Test bank accounting information system by turner 13 chapter

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To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS CONTROLS AND PROCESSES TURNER / WEICKGENANNT CHAPTER 13: Data and Databases TEST BANKCHAPTER 13 – TRUE / FALSE Data are the set of facts collected from transactions Information is the set of facts collected from transactions Information is the interpretation of data that have been processed Data must be collected to complete a transaction such as a sale Data does not need to be stored in most cases The requirements to frequently or infrequently access data are not relevant to the way that the data is stored due to computer access speed A character is a customer, client, or vendor A character is a single letter, number, or symbol A field is a set of characters that fill a space reserved for a particular kind of data 10 A record is the entire set of fields for a specific entity 11 An entire set of files is a database 12 An entire record forms a “database.” 13 Magnetic tape is a storage medium that allows only a sequential access type of storage 14 Sequential access means that data are stored in sequential or chronological order 15 Random access means that any data item on the storage media can be directly accessed without reading in sequence 195 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 16 Random access means that you are searching for specific data but not know where it is within the database 17 Batch processing occurs when similar transactions are grouped into a batch and that batch is processed as a group 18 Real-time processing occurs when transactions are processed as soon as they are entered 19 Batch processing occurs when transactions are processed as soon as they are entered 20 Real-time processing occurs when similar transactions are grouped into a batch and that batch is processed as a group 21 If real-time processing is to occur, database records must be stored on random access media 22 Data redundancy occurs when the same customer has more than one database record 23 Concurrency means that all of the multiple instances of the same data are exactly alike 24 A record pointer identifies a specific record in a flat database 25 A relational database stores data in two-dimensional tables that are joined in many ways to represent many different kinds of relationships in the data 26 Within are relational database a record may have more than one primary key 27 SQL stands for Sequential Query Language 28 When using a SQL query language you are restricted to searching two tables for common values such as Vendor Name 29 Data normalization allows repeating groups such as the same vendor name in multiple locations of the primary key field of the same table 30 A data warehouse is a temperature controlled building where files and records are retained 31 Data warehouse files are non-volatile, and not frequently updated while operational databases are updated with each transaction that affects them 196 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 32 HIPs, or high-impact processes, are the critically important processes that must be executed correctly if the organization is to survive and thrive 33 Tools commonly used in data mining are OLAP, ROLAP, and MOLAP 34 Data mining is the process of searching an operational database for identifiable patterns in the data 35 To “drill down” is the process of successive expansion of data into more detail, going from high-level data to successively lower levels of data 36 Because of today’s computing power and Internet accessibility, there has been a substantial increase in the use of centralized databases and centralized processing 37 In distributed data processing (DDP) and distributed databases (DDB), the processing and the databases are dispersed to different locations of the organization 38 In centralized data processing the processing and the databases are stored and maintained in a central location 39 Because of the interaction of the database expansion of a distributed database is difficult and costly 40 Since distributed databases are under the control of many individual sites rather than a single, centralized site, configuration, conformity, and security are less of an issue 41 With a client/server system all processing is done on the server 42 IT general controls assist in preventing unauthorized access while providing adequate backup is the responsibility of the user 43 Ethical issues related to data utilization are not a consideration for data collection 44 Since database management and information is the responsibility and asset of the database owner customers should not have the privilege to restrict information contained within it 45 The organization should institute procedures to insure that all customer data collected retains accuracy, is complete, is current, is relevant, and is reliable” 197 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com ANSWERS TO TEST BANK - CHAPTER 13 - TRUE/FALSE: T F T T F F F T F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T T F T T T F T T 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 198 F F T F T F T F F 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 F F F T T T F T F 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 T T F F F F F F T To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEST BANKCHAPTER 13 – MULTIPLE CHOICE 46 Data is A the interpretation of facts that have been processed B the set of facts collected from transactions C set of facts pertaining to accounts payable D set of facts pertaining to accounts receivable 47 Information is A the interpretation of facts that have been processed B the set of facts collected from transactions C set of facts pertaining to accounts payable D set of facts pertaining to accounts receivable 48 Data collected would be all but A name of the customer B the selling company’s name C the address of the customer D the credit card number of the customer 49 Examples of data collection events are A transactions