Kiểm tra ngữ pháp chapter 1 nouns+determiner+article

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Chapter : NOUNS , DETERMINERS , ARTICLES … (I) Count noun and non-count nouns DANH TỪ ĐẾM ĐƯC VÀ KHÔNG ĐẾM ĐƯC NOUNS Danh từ COUNT NOUNS Danh từ đếm NON-COUNT NOUNS Danh từ không đếm money sugar water pens book houses Danh từ chia làm hai loại: Danh từ đếm được, thêm S danh từ không đếm thường không thêm S Bảng sau cung cấp nhiều chi tiết : COUNT NOUNS Danh từ đếm SINGULAR A pen Số One pen PLURAL Số nhiều -1- Pens Two pens Some pens Many pens NON-COUNT NOUNS Danh từ không đếm Money Some money A great deal of money A little money Much money Little money Several pens A lot of pens Few pens A few pens Count Nouns: (a) Take “a/an” or “one” in the singular (b) Usually take a final “s/es” in the plural Non-count Nouns: (a) Do not take “a/an” or “one” in the singular (b) Do not generally have a plural form Một số danh từ đếm có dạng bất qui tắc không thêm S ES số nhiều Dưới số danh từ đếm bất qui tắc: Man – men Woman – women Child – children Foot – feet Tooth – teeth Mouse – mice Một số danh từ không đếm trở thành số nhiều thêm đuôi S ES chúng nhiều loại khác vật cụ thể Trong trường hợp này, chúng a / an dạng số Ex 1:There was a lot of food on the table (general) Ex 2:Certain foods must be avoided by people who have heart disease.(particular types of food) Ex 3:I like most fruit (general) Ex :A fruit I particularly enjoy is the peach (particular fruit) Danh mục sau có số danh từ không đếm (không có a / an dạng số nhiều) mà bạn cần biết: Advice Fruit* Luck Rice* Air Fun Luggage Sadness Bread* Furniture Machinery Salt* Butter Happiness Meat* Scenery Cheese* Homework Milk Significance Clothing Honesty Money Silver Coffee* Housework Music Sugar* Courage Information Pepper* Tea* Equipment Intelligence Postage Traffic Evidence Jealousy Pottery Transportation Enjoyment Jewelry Poverty Violence Food* Knowledge Progress * Ghi chú: danh từ có đánh dấu * dùng với a / an S số nhiều food Ex 1:There was a lot of food on the table (general) Ex 2:Certain foods must be avoided by people who have heart disease.(particular types of food) Ex 3:I like most fruit (general) Ex :A fruit I particularly enjoy is the peach (particular fruit) DETERMINERS the this, that these, those, few a, all/each some, any, many, a lot of -1- on, two, three a great number of the number of fewer than more… than the this, that (a) little much, a lot of Some, any a large amount of the amount of Less… than more… than (II) Determiners COUNT NOUNS NONCOUNT NOUNS TỪ CHỈ ĐỊNH Từ đònh từ a, the, some, any, this, that, these, three, less… than, fewer… than Một số từ đònh dùng với danh từ đếm được, số khác với danh từ không đếm được, có số dùng với hai Điều biểu thò bảng sau (những từ gạch dùng với danh từ đếm không đếm được): this , that, these, those (a) few many a lot of one, two, three… a, an , the some, any a great number of the number of -1- fewer…than more…than COUNT NOUNS this , that (a) little much a lot of the some, any a large amount of the amount of less…than more…than NON-COUNT NOUNS EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Circle the correct determiner: khoanh tròn từ đònh đúng: There are less/fewer chairs in this room than in the other room The assistant did not give much/many information After the negotiations, they made little/few changes in their proposal A large amount of/a great number of mosquitos appeared after the rain Light beer has less/fewer calories than regular beer They have a/(nothing) good food in that restaurant The amount of/the number of students taking the TOEFL is increasing The case had to be reconsidered with these/this new evidence I EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY(THÀNH NGỮ ĐỊNH LƯNG) Most dùng tính từ hạn đònh cum danh từ ,đôi Most dùng đại từ kèm với Of : Ex:Most of you ,Most of the , Most of these…,Most of those….Một số từ khác có nhiệm vụ đôi “Most” : One, many,all, some ,none… Much,many : +Much :đi kèm với danh từ không đếm được;Many kèm với danh từ đếm số nhiều +Much, Many thường dùng câu phủ đònh nghi vấn + Trong câu khẳng đònh Much ,Many đặt sau Too,So,Very… để mức độ nhiều,nếu Too,So,Very…trong câu khẳng đònh Much thay -1- a great deal of;Many thay a large number of ● Lưu ý :Much / Many dùng câu khẳng đònh kèm với danh từ làm chủ từ câu Ex: …………………………Shakespeare ‘s plays have been performed on stage.