TIẾNG ANH DÀNH CHO SINH VIÊN LÂM NGHIỆP (English for forestry student )

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Hy vọng rằng các độc giả của cuốn sách sẽ đạt được một sự hiểu biết tốt hơn về khoa học phía sau với công nghệ liên quan chấp nhận bởi lâm nghiệp hiện đại; và rằng, đánh giá cao tầm quan trọng của rừng và lâm nghiệp. Một số độc giả có thể nghĩ rằng phát hiện những kiến thức hơn nữa trong nghề nghiệp, lâm nghiệp, trong đó họ có thể làm việc với tối đa sự hài lòng và hạnh phúc trong cuộc sống.The authors greatly thank to information, illustration, and constructive criticism made by forestry professionals and experienced English teachers during the composition of the book. Các tác giả cảm ơn rất nhiều thông tin, minh hoạ, và phê bình xây dựng được thực hiện bởi các chuyên gia lâm nghiệp và giáo viên tiếng Anh có kinh nghiệm trong thành phần của cuốn sách. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY ENGLISH FOR FORESTRY STUDENTS Prepared by: Tran Thi Thu Ha, Duong Van Thao, Ho Ngoc Son, Dang Kim Vui, Tran Quoc Hung and Vu Thi Que Anh Editors: Tu Dang Kien and Le Van Vuong 2008 FOREWORD “English for Forestry Students” is designed for students of forestry degree specifically at Basic English level, and further advanced skills The book is written to offer readers with more science-based terms in English in forestry but only semi-technical It consists of rich and updated issues of current forestry agenda "Tiếng Anh cho sinh viên Lâm nghiệp" thiết kế cho sinh viên trình độ lâm nghiệp cụ thể cấp tiếng Anh bản, thêm kỹ tiên tiến Cuốn sách viết để cung cấp cho độc giả nhiều với thuật ngữ khoa học dựa tiếng Anh lâm nghiệp bán kỹ thuật Nó bao gồm vấn đề phong phú cập nhật chương trình lâm nghiệp hành It is hoped that the readers of the book would gain a better understanding of the science-behind with associated technology embraced by modern forestry; and that, appreciated higher the importance of forests and forestry Some of the readers might think of discovering the further knowledge in forestry profession in which they could work with maximum satisfaction and happiness in life Hy vọng độc giả sách đạt hiểu biết tốt khoa học phía sau với công nghệ liên quan chấp nhận lâm nghiệp đại; rằng, đánh giá cao tầm quan trọng rừng lâm nghiệp Một số độc giả nghĩ phát kiến thức nghề nghiệp, lâm nghiệp, họ làm việc với tối đa hài lòng hạnh phúc sống The authors greatly thank to information, illustration, and constructive criticism made by forestry professionals and experienced English teachers during the composition of the book Các tác giả cảm ơn nhiều thông tin, minh hoạ, phê bình xây dựng thực chuyên gia lâm nghiệp giáo viên tiếng Anh có kinh nghiệm thành phần sách TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages FOREWORD LESSON LESSON FACULTY OF FORESTRY LESSON FOREST DEFINITIONS AND FORESTS IN VIETNAM LESSON TREES ANATOMY 12 LESSON FORESTS AND CLIMATE 16 LESSON PLANTATION 21 LESSON FOREST MEASUREMENTS 25 LESSON NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS 29 (NTFPS) LESSON INSECTS AND DISEASES 34 LESSON 10 FIRE ECOLOGY 39 LESSON 11 FORESTS AND CARBON 44 SEQUESTRATION LESSON 12 AGROFORESTRY 49 LESSON 13 SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT 55 Lesson 2: Faculty of Forestry 2.1 Reading text The Faculty of Forestry was established in 1986 Associate Professor Dr Dang Kim Vui, Rector of Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry was a formal Dean Faculty’s missions are professional training, research, and technological transfer in the fields of silviculture, forest resources management and agroforestry with reference to the North Mountainous Region of Vietnam Khoa Lâm nghiệp thành lập vào năm 1986 Phó Giáo sư Tiến sĩ Đặng Kim Vui, Hiệu trưởng trường Đại học Thái Nguyên Nông lâm thái nguyên trưởng khoa Nhiệm vụ khoa đào tạo, nghiên cứu chuyển giao công nghệ lĩnh vực lâm nghiệp, quản lý tài nguyên rừng nông lâm kết hợp đến với khu vực miền núi phía Bắc Việt Nam The faculty has 33 staffs including Associate Professor, 29 lecturers and senior lecturers who hold Ph.D and M.Sc degrees Many of them were graduated from recognized universities in the world At present, there are about 1040 students of which 1000 are undergraduate in both full time and part time training systems, and 40 post-graduate students Most of them come from the northern and central parts of Vietnam They have personal interest in the field of forests and want to make a contribution to the protection and development of forests in Vietnam Khoa có 33 nhân viên bao gồm Phó Giáo sư, 29 giảng viên giảng viên có thâm niên học Tiến