that fill customer orders B transactions to replenish inventory C Neither A nor B are examples of data collection D Both A and B are examples of data collection 50 The reason that detailed data must be collected and stored is: The data must be stored for future transactions or followup The data must be incorporated into the accounting system so that regular financial statements can be prepared Management needs to examine and analyze data from transactions to operate the organization A Only B Only and C Only 1, 2, and D Include 1, 2, and amoung other reasons 199 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 51 Detailed information from a sale may be used by: the sales department the accounts receivable section the inventory department general ledger accountants customer service A only 1, 3, and B only by 1, 2, 3, and C only by 1, 2, and D only by 1, 2, 3, and 52 The reasons for storing data to complete a customer sales transactions include all but: taking the order pulling the items from the warehouse shipping the items to the customer billing the customer collecting payment on the order providing feedback to the customer on the order crediting the customer account for payment A B and C and D 53 The reasons to store customer names, addresses, and other similar information include all but: A to follow up with the customer B to create financial reports C to expedite future orders D to ease the customer’s follow-on ordering processes 54 Storage media and methods of processing are: A sequential and random access storage with random and batch data processing B sequential and real time access storage with batch and real time data processing C batch and random access storage with random and batch data processing D sequential and random access storage with batch and real time data processing 200 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 55 Select the false statement from the following A A character is a single letter only B A field is a set of characters C A field can be thought of as a column of data D A record is the entire set of fields 56 Select the true statement from the following A A character is a single letter only B A character is a single number only C A character is a single symbol only D A character is a single letter, number, or symbol 57 A field A a B a C a D a is: row within a record column within a record series or collection of records character is a single letter, number, or symbol 58 A record is: A an entire set of fields for a specific entity B a series of characters C a collection of files D another name for a database 59 A field is A an entire set of records within a file B a row within a record C a set of characters D a set of files within a database 60 A file is: A a set of characters B a column within a record C a row within a record D a collection of related records 61 A database is: A a set of characters B a row within a file C a collection of related records D an entire set of files 201 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 62 Magnetic tape storage medium allows: A sequential access storage with random data processing B random access storage with random data processing C batch access storage with random data processing D sequential access storage with sequential data processing 63 Random access means: A all data items in the group must be read but the groups not need to read in order B any data item can be retreived without retreiving previous records C all data items must be read in the order placed into the system, not alphabetically D all data items must be read in alphabetical order, not in the order they were placed in the system 64 Direct access: A means no passwords are required to access data items in a database B is the same as sequential access C is the same as random access D is the process used by magnetic tape storage medium 65 (Magnetic) Disk storage is: A the same as magnetic tape storage B sequential access C random access D not direct access 66 (Magnetic) Disk storage is: A preferred over magnetic tape storage B sequential access C not random access D not direct access 67 Batch processing: A occurs when dissimilar transactions are grouped and processed as a group B occurs when similar transactions are grouped into a batch and processed as a group C occurs when the transaction is processed as soon as it is entered D would not be used for payment to vendor type transactions since they are time sensitive 202 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 68 Real-time processing: A would not be used for payment to vendor type transactions since they are not time sensitive B occurs when similar transactions are grouped into a batch and processed as a group C would be utilized for processes such as payroll due to their time-sensitive nature D occurs when the transaction is processed as soon as it is entered 69 Select the true statement from those provided A Batch processing fails to attain the efficiency of real-time processing B Real-time processing fails to attain the efficiency of batch processing C Real-time processing is efficient for large groups of similar data D Real-time processing has less complex audit trails 70 Select the false statement from those provided A Batch processing attains a greater efficiency than real-time processing for large amounts of data items B Batch processing has a faster response time than real-time processing due to the grouping of like data items C Batch processing should be utilized for payroll type processes as it groups these similar data items D Real-time data processing has more complex audit trails for data items than batch processing 71 Select the false statement from those provided A Real-time processing is more complex because of the interactive nature of data processing B Real-time processing can efficiently utilize sequential storage concepts C The audit trail is as complex within both real-time and batch processing systems D Control totals are difficult within real-time processing due to the lack of data item groupings 72 