is the love, the sympathy, the openness and the peace So that White Fang has to learn and remember all the condition to close civilized society After killing about fifty chickens, White Fang takes punishment from his loving master “Then he talked harshly to the unwitting culprit, and in his voice there was nothing but godlike wrath Also, he held White Fang‟s nose down to the slain hens, and at the same time cuffed him soundly” (Part V, chapter 3, page 95) Subsequently, Weedon Scott challenges White Fang by locking him in with the chickens all afternoon As a result, the young engineer is successful in teaching the ferocious wolf “Locked in the yard and there deserted by the master, White Fang lay down and went to sleep Once he got up and walked over to the trough for drink of water The chickens he calmly ignored So far as he was concerned they did not exist At four o‟clock, whence he sauntered gravely to the house He had learned the law” ( Part V, chapter 3, page 96 ) After the punishment, he understands how to live in a society He needs the love and sympathy to live with others animals in peace 45 The third rule to become a civilized wolf is loyalty His character is expressed as soon as he lives under the Indian master After a period of living with Gray Beaver, White Fang always gives the loyalty to his owner He worships the master with the fear and without love Even thought Gray Beaver is extremely strict and harsh owner with brutal beatings for White Fang, he still shows faithful to his god Because he feels affection of the Indian master through his fairness in treating him The loyalty of the grey wolf connect closely with his nature, so he is not keen on his mother, and, even he leaves freedom life in wildness to become the friend of man Therefore, when the god sells him for Beauty Smith, he runs away from new master to come back to the first owner whether he is beaten by the second god “One does not give up a god easily, and so with White Fang Gray Beaver was his own particular god, and, in spite of Gray Beaver‟s will, White fang still clung to him and would not give him up Gray Beaver had betrayed and forsaken him, but that had no effect upon him Not for nothing had he surrendered himself body and soul to Gray Beaver There had been no reservation on White Fang‟s part, and the bond was not to be broken easily” ( Part IV, chapter 2, page 66 ) White Fang is an animal which comes from the wild background and owns wild features Thus, it is difficult to transform him to a civilized dog However, after a long time, he lives in the human society, he has learnt almost the rules to become more civilized Besides, thanks to the love from man, he comes closely to human and becomes a civilized wolf 46 Chapter 3: JACK LONDON’S MESSAGES THROUGH THE NOVEL “WHITE FANG” The novel “White Fang” is not only completely entertainment but the whole text also is worthy lessons from which people should not overlook In terms of aspects of humanity reflect in this novel, the messages that Jack London wants to provide the readers are the governance of circumstances to life, the reflection of the real life through White Fang‟s image and the love of men 3.1 Life lessons As you can see, White Fang goes through four periods in his life and he has clearly changes in his mind White Fang descends from a wild and ferocious wolf-dog, he turns to “the most fearful of wild beast” under the mad god However, he becomes “a blessed wolf” full of love when he lives under the protection and love from loving master Jack London shows the maturity and the transformation in White Fang‟s personal character Besides, “White Fang”, through the White Fang‟s image reflects the real life It evidently is a dog‟s story But in the deep part, Jack London makes a reflection of real human life through White Fang‟s life There is no significant difference between men and animals “Jack London‟s uncanny understanding of animal and human natures give this novel a striking vitality and power After reading it, people could not help pondering over his own life and thinking about what is the real meaning of human nature” ( Tina Giantquitto, The Call of the Wild and White Fang ) First of all, Jack London wants to give the messages about the governance of circumstances to life “Life depends on the circumstance and it is controlled by circumstance” Actually, when circumstances impact to organism to some extent, it will cause the change of mind In the novel, White Fang is typical character of the natural transformation 47 White Fang comes from the cold and harsh Northern land to civilized world The sudden change of environment transforms White Fang which from a wild and ferocious wolf-dog to a civilized wolf-dog, “A blessed wolf”, following the calling of women in the Scott family Because of the treatment of each god to White Fang, this makes him changes his mood It shows that environment have important affection to White Fang Through the wolf-dog‟s image, the