sĩ Thạc độ Nhiều người số họ tốt nghiệp từ trường đại học danh tiếng giới Hiện nay, có khoảng 1.040 sinh viên có 1.000 sinh viên quy chức, 40 sinh viên sau đại học Hầu hết họ đến từ miền bắc miền trung Việt Nam Họ có quan tâm lĩnh vực rừng muốn đóng góp vào việc bảo vệ phát triển rừng Việt Nam The Faculty is divided into six academic departments as follows: Forest Protection and Management; Silviculture; Forest Inventory and Planning; Social Forestry; Agroforestry; and Farm Forestry Khoa chia thành sáu ngành học sau: bảo vệ quản lý rừng; Lâm sinh; tra quy hoạch rừng; lâm nghiệp xã hội; nông lâm kết hợp, trang trại lâm nghiệp The Faculty is active in a wide range of research, but has a strong focus on main research themes such as sustainable forest management, non-timber forest product development, land use planning, forest enrichment and improvement, community-based forest management, indigenous knowledge in resource management, and marketing in forest management and development Khoa hoạt động rộng loạt nghiên cứu, có tập trung mạnh vào chủ đề nghiên cứu quản lý rừng bền vững, lâm sản gỗ phát triển, quy hoạch sử dụng đất, làm giàu rừng, cải tạo, quản lý rừng dựa vào cộng đồng, kiến thức địa quản lý tài nguyên, tiếp thị quản lý rừng phát triển Transfer of research results has been carried out in many projects in different provinces such as nursery techniques, forest enrichment and plantation, and development of agro-forestry models Methods of Training of Trainer (ToT), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and Participatory Technology Development (PTD) have been transferred to extension workers at all levels Packages of establishment technique for non-timber forest product species including bamboo, cinnamon; mushroom, and medicinal plants have been developed Chuyển giao kết nghiên cứu thực nhiều dự án địa phương khác kỹ thuật vườn ươm, trồng rừng làm giàu rừng, phát triển mô hình nông-lâm kết hợp Phương pháp đào tạo Trainer (ToT), đánh giá nông thôn có tham gia (PRA), phát triển công nghệ có tham gia (PTD) chuyển giao cho cán khuyến nông cấp Gói kỹ thuật cho việc trồng loại lâm sản gỗ quế, nấm, thuốc phát triển The Faculty has been cooperating with national and international organizations in research and transfer new technologies such as World Agroforestry Centre (WAC), Swiss Association for International Cooperation Program, Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Southeast Asia Network for Agroforestry Education (SEANAFE) and universities such as Australian National University, University of the Philippines Los Baños, and Agriculture University of Norway Khoa hợp tác với quốc gia tổ chức quốc tế nghiên cứu chuyển giao công nghệ trung tâm nông lâm giới (WAC),chương trình hiệp hội hợp tác quốc tế thụy sĩ,tổ chức nghiên cứu khoa học công nghiệp Úc,mạng lưới giáp dục nông lâm kết hợp Đông Nam Á( SEANAFE) trường đại học Đại học Quốc gia Úc, Đại học Philippines Los Baños, Đại học Nông nghiệp Na Uy 2.2 Exercises 2.2.1 Vocabulary Establish /is'tæbli∫t/: Thành lập Associate Professor /ə,sousi'ei∫n/: Phó Giáo sư Former Dean /'fɔ:mə di:n /: Nguyên Trưởng khoa Agroforestry /agro 'fɔristri/: Nông lâm kết hợp Lecturer /'lekt∫ərə/: Giảng viên Graduate /'grædjut/ : Tốt nghiệp Undergraduate /,ʌndə'grædʒuət/: sinh viên đại học Divide into /'divaidid/: chia thành Research / ri'sə:t∫/: Nghiên cứu Sustainable forest management /səs'teind 'fɔristri 'mænidʒmənt/ : Quản lý rừng bền vững Non-timber forest product /,nɔn 'timbə 'fɔristri 'prɔdəkt/: Lâm sản gỗ Medicinal plants /mə'disinl plɑ:nt/: Cây thuốc Develop /di'veləp /: Phát triển 2.2.2 Find out the word that means Tìm nghĩa từ Rector : hiệu trưởng Duty : nhiệm vụ research : nghiên cứu Region : vùng, miền Ph.D : tiến sĩ Theme : chủ đề Model : mô hình 10 Marketing : tiếp thị Product : sản phẩm 2.2.3 Find out as many words as possible that have relations with the following words Rector Faculty Forestry Training Northern Professor University Student Bamboo 2.2.4 Find out the appropriate word to fill the blank He is my…english…teacher, he taught me English Many scientists come from the …region of Vietnam If you had…a……MSc Degree, you would have to study about years more to pursue Ph.D degree The faculty is divided …into… departments they….usually work in a factory 2.2.5 Comprehension Dr Dang Kim Vui was the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry T Faculty’s duty is training only F All of the lecturers of the Faculty are holding Ph.D degrees F The Faculty is divided into seven departments F The faculty is now cooperating with international organizations only F 83 Lesson 12: Agroforestry Agro-forestry is a farming system that integrates crops and/or livestock with trees and shrubs The resulting biological interactions provide multiple benefits, including diversified income sources, increased biological production, better Trees add beauty and serve as a windbreak water quality, and improved habitat for both humans and wildlife Farmers adopt agro-forestry practices for two reasons They want to increase their economic stability and they want to improve the management of natural resources under their care A traditional tree farm managed as a single-purpose mono-crop is not an agro-forestry system Neither is a woodlot when it is managed for wood products only Agro-forestry involves combining a tree planting with another enterprise—such as grazing animals or producing mushrooms—or managing a woodlot for a diversity of special forest products For example, an agro-forestry system might produce firewood, biomass feed-stocks, pine-straw 83 84 mulch, fodder for grazing animals, and other traditional forestry products At the same time, the trees are sheltering livestock from wind or sun, providing wildlife habitat, controlling soil erosion, and—in the case of most leguminous species—fixing nitrogen to improve soil fertility Alley cropping is a popular model in south-east Asia It involves growing crops (grains, forages, vegetables, etc.) between trees planted in rows The spacing between the rows is designed to While trees mature, accommodate the mature size of the trees crops provide income while leaving room for the planned alley crops When sun-loving plants like corn or some herbs will be alley-cropped, the alleyways need to be wide enough to let in plenty of light even when the trees have matured 84 85 Alternatively, the cropping sequence can be planned to change as the trees' growth decreases the available light For example, soybeans or corn could be grown when the trees are very small; then, as the tree canopy closes, forages could be harvested for hay; finally, when the trees are fully grown and the ground is more shaded, grazing livestock or shade-tolerant crops like mushrooms or ornamental ferns could occupy the alleyways In most alley cropping systems, trees are planted in straight rows, sometimes with no regard for slope or contour There are, however, advantages to planting the trees in curves or on the contour These include the slowing of surface-water movement and the reduction of soil erosion The trees can be planted in single rows or in blocks of multiple rows between alleys The first row in a block is planted on the contour line; subsequent rows are planted below the original 85 86 line according to the slope of the land The final row of trees in one block is planted parallel to the contour line on which the next block of trees will begin The width of the tree blocks varies, but the cropping alleyways between them have parallel edges This design avoids creating point rows within the alleys, thus simplifying crop equipment maneuvers The width of the alleys is determined by the size of this equipment If planting on the contour is impractical, another option is to plant trees in curved zigzags so that water running downhill is captured or at least slowed Islands of trees can offer some of the same advantages if they don't interfere with cropping operations In large plantings, fast-growing hardwoods or pines are interplanted as trainers to ensure that the crop trees develop upright, unbranched trunks Alternatively, the crop trees can be planted close together in the rows, to be thinned and pruned several times as they grow Although these early-harvested trees may have little market value, their presence during the first years of growth has increased the main crop's value The goal is to produce long, straight sawnlogs with few lower branches, for maximum profit at final harvest Whatever the planting design, trees on the outside edge of a group will grow more side branches, or even a lopsided trunk, resulting in lower-value sawn-logs 86 87 12.2 Exercises 12.2.1 Vocabulary Farming system /'fɑ:miη 'sistəm/: Hệ thống nông trại Livestock /'laivstɔk/: Vật nuôi Stability /stə'biləti/: trạng thái ổn định Woodlot /'wudlɔt/: khu vực trồng Feed-stock /fi:d stɔk/ : Nguyên liệu cung cấp để chế biến Erosion /i'rouʒn/: xói mòn Shade-tolerant /∫eid 'tɔlərənt/: chịu bóng Alley cropping system /'æli 'krɔpiη 'sistəm/: hệ thống trồng theo băng Curve /kə:v/: đường cong Block /blɔk/: lô Contour /'kɔntuə/: đường đồng mức Parallel /'pærəlel/ song song Alleyways /'æliwei/ hàng băng Maneuvers /mə'nu:və/ thao tác Zigzags /'zigzæg/ hình zích zắc