Real-time data item processing is more complex because: A it must utilize sequential storage medium B it must group data items together before processing C the slower response times indicate more systems activity D there is duplication of effort in processing transactions 203 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 73 Batch processing of data items is less complex because: A entries are recorded as soon as entered, eliminating queues of data B audit trails are not required as required with real-time processing C the individuals doing data entry need not learn their jobs to high skill levels D the individual processes are not as complex as with real-time processing 74 Select the correct statement from those provided below A Batch processing has a slow response time and must use sequential data storage B Batch processing is very efficient for large volumes of transactions while real-time processing has a slower processing time C Batch processing is complex while real-time processing is simple D Data may be stored either sequentially or randomly in batch and real-time processing 75 Select the false statement from those provided below A Data must be stored sequential order for batch processing and in random order for real-time processing B Batch processing is very efficient for large volumes of transactions while real-time processing has a rapid processing time C Batch processing is simple while real-time processing is more complex D Batch processing has a slow response time and may use random order data access 76 Select the correct statement from those provided below A If batch processing is selected due to payroll and production type processing mandates, the entire system must be batch processing B If real-time processing is selected due to sales and inventory type processing mandates, the entire system must be real-time processing C If sales and inventory are real-time, payroll and production may be batch processing in a well designed system D Because sales are frequently shipped out of warehouses, sales, inventory, and payroll are all good candidates for batch processing concepts 77 Data redundancy occurs: A when shared databases are utilized B when inventory has the same data in its files as sales has in its files C when customer addresses are needed by both shipping and billing D in all properly designed database management systems 204 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 143 While an employee may have access to privileged information, an example of unethical activities would be: A a nurse viewing the medications of the next patient B a car salesman viewing the credit rating of a customer with a car in for warranty repairs C a manager reviewing the hours worked of an assigned employee D a warehouseman viewing the availability of materials needed for production 144 Proper IT controls will not: A prevent a hacker from penetrating the firewall B prevent an unauthorized user from using the computer systems C restrict employee access to any information D prevent an employee from sharing his password 145 Ethical responsibilities are: A shared by company employees only B shared by company employees and management only C shared by company employees,IT, and management only D shared by all concerned including employees, customers, and management 216 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 B B B D D B D B D A D B A C C D D B C C 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 A B D B B B D D D A C B B D A D A B A C 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 217 D B B D D B B A C C C B D D C B C A B D 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 A C C D A B B C D A D B B D B B D C C C 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 C C C D D A C C B C C B C D D D C B D D To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEXTBOOK – CHAPTER 13 – END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS 146 Which of the following best describes the relationship between data and information? A Data is interpreted information B Information is interpreted data C Data is more useful than information in decision making D Data and information are not related 147 A character is to a field as A water is to a pool B a pool is to a swimmer C a pool is to water D a glass is to water 148 Magnetic tape is a form of A direct access media B random access media C sequential access media D alphabetical access media 149 Which of the following is not an advantage of using real-time data processing? A Quick response time to support timely record keeping and customer satisfaction B Efficiency for use with large volumes of data C Provides for random access of data D Improved accuracy due to the immediate recording of transactions 150 If a company stores data in separate files in its different departmental locations and is able to update all files simultaneously, it would not have problems with A attributes B data redundancy C industrial espionage D concurrency 151 When the data contained in a database are stored in large, two-dimensional tables, the database is referred to as a A flat file database B hierarchical database C network database D relational database 218 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 152 Database management systems are categorized by the data structures they support In which type of database management system is the data arranged in a series of tables? A Network B Hierarchical C Relational D Sequential 153 A company’s database contains three types of records: vendors, parts, and purchasing The vendor records include the vendor number, name, address, and terms The parts records include part numbers, name, description, and warehouse location Purchasing records include purchase numbers, vendor numbers (which reference the vendor record), part numbers (which reference the parts record), and quantity What structure of database is being used? A Network B Hierarchical C Relational D Sequential 154 Which of the following statements is not true with regard to a relational database? A