novelist wants to send a message about the affection of environment to the growth of a person If a person lives in a bad environment which is violent, vicious, ferocious and unfair, they will affect to the awareness and soul of the person On the contrary, If a child lives in a good environment and receives the love, openness, sympathy and justice, the child will have a right awareness From there, the child will become a good person who has love and knows how to treat to others Moreover, the author also sends an idea about the way of living “One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself” It means treat others people as you would like them to treat you, avoid harming others They also value all human beings, celebrating both our common humanity and shared values Consequently, people need to change to become better On the other hand, Jack London wants to mention the affection of life environment to human The bad contexts are pitfalls kill innocent soul, on the contrary, a loving environment will save a sinful soul Readers will understand easily about novelist‟s idea through the idiom “Evil communication corrupt bad manners” 3.2 The power of love The author also wants to mention about the power of love White Fang's point of view, men are the gods with supreme power However, his two first gods treat him very horrible Gray Beaver – Indian master betrays White Fang 48 to Beauty Smith in spite of his faithfulness The wild wolf has ever thanked before the fairness of Gray Beaver Nevertheless, Gray Beaver is a savage god, he never giver a kind word or a caressing touch of the hand for White Fang He does not bestow the love, he executes “fairness” by batons, punishes transgression with the pain of blow and rewards merit by withholding a blow, not by kindness So that, the wolf never feels the smoothing from human‟s hand or the love from the god In addition, homogeneous dogs – Lip-Lip and others dogs, are always victimize White Fang, all the matter are imprinted in his mind This makes him turn into a lone and vicious wolf-dog May be White Fang would have been difference if he had grew up in the love environment The grey cub could get on well with the puppy team, had a good time together, possibly, he also arose sympathy with them and became ordinary fellows If the owner treated the cub by his love, he awaked good character hides in the wolf‟s mind In fact, however, everything is different, the harsh environment of life turns him into a lone and ferocious wolf-dog with doubts about love At the time of living in human world, White Fang changes himself from a wild wolf to a savage wolf-dog, but he knows the loyalty to human which is one of the husky‟s instinct By the time he lives under Beauty Smith, the change is continuous Step by step, the vicious owner changes him into “the most fearful of wild beast” Since the bad treatment of his owner, the wolf-dog is more and more ferocious and iron-heart Contrary to two old masters of White Fang, Weedon Scott is representative for lofty love The young engineer is the only person buys a dying dog, then also looks after and converts him by his true love Weedon Scott leads White Fang to the civilized world At the first time in White Fang‟s life, he feels the love of men, kind words and even bat which he has never known before 49 “He talked to White Fang as White Fang had never been talked to before He talked softly and smoothly, with a gentleness that somehow, somewhere, touched White Fang” ( Part IV, chapter 6, page 79 ) The cruel wolf is changing, he begins to have confidence in new master, then he like the young engineer, and finally, he love his owner Day after day, White Fang has strong attachment for the young man Gradually, the wolf no longer hate humans, he love his master and like civilized life “As the days went by, the evolution of Like into Love was accelerated White Fang himself began to grow aware of it, though in his consciousness he knew not what love was It manifested itself to him as a void in his being, a hungry, aching, yearning void that clamoured to be filled It was a pain and an unrest; and it received easement only by the touch of the new god‟s presence At such times love was joy to him, a wild, keen-thrilling satisfaction But when away from his god, the pain and the unrest returned; the void in him sprang up and pressed against him with its emptiness, and the hunger gnawed and gnawed unceasingly” ( Part IV, chapter 6, page 82 ) White Fang has not the love, because he feels his tolerance Beauty, has infinite soul salvation, it is full of savages Do not turn it into mediocrity, which often involve White Fang was promoted, to help it become a great creature as ever Not merely with the owners, his tolerance competence helped him know how to accept the same type instead of snapping them as it used to do, learn to reach out to the civilized world, get used to it That is not tame White Fang or it degeneration, which helped it evolve