(Many) Few ,little :ít +Few : với danh từ đếm được,Little với danh từ không đếm +A few có nghóa giống A little :một vài,một Nhưng A few >few ; A little > little.(Khi xét số lượng) Ex 1: I have few friends.( ý nói :tôi cô đơn) Ex 2: I have a few friends (ý nói :tuy bạn không đến cô đơn) Ex 3: I have little money (ý nói :không đủ để mua vật gì) Ex 4: I have a little money (ý nói :tuy đủ để ăn sáng vài bữa) * EXERCISE Complete these sentences with MUCH,MANY,A LOT OF ( A LOT) 1)We ‘ll have to hurry We haven’t got ………………………………………… time 2) Tom drinks………………………………………… milk 3)She is a very quiet person She doesn’t say………………………………………… 4)I put ………………………………………… salt in the soup.Perhaps too………………………………………… 5)………………………………………… people don’t like flying 6)The man was badly injured in the accident.He lost………………………………………… blood 7)It ‘s not a very lively town.There isn’t ………………………………………… work to 8) This car is expensive to run It uses………………………………………… petrol 9)Don’t disturb me I ‘ve got ………………………………………… workto 10)We didn’t take ………………………………………… photographs whenwe were on holiday * EXERCISE 2:Complete these sentences with little,a little, few, a few: We didn’t have any money but Tom had……………………………………… He doesn’t speak much English Only ……………………………………… words Daisy ‘s Father died……………………………………… years ago This town isn’t very well-known and there isn’t much to see ,so ……… tourists come here The cinema was almost empty There were very ……………………………………… people there There is a shortage of water because there has been very……………………………… rain recently Hurry ! We ‘ve got……………………………………… time * EXERCISE 3: Complete these sentences with much,many,a great deal of, a large number of 1)How …………………………………… photographs did you take ? 2) How ……………………………………money have you got ? 3)I like reading I ‘ve got ……………………………………books 4)George knows …………………………………… about economics 5)They didn’t ask me ……………………………………questions 6)It costs ……………………………………money to travel round the world 7)They sent ……………………………………books to the school library 8)There was ……………………………………food at the party but I didn’t eat…………………… 9)The teacher has corrected ……………………………………mistakes in this essay .* EXERCISE 4:Complete these sentences with most or most of 1)I spent…………………………………my spare time gardening last year 2)The public transport system is bad but …………………………………people have a car ………………………………… days I get up late We had a lazy holiday …………………………………the time I lay on the beach I expect …………………………………you are very tired after your long journey -1- …………………………………the shops in the city centre close at 5:30 You can change money in …………………………………banks I enjoyed …………………………………the film but I didn’t like the ending 10) The weather was bad when we were on holiday.It rained…………………………………the 1 time ********************************************************** Chapter : PRONOUNS Object pronouns Đại từ túc từ Me Us You You Him/Her/it Them Possessive pronouns Đại từ sở hữu Mine Ours Yours Yours His/Hers/its Theirs P R O N O U N S Relative pronouns Đại từ quan hệ Who/Whom/Whose Which/That Subject pronouns Đại từ chủ ngữ I We You You He/She/It They Possessive adjectives Tính từ sở hữu My Our Your Your His/Her/Its Their Reflexive pronouns Đại từ phản thân Myself Ourselves Yourself Yourselves Himself/Herself/Itself Themselves -1- Tiếng Anh có dạng đại từ: Đại từ chủ ngữ, đại từ túc từ, đại từ sở hữu, đại từ phản thân đại từ quan hệ Tính từ sở