It is flexible and useful for unplanned, ad hoc queries B It stores data in tables C It stores data in a tree formation D It is maintained on direct access devices 155 A collection of several years’ nonvolatile data used to support strategic decisionmaking is a(n) A operational database B data warehouse C data mine D what-if simulation 156 Data mining would be useful in all of the following situations except A identifying hidden patterns in customers’ buying habits B assessing customer reactions to new products C determining customers’ behavior patterns D accessing customers’ payment histories 219 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 157 A set of small databases where data are collected, processed, and stored on multiple computers within a network is a A centralized database B distributed database C flat file database D high-impact process 158 Each of the following is an online privacy practice recommended by the AICPA Trust Services Principles Privacy Framework except: A Redundant data should be eliminated from the database B Notification of privacy policies should be given to customers C Private information should not be given to third parties without the customer’s consent D All of the above ANSWERS TO TEXTBOOK – CHAPTER 13 – END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS 146 B 147 A 148 C 149 B 150 D 151 A 152 C 153 C 154 C 220 155 B 156 C 157 B 158 A To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEXTBOOK – CHAPTER 13 – SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 159 How does data differ from information? Answer: Data is the basic facts collected from a transaction Information is data that has been manipulated by summarizing, categorizing, or analyzing to make that data useful to a decision maker 160 Why is it important for companies to store transaction data? Answer: There are four reasons that a company must collect and store transaction data Those reasons are: 1) to complete transactions; 2) for follow-up on later transactions or for reference regarding future transactions with the same entity; 3) to prepare external reports such as financial statements; and 4) to provide information to management as they attempt to run the organization efficiently and effectively 161 Which type of data storage medium is most appropriate when a single record of data must be accessed frequently and quickly? Answer: Random access storage works best for situations in which a single record must be accessed quickly and easily 162 Identify one type of business that would likely use real-time data processing rather than batch processing Describe the advantages of real-time processing to this type of business Answer: A business that sells items on a web site, such as Amazon, would be likely to use real-time data processing This is true because the system must be able to determine information such as whether an item ordered is currently in stock The main advantage of real-time processing is its ability to provide information immediately There are many examples of the need for real-time data processing Airline reservation systems are another example 163 Differentiate between data redundancy and concurrency Answer: Data redundancy occurs when the same data are stored in more than one file Thus, there is redundant, or repeated data Concurrency means that all of the multiple instances of the same data are exactly the same It is harder to achieve concurrency when there is much data redundancy 164 What is the term for the software program(s) that monitors and organizes the database and controls access and use of data? Describe how this software controls shared access Answer: This software system is called a Database Management System, or DBMS The DBMS manages the access of users or processes to the online database The DBMS manages the data sharing by updating the data available to users immediately upon recording any changes 221 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 165 Describe the trade-offs of using the hierarchical model of database storage Answer: A hierarchical model database is very efficient for processing large volumes of similar transactions It is not efficient for accessing or processing a single record from a large database Therefore, it works well with batch processing, but would not be efficient in those situations where accessing a single record, or answering flexible queries, is necessary 166 Describe the organization of a flat file database Answer: Flat file records are two dimensional tables with rows and columns The records are stored in text format in sequential order, and all processing must occur sequentially No relationships are defined between records These systems must use batch processing only and batches must be processed in sequence The system makes the processing of large volumes of similar transactions very efficient 167 What four conditions are required for all types of databases? Answer: 1) Items in a column must all be the same data type 2) Each column must be uniquely named 3) Each row must be unique in at least one column 4) Each intersection of a row and column must contain only one data item 168 Within a hierarchical database, what is the name for the built-in linkages in data tables? Which data relationships can be contained in a hierarchical database? Answer: Record pointers are used to link a record to the next record having the same attribute Using a record pointer system, one-to-one and one-to-many relationships can be represented in a hierarchical database 169 Which database models are built on the inverted tree structure? What are the disadvantages of using the inverted tree structure for a database? Answer: Both the hierarchical database model and the network database model are based on an inverted tree structure The network model is more complex because it uses more than one inverted tree structure This allows two or more paths into the data Two disadvantages are that new data cannot be added until all related information is known, and deleting a parent record