Interfere /,intə'fiə/ cản trở 12.2.2 Find out the word that means 87 88 organic optimal farm animals not viable make better on the other hand line earth or land generate 10 small 12.2.3 Find out as many words as possible that have relations with the following words Benefit Firewood Income Adaptation Combination Pruning Intercrop Surface Mulch 10 Adoption 12.2.4 Find out the appropriate word to fill the blank Agroforestry is a … system that integrates … and/or … with trees and shrubs A traditional tree farm managed as a … monocrop is not an agroforestry system An agroforestry system might produce …, biomass feedstocks, pinestraw mulch, fodder for … animals, and other traditional … products 88 89 Soybeans or corn could be … when the trees are very … When the trees are fully grown and the ground is more …, grazing livestock or … crops like mushrooms or ornamental ferns could … the alleyways In most alley … systems, trees are planted in … rows, sometimes with no regard for … or contour The width of the tree … varies, but the cropping alleyways between them have … edges If planting on the … is impractical, another option is to plant trees in … zigzags so that water running downhill is … or at least slowed In large plantings, fast-growing … or pines are interplanted as trainers to … that the crop trees develop …, unbranched trunks 10 Although these early-harvested trees may have … market value, their presence during the first years of growth has … the main crop's value 12.2.5 Comprehension True or false An agro-forestry system produces only timber or livestock The income of an Agroforestry system is lower than a monocrop system 89 90 The role of Agroforestry system is control of soil erosion only In an Agroforestry system, the trees plant only following the contour All crops can plant under the canopy of trees in an Agroforestry system 12.2.6 Questions 1.What is agroforestry; and what refered as not? Why would farmers adopt agroforestry practices? And what are the benefits from agroforestry farming? Which type of croping has been a popular model in the South East Asian context and how is it like? Why alleyways need to be wide enough when practising alley-cropping? Which type of woods are interplanted in large plantings, and which design is often applicable for this planting scale? 12.2.7 Summarise the text in English 90 91 Lesson 13: Sustainable forest management Sustainable forest management (SFM) aims to ensure that the goods and services derived from the forest meet present-day needs while at the same time securing their continued availability and contribution for future generations In its broadest sense, forest management encompasses the administrative, legal, technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of the conservation and use of forests It implies various degrees of deliberate human intervention, ranging from actions aimed at safeguarding and maintaining the forest ecosystem and its functions, to favouring specific socially or economically valuable species or groups of species for the improved production of goods and services (FAO definition) Around 150 countries have been involved in a total of nine ecoregional criteria and indicator processes for SFM About 89% of forests in industrialized countries are being managed according to a formal or informal management plan Preliminary results from developing countries show that of a total forest area of 2139 million ha, at least 123 million ha, or about 6%, is covered by a formal, nationally approved forest management plan covering a period of at least five years (FAO, 2001) 91 92 Nowadays, Forest Certification is an important way of establishing that forests are being managed in a sustainable manner and that the wood used by manufacturers of forest products comes from responsibly managed sources With today's growing emphasis on corporate responsibility and consumer demands for environmental and social accountability, forest certification strikes a balance between economic needs and conservation objectives However, caution is needed to ensure that certification and eco-labeling initiatives are not used as disguised barriers to restrict the access of developing countries to forest product markets Forest certification is a relatively new concept but has grown rapidly in the last few years The area of certified forests worldwide, as of the end of 2000, was estimated by FAO to be 2% of total forest area, or about 80 million While some important wood-producing countries in the tropics have forests certified under existing certification schemes or are in the process of developing new schemes, about 