hữu, đại từ, có dạng thức tương tự đại từ sở hữu gộp vào loại (I) Subject pronouns ĐẠI TỪ CHỦ NGỮ I We You You He/She/It They Đại từ chủ ngữ dùng : (i) Khi làm chủ ngữ động từ: She went to Los Angeles We, the contestants, were searched (ii) Sau động từ to be: (hiện dạng trònh trọng không dùng phổ biến, người ta thường dùng dạng thân mật hơn) It is he in the picture (formal) trònh trọng It’s him in the picture (informal) thân mật It could not have been they under the circumstances (formal) trònh trọng It could not have been them under the circumstances (informal) thân mật (iii) Khi chủ ngữ hai mệnh đề so sánh: We are better than they (are) at baseball You speak louder than I (do) (iv) Sau as that They say that she controls him He is not as resourceful as she (is) EXERCISE : Đặt đại từ chủ ngữ vào chỗ trống đôi câu sau : 1) The window is open …………………is not shut 2) The policeman is standing in the street ……………………is a tall man 3) The pencils are in the box ……………….are red pencils 4) The girl is at home ……………… is cooking 5) The children are in the garden …………………….are playing EXERCISE : Circle the correct pronoun: khoanh tròn đại từ đúng: Mary is heavier than me/I -1- It must be her/she John and I/me went to the movies Is it true that he/him is here? Who is at the door? It is I/me She is not as fast as he/him He/Him and his father are both very tall It was they/them who told us (II) Object pronouns Đại từ túc từ Me us You You Him/Her/It Them The object pronoun is used: Đại từ túc từ dùng: (i) Khi túc từ trực tiếp động từ She gave him her card We saw her in class (ii) Khi túc từ hai mệnh đề so sánh She worries about you more than him The office staff helped you more than (they helped) me (iii) Sau giới từ John studies English with us It did not sound like a good idea to me Ghi chú: Nếu giới từ giới thiệu mệnh đề mới, đại từ chủ ngữ pải dùng chủ ngữ mệnh đề mới: ex : They are thinking about what he did EXERCISE : Chọn từ dấu ngoặc câu sau : I often see ( they / them ) on the bus She lives near ( we / us ) I know both of (they /them ) well What is the matter with ( he / him ) today ? There are some letters here for you and ( me / I ) EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Correct the pronouns in these sentences where necessary: Sửa đại từ câu sau cần: Could you please explain this exercise to her? John sat between Helen and I She went with they to the movies He understands her better than him Between you and I, I didn’t like the food What is the matter with she? He told Mary and me about his trip She gets along with him better than me (III) Possessive adjectives TÍNH TỪ SỞ HỮU My Our Your Your His/Her/Its Their -1- Tính từ sở hữu dùng: (i) để biểu thò sở hữu cách bổ nghóa cho danh từ My picture is on the card He left his books on the table (ii) để phận thể He broke his leg yesterday She raised her hand (iii) để bổ nghóa cho danh động từ The teacher was irritated at my whispering in class We were surprised at her going on a trip alone EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective: Điền vào chỗ trống với tính từ sở hữu thích hợp: She loves………… dog The dog wags………… tail when it’s happy The boys are playing with………………… toy cars We have several trees in…………………… garden He was very nice and I appreciated…………………… calling me I have had………………………… dinner Her mother is very warm and I loved…………………… cooking I know Bob He was…………………………… classmate at college 9) Both girls prepare …………………… lessons well 10) Mary and I …………………………homework together (IV) Possessive pronouns ĐẠI TỪ SỞ HỮU Mine Ours Yours Yours His/Hers/Its Theirs Đại từ sở hữu dùng: i để thay tính từ sở hữu + danh từ thay nói This book is my book nói, That book is mine Our car is big, and theirs (their car) is small His score was good but hers (her score) was better (ii) sau giới từ of, có nghóa số Jamie is a colleague of mine (one of several colleagues) (iii) sau