can delete all child records 170 Which database model is used most frequently in the modern business world? Why you believe it is frequently used? Answer: The relational database model is now used most frequently It is frequently used because it is the most flexible database model An English-like query language, SQL, can be used to retrieve data from the database in a very flexible manner In addition, the increasing computer power and decreasing cost of computing power have made any inefficiencies in a relational database less significant 222 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 171 How is the primary key used in a relational database? Answer: The primary key is the unique identifier for each record in the table and it is used to sort, index, and access records from that table 172 What language is used to access data from a relational database? Why is the language advantageous when accessing data? Answer: Structured Query Language, SQL, is the language used to access data in a relational database Its advantage is its English-like query language that allows easy access to the data in the database and presentation in a manner most useful to the user 173 Which type of database model has the most flexibility for querying? How does this flexibility assist management? Answer: The relational database model is the most flexible database model for querying It provides important assistance to managers through its flexibility in answering an unlimited number of queries about customers, products, vendors, or any other information in the database 174 What are the first three rules of normalization? What is meant by the statement that the rules of normalization are additive? Answer: 1) Eliminate repeating groups 2) Eliminate redundant data 3) Eliminate columns not dependent on the primary key Additive means that if a table meets the third rule, it has also met the preceding rules: one and two 175 Differentiate between a data warehouse and an operational database Answer: An operational database is the database in which data is continually updated as transactions are processed The operational database includes data for the current fiscal year and it supports day-to-day operations and record keeping for the transaction processing systems The data warehouse is an integrated collection of enterprise-wide data that includes five to 10 years of non-volatile data, and it is used to support management in decision making and planning Periodically, new data is uploaded to the data warehouse from the operational data, but other than this updating process, the data in the data warehouse does not change 176 How is data mining different than data warehousing? Answer: Data mining is the use of data analysis tools to analyze data in a data warehouse Tools such as OLAP are used in data mining An example of data mining is analyzing sales data to determine customer buying patterns The data warehouse is the database in which the data to be analyzed is stored 223 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 177 How has Anheuser-Busch used data warehousing and data mining successfully? Answer: Anheuser-Busch has used a data warehouse and data mining to analyze sales history, price-to-consumer, holidays and special events, daily temperature, and forecasted data such as anticipated temperature to create forecasts of sales by store and by product Data are used by salespeople and distributors to rearrange displays, rotate stock, and inform stores of promotion campaigns Using these buying trends, Anheuser-Busch creates promotional campaigns, new products, and local or ethnic target marketing 178 Identify and describe the analytical tools in OLAP Answer: The analytical tools that are usually part of OLAP are: drill-down, consolidation, pivoting, time-series analysis, exception reports, and what-if simulations Drill down is the successive expansion of data into more detail, going from high-level data to successively lower levels of data Consolidation is the aggregation or collection of similar data; it is the opposite of drill down in that consolidation takes detailed data and summarizes it into larger groups Pivoting is examining data from different perspectives Time series analysis is the comparison of figures over several successive time periods to uncover trends Exception reports present variances from expectations What-if simulations use changing variables to examine interactions between different parts of the business 179 Differentiate between centralized data processing and distributed data processing Answer: In centralized data processing, data processing and databases are stored and maintained in a central location In distributed data processing, the processing and the databases are dispersed to different geographic locations of the organization A distributed database is actually a collection of smaller databases dispersed across several computers on a computer network 180 What are the “clients” and “servers” in a client/server distributed database system? Answer: Servers are computers or processes that manage files and databases, printers, or networks Clients are usually PCs or workstations that run the applications Clients rely on servers for resources such as files, printers, and even processing power 224 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 181 Why is control over unauthorized access so important in a database environment? Answer: Data are valuable resources that must be protected with good internal controls such as those that prevent unauthorized access Access controls help prevent unauthorized users from accessing, altering, or destroying data in the database The database is such a critical resource for most organizations that they must insure the data is accurate and complete 182 What are some internal control measures that could prevent a hacker from altering data in your company’s database? Answer: Measures that prevent hackers from accessing and altering data include authentication and hacking controls such as login