92% of certified forests are located in temperate, industrialised countries (see adjoining chart) In January 2002, the area of certified forests was estimated at 109 92 93 million ha, a little over half of the World Bank/WWF Alliance target of having 200 million of certified forests by 2005 Most certification systems were established in the 1990s and have doubled in size over the last ten years growing exponentially in the last two years This has resulted in numerous certification schemes, as illustrated in the lower right hand pie graph The link between forest certification and community-based forest management is also becoming increasingly important According to a recent review by Forest Trends; over 50 communities (though mainly in Central America) today have forest management certificates or chain of custody certification, and many other forest communities have been brought into the decision-making process in the certification of public and private forests as stakeholders 13.2 Exercises 13.2.1 Vocabulary Aim /eim/ mục tiêu Aspect /'æspekt/ khía cạnh Conservation /,kɔnsə:'vei∫n/ bảo tồn Deliberate /di'libərit/ có cân nhắc 93 94 Intervention /,intə'ven∫n/ can thiệp Involve /in'vɔlvd/ thu hút tâm trí Accountability /ə,kauntə'biliti/ giải trình Strike /straik/ đựa vào Initiative /i'ni∫ətiv/ ch ủ động Scheme /ski:m/ xếp theo hệ thống Pie graph /pai græf/ biểu đồ hình bánh Custody /'kʌstədi/ giám hộ 13.2.2 Find out the word that means preservation hidden cautious inhibit important or worthy right of entry global guardianship stress 10 group of people 13.2.3 Find out as many words as possible that have relations with the following words Certification Indicator Stakeholder Regulation Regeneration 10 Cooperation Criteria Partner Community Decision 94 95 13.2.4 Find out the appropriate word to fill the blank Sustainable forest management (SFM) aims to ensure that the … and services derived from the forest meet present-day needs while at the same time securing their continued … and contribution for future generations About 89% of forests in … countries are being managed according to a formal or informal management plan Forest Certification is an important way of … that forests are being managed in a sustainable manner and that the wood used by … of forest products comes from … managed sources With today's growing emphasis on … responsibility and … demands for environmental and social accountability, forest certification … a balance between economic … and conservation … Forest certification is a relatively … concept but has grown … in the last few years The area of … forests worldwide, as of the end of 2000, was estimated by FAO to be 2% of total forest area, or about 80 million As the data covered in the chart, about 92% of certified forests are located in …, industrialized countries In January 2002, the area of certified forests was … at 109 million 95 96 The link between forest … and community-based forest management is also becoming increasingly important Over 50 … , mainly in Central America, today have forest management certificates or chain of … certification, according to recent … by Forest Trends 10 Many forest communities have been brought into the … process in the certification of public and private forests as … 13.2.5 Questions What is the acronym for SFM and what does SFM aim for? How many countries have been involved in the SFM processes? What detailed are covered in the preliminary results from developing countries in relation to nationally approved forest management plan, by FAO 2001 statistics? What is forest certifcation and how large is the area of certified forests that World Bank/WWF Alliance set in their target for 2005? When were most certification systems established? By looking at the pie, data by ITTO 2002, describe the distribution of certified forests distributed across the different continents 13.2.6 Summarise the text in English 96 97 97 ... forestry but only semi-technical It consists of rich and updated issues of current forestry agenda "Tiếng Anh cho sinh viên Lâm nghiệp" thiết kế cho sinh viên trình độ lâm nghiệp cụ thể cấp tiếng. .. thực chuyên gia lâm nghiệp giáo viên tiếng Anh có kinh nghiệm thành phần sách 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages FOREWORD LESSON LESSON FACULTY OF FORESTRY LESSON FOREST DEFINITIONS AND FORESTS IN VIETNAM... follows: Forest Protection and Management; Silviculture; Forest Inventory and Planning; Social Forestry; Agroforestry; and Farm Forestry Khoa chia thành sáu ngành học sau: bảo vệ quản lý rừng; Lâm sinh;
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