động từ to be That essay is mine Is this watch yours? (iv) để thay tính từ thứ hai + danh từ so sánh hai đối tượng His grades are better than hers (her grades) EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Fill in the blanks with a possessive pronoun: Điền vào chỗ trống đại từ sở hữu: I’ve mislaid my pencil May I borrow…………………………… ? Bob wants you to return that book of……………………………which you borrowed last month We had a test too, but yours was harder than……………………… Is this your coat? Yes, it’s……………………… I was on time for my class but Jane was late for………………………… We’ve already had lunch Have you had…………………… ? We have got our tickets Do they have…………………………… ? -1- Joanne knows him He’s a neighbor of………………………………… (V) Reflexive pronouns ĐẠI TỪ PHẢN THÂN Myself Ourselves Yourself Yourselves Himself/Herself/itself Themselves Đại từ phản thân dùng: (i) làm túc từ động từ chủ ngữ túc từ người She served herself in the cafeteria He cut himself while shaving (ii) để nhấn mạnh Nó theo sau động từ chủ ngữ trước giới từ có nghóa chủ ngữ thực hành động I looked myself for the missing documents Nếu không, đứng cuối câu I made this sweater myself You told me yourself (iii) sau giới từ by Nó có nghóa chủ ngữ thực hành động She likes to shop by herself Little Bobby has learned to eat by himself EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Fill in the blanks with the correct reflexive pronoun: Điền vào chỗ trống đại từ phản thân đúng: The little boy hurt _ when he fell Be careful not to cut with that knife She lives by We enjoyed The children decorated the room I blamed for losing the job The cat defended _ against the big dog They are going to paint the house by _ EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Complete the dialogues, using the reflexive pronouns : a) Miss Lien : Did someone help Ba draw that picture ? Bao : No He did it ……………………………… b) Nga : The repairman can’t fix the washing machine until tomorrow Mrs Linh : Come on We ‘ll have to try and it ……………………………… c) Aunt Thanh: What ‘s the matter ,Hoa ? Hoa : I cut ………………………………… Aunt Thanh: Let me see Oh, it ‘s all right.You didn’t cut ……………………….badly d) Lan : Why are you crying ,Nga ? Nga : I just watched the movie Romeo and Juliet.The boy killed ……………………and then the girl killed ………………………… as well Lan : Why did they kill ……………………….? Nga : It ‘s a long story e) Mr Nhat : Boys and girls , you ‘ll this experiment this afternoon Students : Will you come to help us ? Mr Nhat : Yes , I will But you have to it ………………………………… first (VII) Pronoun/adjective agreement i) Singular pronoun, singular verb -1- SỰ HOÀ HP ĐẠI TỪ/TÍNH TỪ Đại từ số ít, động từ số 16 I have had lunch and Mary have had lunch XI) CÂU VỚI TỪ THAY THẾ :EITHER / NEITHER – ( chẳng /cũng chẳng) Chúng ta dùng too so để tránh lập lại câu xác đònh dùng Either Neither để tránh lập lại câu phủ đònh Ex 1: : He doesn’t speak English and she doesn’t speak English  He doesn’t speak English and she doesn’t either - He doesn’t speak English and neither does she ? Ex :I didn’t go to New York and John didn’t go to New York - I didn’t go to New York and John didn’t either  I didn’t go to New York and neither did John Exercise : Rút ngắn câu sau với either 17 He doesn’t want to go there and she doesn’t want to go there _ 18 Mary didn’t leave right after lunch and John didn’t leave right after lunch 19 She isn’t going to the concert and I am not going to the concert 20 John will not be here at ten o ‘clock and I will not be here at ten o ‘clock 21 She didn’t want to go to a movie and I didn’t want to go to a movie 22 Smith hasn’t gone back to Europe and his wife hasn’t gone back to Europe 23 He can’t speak French and she can’t speak French 24 I haven’t had lunch and Mary haven’t had lunch Exercise : Rút ngắn câu sau với neither 25 He doesn’t want to go there and she doesn’t want to go there _ 26 Mary didn’t leave right after lunch