procedures, passwords, security tokens, biometric controls, firewalls, encryption, intrusion detection, and vulnerability assessment In addition to these controls, the database management system (DBMS) must be set up so that each authorized user has a limited view (schema) of the database 183 Why are data considered a valuable resource that is worthy of extensive protection? Answer: The database of an organization is a critically important component of the organization Data are a valuable resource that must be protected with good internal controls Missing or incorrect data can have a negative impact on the ability to conduct the necessary business processes 225 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEXTBOOK – CHAPTER 13 – SHORT ESSAY 184 Arrange the following data storage concepts in order from smallest to largest, in terms of their size: file, record, database, character, and field Answer: The hierarchy of terms is character, field, record, file, and database 185 Think of a telephone book as a database Identify the fields likely to be used in this database If you were constructing this database, how many spaces would you allow for each field? Answer: The fields and suggested sizes that usually be needed are: last name (24), first name (24), middle initial or name (24), address line (50), address line (50), apartment number (12), city (24), state (2), zip code (9), phone number (10) For businesses, a field for business name (40) would be used rather than last name and first name The number of spaces for each field can vary Of course, fields such as zip code and phone number are more certain It is important that the field size must be slightly larger than the longest item to appear in that field In the case of items for which we know the size precisely, the field size can be set accordingly For example, zip codes will never include more than digits 186 Suppose that a large company uses batch processing for recording its inventory purchases Other than its slow response time, what would be the most significant problem with using a batch processing system for recording inventory purchases? Answer: A company would not know its true inventory balance until the batch of transactions was processed There would be no online, current balance of inventory to be used to respond to inquiries from managers, employees, or customers Therefore, purchases and sales of inventory might need to be delayed until the batch processing occurs and new balances are known This delay can cause the company to maintain higher or lower levels of inventory than may be desired With a longer time to place an order, the company might need to maintain higher inventory levels to avoid a stock out 187 Arrange the following database models in order from earliest development to most recent: network databases, hierarchical databases, flat file databases, and relational databases Answer: The historical order is flat file, hierarchical, network, and relational databases 226 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 188 Categorize each of the following as one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many relationships • Subsidiary ledgers and general ledgers Answer: This is best categorized as a one- to-many relationship A general ledger account, such as accounts receivable, could have many supporting sub-accounts in the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger It is also true that a general ledger would have many subsidiary ledgers (accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory, payroll) • Transactions and special journals Answer: This is best categorized as a one- to-many relationship A special journal, such as sales journal, would have many supporting transactions recorded in the special journal • General ledgers to trial balances Answer: This is best categorized as a one-to-one relationship For each time period, one set of general ledger balances would result in one trial balance 189 How might a company use both an operational database and a data warehouse in the preparation of its annual report? Answer: A company would use the operational database for the current fiscal year reports, but may need past information from the data warehouse to prepare comparative financial statements from previous years The company might also use the data warehouse to examine and report important trends in financial information 190 Using Anheuser-Busch’s BudNet example presented in this chapter, think about the list queries that might be valuable if a company like Gap Inc used data mining to monitor its customers’ buying behavior Answer: The Gap could use queries related to: the effects of promotional pricing; dates or holiday buying patterns; dates when seasonal style updates should be introduced in stores; regional clothing preferences; ethic group clothing patterns; and GAP sales in relation to competitors 227 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEXTBOOK – CHAPTER 13 – PROBLEMS 191 Differentiate between batch processing and real-time processing What are the advantages and disadvantages of each form of data processing? Which form is more likely to be used by a doctor’s office in preparing the monthly patient bills? Answer: Batch processing occurs when similar transactions are grouped into a batch and that batch is processed as a group The alternative to batch processing is real time processing Real-time processing occurs when transactions are processed as soon as they are entered Real-time processing is interactive because the transaction is processed immediately The advantages of batch processing are that it is an efficient way to process a large volume of like transactions, it is less complex than real-time systems, it is easier to control and maintain an audit trail; and the data can be stored in less complex, sequential storage The major disadvantage of batch processing is the slow response time Balances are not updated in real-time and therefore, management does not have current information at all times The major advantage of real-time