into a civilized species It is also a reminder of the great human writer Jack London Through the change of White Fang, Jack London wants to show the power of love which changes a guilty spirit The novel presents a typical 50 outlook on life of the novelist: the love for animals He says that only by basing on a genuine passionate love to animals, men can tame the beast Furthermore, human need to treat others by true love in order to take the love from them The love will make human society become better and more civilized This work also expresses a strong belief of Jack London that the power of love is unparalleled with its ability to rehabilitate, reform and transform lives, and by expensing the world, no matter what bad things have become When reading the novel “White Fang” by Jack London, readers will be absorbed into the adventurous life of the wolf-dog, thenceforward, they will understand more about the humanity from the author‟s view through the stories If the summary content is a wild wolf tamed slowly, going through hardships - painful - love - back pain - and then to become a loving pet Any process is not so simple, the wolf does not turn ferocious and powerful, but he becomes a pet dog As well as the process of life, people have to face with many troubles, so we need have strong beliefs about life, exactly, the vitality always hide on each person The desire always reigns and recovers strongly to hold on the life In summary, in this chapter, the researcher has found out two main messages withdrawn deduce from “White Fang” They are life depends on the circumstance and it is controlled by circumstance and the power of love Morality and redemption, love and empathy, loyalty and friendship that are noble values which the novelist wants to convey through this novel The messages which the author wants to express in his novel imply the educational purpose that aim to lead the readers to explore the profound meanings of life 51 Part D: CONCLUSION The part includes four sections The first summaries major findings withdraw from the study The second shows implication The third indicates limitations of the study and gives suggestions for further research The last is the conclusion for the whole study Major findings Through what the researcher has done above, the humanity expressed in the novel and some meaningful messages which the novelist wants to send to the readers are worked out The first is about the aspect of humanity expressed in “White Fang” through the struggle and desire for life, the evolution of White Fang in relation with his masters and the loyalty of White Fang The humanity expressed through the struggle and desire for life Being a real wild wolf, White Fang has to face the harsh environment and famines At the beginning of life, the grey cub knows some laws to survive in the wildlife Before he comes to the human world, White Fang is a real wild wolf He has to fight again the hash environmental life, fear and famines However, he passes away by his skill and spirit and vitality hides in his mind Furthermore, the humanity is also expressed through the evolution of White Fang in the relationship with his masters Then White Fang comes to civilized society, he experiences different kinds of relationships with human Through the relationships, readers can know White Fang turns into civilized world from the wildness The changing of masters, till the last master, brings him the happiness In the deep part, these relationships are representative of the men relation in the society Thus, it has great contribution to express the humanity in the work In addition, the humanity is also expressed through the efforts of White Fang to become a civilized wolf In order to be a civilized wolf, White Fang tries to give up his cruel instinct such as “the law of meat”, eat or be eaten” 52 and killer or be killer” The wild wolf-dog goes through many difficulties to be “A blessed wolf” which is obedient and loyal After analyzing the humanity expressed in the novel, the researcher has found out messages which the novelist wants to send the reader The first message is about the governance of circumstances to life “Life depends on the circumstance and it is controlled by circumstance” Actually, when circumstances impact to organism to some extent, it will cause the change of mind In the novel, White Fang is typical character of the change personality The second message is about the power of love People need to love animals, love others and have belief about life The messages which the author wants to express in his novel imply the educational purpose that aim to lead the readers to explore the profound meanings of life Implications This section provides some implications for teaching and learning literature on the basic of the major findings described in the previous section The main findings of the research mention that Jack London‟s outlook on life which he expresses through his works is affected mainly