and John didn’t leave right after lunch 27 She isn’t going to the concert and I am not going to the concert 28 John will not be here at ten o ‘clock and I will not be here at ten o ‘clock 29 She didn’t want to go to a movie and I didn’t want to go to a movie 30 Smith hasn’t gone back to Europe and his wife hasn’t gone back to Europe 31 He can’t speak French and she can’t speak French 32 I haven’t had lunch and Mary haven’t had lunch FOCUS on : CONNECTED STATEMENTS & TAG – QUESTIONS 1/ They never came to class late , and a neither did we b so did we c we did either d neither we did 2/ My wife had never been to Hue , and I a never have b neither have c neither had d neither did 3/ They are studying pronunciation with Mr Brown , _ ? a are they b aren’t they c they d don’t they 4/ She should have obeyed her parents , _ she ? -1- a should b should have c shouldn’t have d shouldn’t 5/ My father doesn’t speak Chinese, and _ a my mother does neither b my mother doesn’t too c neither does my mother d so doesn’t my mother 6/ The air – hotess knows the time that plane is due to take off , _ ? a doesn’t she b isn’t it c doesn’t she d did she 7/ This is the second time she has been here , _ ? a has she b hasn’t she c isn’t this d isn’t it 8/ They must as they are told , _ a so must I b I must either c I too d I am too 9/ “ I don’t like strong coffee” - “ No , _ ” a I don’t too b either don’t I c me either d neither don’t I 10/ He hardly has anything nowadays , ? a has he b doesn’t he c does he d hasn’t he 11/You’ve never been in Italy, _ ? a haven’t you b have you c been you d had you 12/ Sally turned in her report , _ ? a had she b did she c hadn’t she d didn’t she 13/ You have a ticket to the game, _? a you b haven’t you c don’t you d have you 14/ Tom knows Alice Reed, _ ? a doesn’t he b does he c is he d isn’t he 15/ We should call Rita , ? a should we b shouldn’t we c shall we d should not we 16/ Monkeys can’t sing , ? a can they b can’t they c can it d can’t it 17/ These books aren’t yours , _ ? a are these b aren’t these c are they d aren’t they 18/ That’s Bob’s , _ ? a is that b isn’t that c is it d isn’t it 19/ No one died in the accident , ? ( British English ) a didn’t they b did he c didn’t he d did they 20/ I’m right , _ ? a aren’t I b amn’t I c am not I d not I am XII ) CÂU VỚI TR ĐỘNG TỪ : must have /may have: dùng để diển tả suy diển lôgic việc khứ ( logical inference in the past ) +Must have cho ta biết khả việc theo suy diển chắn xảy khứ +May have cho ta biết khả việc theo suy diển có khả xảy khứ S + Must have + p.p * Nhưng hai trợ động từ theo sau qúa khứ phân từ ( V3 V-ed ) S + May have + p.p Must have Ex : Nancy Lee couldn’t remember how she was able to get home She guessed that she must have danced all the way home Ex :I am trying to find my keys in my bag but I can’t find them I guess that I may have left my keys at home or I may have lost them somewhere I am not sure *Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with Must have OR May have 1) She taken the book by mistake 2) They don’t answer the phone ;they gone away on their vacation 3) They been wealthy at one time ,but I doubt it -1- 4) They think now that the jewels _stolen by one of the servants 5) William got very good marks on his examinations ; he studied very hard for his exam 6) It been John or it been mary who told them about it 7) He speaks English very well; he _learned it for a long time 8) He and Helen are not friends any more ;they said good-bye after that big argument **Exercise 2: Make logical inference ,using the cues in brackets: Nancy Lee won the scholarship.( be very happy) The committee did not let Nancy Lee get the scholarship (be very disappointed) Nancy Lee had tears on her face.