processing is the rapid response time Since balances are updated in real-time, management always has current information The disadvantages of real-time processing are that it is less efficient for processing large volumes of like transactions; it is more complex than batch systems; it is more difficult to control and maintain an audit trail; and data must be stored in random access databases Monthly processing of patient bills could be batch processing There would be a high volume of like transactions at month-end 228 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 192 Allibyr Company does not use a database system; rather, it maintains separate data files in each of its departments Accordingly, when a sale occurs, the transaction is initially recorded in the sales department Next, documentation is forwarded from the sales department to the accounting department so that the transaction can be recorded there Finally, the customer service group is notified so that its records can be updated Describe the data redundancy and concurrency issues that are likely to arise under this scenario at Allibyr Answer: There would be much data redundancy in this system For example, customer name, address, and other contact information must be maintained in separate files in both the sales department and the customer service department Customer service and the sales department would have nearly identical fields in their data, but maintained in separate files It may take hours our days for the sale documentation to move from one department to the next Therefore not all departments have the same information stored in their files at the same time After a sale is recorded in the sales department, it may be days before that sale is recognized in the customer service department Therefore on any given day, managers in the two departments will be operating with feedback from data sets that not match If someone in the sales department needs to check with customer service regarding a particular sale, it is possible that the customer service department has not yet received information for that sale This lengthens response time in answering queries or following up on orders 193 List and describe the steps involved in building a data warehouse Answer: The steps are: identify the important data to be stored in the data warehouse; standardize that data across the enterprise; scrub or cleanse the data; and upload that data to the data warehouse Identifying the proper data requires examining user needs and high-impact processes (HIPs) HIPs are the processes that are critically important and that must be executed correctly if the organization is to survive and thrive Data needed by users and data from HIPs should be in the data warehouse The data must then be standardized across the enterprise Various subunits within the enterprise might have conflicting definitions or field names for the same type of data The designers of the data warehouse must design a standard format for the data The data must also be scrubbed or cleansed to remove errors and inconsistencies in the data The data must then be uploaded to the data warehouse Also there should be a periodic upload of data from the operational databases into the data warehouse 229 To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com 194 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using a distributed database and distributed data processing Do you think the advantages are worthwhile? Explain your answer Answer: The advantages are: 1) Reduced hardware cost Distributed systems use networks of smaller computers rather than a single mainframe computer This configuration is much less costly to purchase and maintain 2) Improved Responsiveness Access is faster since data can be located at the site of the greatest demand for that data Processing speed is improved since the processing workload is spread over several computers 3) Easier incremental growth As the organization grows or requires additional computing resources, new sites can be added quickly and easily Adding smaller, networked computers is easier and less costly than adding a new mainframe computer 4) Increased user control and user involvement If data and processing are distributed locally, the local users have more control over the data This control also allows users to be more involved in the maintenance of the data and users are therefore more satisfied 5) Automatic integrated backup When data and processing are distributed across several computers, the failure of any single site is not as harmful Other computers within the network can take on extra processing or data storage to make up for the loss of any single site The disadvantages are: 1) Increased difficulty of managing, controlling, and maintaining integrity of the data 2) Increased likelihood of concurrency problems Yes, I think it is worthwhile to have distributed, local control of the data and automated, integrated backup of a distributed system However, greater attention must be paid to controls that ensure the security and concurrency of the data in a distributed system 195 Describe the ethical obligations of companies to their online customers Answer: A company must put processes and safeguards into place to protect the privacy and confidentiality of customer data The nine privacy practices described by the AICPA Trust Services Principles are a good source of the guidelines a company should follow 230 ... 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 A C C D A B B C D A D B B D B B D C C C 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144... more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com ANSWERS TO TEST BANK - CHAPTER 13 - TRUE/FALSE: T F T T F F F T F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T T F T T T F T... F F F F F F T To download more slides, ebook, solutions and test bank, visit http://downloadslide.blogspot.com TEST BANK – CHAPTER 13 – MULTIPLE CHOICE 46 Data is A the interpretation of facts
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