by social background in his time Therefore, in order to know more about his works, students should learn about the historical context in the period – which marked with many historical events Moreover, the study is really useful because it helps learners have more understanding about literature, the country and people of the language they are studying From the findings, the author‟s message can be introduced to readers to apply into real life “Life depends on the circumstance and it is controlled by circumstance” Actually, when circumstances impact to organism to some extent, it will cause the change of mind One more message that the novelist wants to send the readers is about the power of love The message withdrawn from this novel is good at educating the personality for the leaner So they should be paid more attention to and properly applied in the real life 53 Finally, the universities should allocate more time in teaching and learning literature On the other hand, they should invest more facilities and equipments for teaching and learning foreign language such as reference books, documentaries to help students study literature well Limitations and suggestions for further research Despite all the efforts, the researcher has made and the advice and assistance she has received, her study cannot avoid some drawbacks as well as shortcomings Firstly, because of the limitation of time and lack of books for references, especially, references about the novel related to the humanity, analyzing the humanity in the novel “White Fang” may not as deeply as expected Secondly, the study has analyzed three aspects of humanity expressed in the novel “White Fang”, it cannot cover all aspects Therefore, the researcher hopes that other aspects which have not been mentioned here will be completed fully in further studies Furthermore, the researcher also suggests further research on characters in the novel to get more information about humanity Conclusion In conclusion, after introduction about Jack London‟s lifetime and his works and writing styles, after an analysis on humanity in the novel, the study finally takes out his messages to readers The researcher hope that all of readers have the whole look about humanity in the novel and find out the own lessons about the real life 54 REFERENCES In English Bykov, V (1962) In the Steps of Jack London Russia Charles, D (1859) On the Origin of Species (5th ed.) John Murray, London Daniel D (1997) Jack London, A Biography Scholastic Press, New York London, J (1996) The Yukon writing of Jack London Tally Hall Prees, Ann Arbor, M.I Mencken, H.L (2000) The Call of the Wild, White Fang & To Build a Fire Random House Publishing Group Tina, G (2003) The Call of the Wild and White Fang Barnes and Noble Classics Vanier, J (1998), Become Human Paulist Press, Canada In Vietnamese Bùi Văn Thanh (2003), Thế giới nhân vật vùng Klondike, Luận văn thạc sĩ, Trường Đại học sư phạm Hà Nội Jack London (2013), Nanh Trắng, Nhà xuất văn học 10 Lê Huy Bắc (2003), Văn học Mỹ, NXB Đại học Sư phạm 11 Lê Huy Bắc (2005), Thế giới nhân vật tác phẩm nhà văn vô sản Mĩ Jack Lodon, Thư viện trường Đại học Sư phạm Hà Nội 12 Nguyễn Kim Anh, (2003), Hình ảnh người da đỏ Indian sáng tác Jack London, Châu Mỹ ngày 13 Nguyễn Xuân Duy, (2013), A study on Humanity in “The call of theWild” by Jack London, Thư viện trường Đại học Hùng Vương 14 Nguyễn Xuân Thơm, (1997), A History of English and American Literature, NXB Thế giới 15 Trần Thị Lệ, (2012), Loài vật “Tiếng gọi nơi hoang dã” “Nanh Trắng” Jack London, Luận văn thạc sĩ, Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội Nhân văn 55 Websites 16 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack-London 17 http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack-London 18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/white-Fang 19 http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/white-Fang 20 http://london.sonoma.edu/Wrting/WhiteFang 21 http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guide/literature/white-fang 22 http://www.gradesaver.com 23 http://www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/humanity 24 http://www.nguvan.hnue.edu.vn 25 http://www.sparksnotes.com/study-guide/literature/white-fang 26 http://www.webook.vn/nghe-thuat-truyen-ngan-jack-london ... American humanity, the study deeply analyzes the novel “White Fang” by Jack London In this study, the researcher begins from the idea of understanding the humanity in the novel “White Fang” The research... author Jack London and his novel “White Fang” - Analyzing humanity in the novel “White Fang” - Finding out the messages of Jack London through his novel The Object and Scope of the research 3.1 The. .. Object of the research - The Subject of the research is: “A study on the Humanity - The Object of the research is: the Novel “White Fang” by Jack London” 3.2 The scope of the research - The study
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