( weep a lot ) Nancy Lee made a lot of good paintings ( have talent in art ) Exercise :Answer the following questions and add “I am not sure “ at the end of each answer” Did professor Smith learn Spanish in South America ? Did Helen call while I was out ? Was Mr Reese born in this country or Europe ? Did Mary and Helen have a quarrel ? XIII) CÂU CẢM THÁN ( Exclamatory sentences) + Khi muốn nhấn mạnh danh từ ,ta bắt đầu câu cảm thán với từ What: Ex 1:What a beautiful day ! Ex 2: what a pretty girl ! What + (a /an ) +adjective +Noun ! + Khi muốn nhấn mạnh tính từ trạng từ ,ta bắt đầu câu cảm thán với từ How: Ex 1: How tall she is ! Ex : How well he swims ! How +adj +S + (be) ; How +adv +S + V ! EXERCISE :Use Exclamatory sentences to express these sentences : 1)She is a very graceful girl ………> What _! The meal was excellent ……….> What _ ! You have a beautiful home…… > What ! He is a fast runner ……… > How fast ! She sang very beautifully………> How _ ! S+ BE+ADJ.+THAT CLAUSE S+BE+ADJ.+TO INFINITIVE XIV) Ex : We were careful that we said the right thing ………> We were careful to say the right thing Exercise : I ‘m sorry that I have to leave I ‘m 2) He ‘s delighted that he knows the answer He ‘s _ -1- We were surprised that we saw you in town We were She ‘s pleased that she ‘s making progress She ‘s _ We ‘re sure that we ‘ll hear the news We ‘re _ They were satisfied that they came in second They were S+BE+ADJ +TO INF IT +BE+ADJ.+TO INF XV) Ex : He ‘s nice to talk to ………> It ‘s nice to talk to him Those things are good to know……… > It ‘s good You weren’t easy to recognize……… > It wasn’t Her house is convenient to go to …….> It ‘s His pronunciation is hard to understand…… > It ‘s _ The solution wasn’t difficult to figure out… > It wasn’t Good friends are wonderful to have ……….> It ‘s _ A thing like that isn’t possible to forget…… > It isn’t Is this water all right to drink ? …………………….> Is it XVI) DOUBLE COMPARATIVES : IF +S2+V2+ Comparaitve adj./adv +S1+v1+ Comparaitve adj./adv The + Comparaitve adj./adv.+S2+V2,The+ Comparaitve adj./adv.+S1+V1 Ex 1: If you work harder ,you make more products ………> The harder you work , the more products you make Ex 2: If you are happier , you look younger …….> The happier you are ,the younger you look Exercise :Complete the sentences : If there are more people , it ‘ll be better The more people If they rise higher ,They ‘ll fall harder The higher If you get here sooner ,We ‘ll be able to start out sooner The sooner If you hear more about it , you become more anxious The more you _ If the letter is heavier , you have to put more stamps on it The heavier _ If you have a better job , you get higher pay The better _ **************************************************** Chapter 11 :SEQUENCE OF TENSES(HOÀ HP THÌ) ************************************** -1- I/ Sequence in noun clauses(sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề danh từ) 1/ Khi mệnh đề mốc tại(hiện đơn/ tiếp diễn/ hoàn thành)thì mệnh đề danh từ có liên kết chặt chẽ hợp lý với trạng ngữ kèm theo diễn tả thời gian hành động xảy Examples : Ex1:I see that I haven’t understood the lession yet Ex2:He says that he often comes here Ex3: He says that he will get married next year Ex4:She knows that you arrived yesterday Ex5:you have already told me that you are going to quit your job 2/ Khi mệnh đề mốc khứ (quá khứ đơn/ khứ tiếp diễn/ khứ hoàn thành) động từ mệnh đề danh từ mốc khứ Ex1:He had done all that was necessary Ex2:He saw that he had made a mistake Ex3:He found that the road was very long *Note 1:Với trạng ngữ ALWAYS chẳng hạn,thì liên kết với phải khứ,với TOMORROW chẳng hạn liên kết với khứ WOULD,với ALREADY ,thì liên kết với phải khứ hoàn thành Ex1: He saw that he always made a mistake Ex2:He said that he would be here tomorrow Ex3:He believed that his friend had already forgtten him *Note 2:Khi động từ mệnh đề danh từ diễn tả kiện ,một hành động ,một chân lý,một thật thường tình ,hoặc thói quen nay,thì dùng mệnh đề khứ Ex1:Galileo found that the earth is round Ex2:He proved that the earth goes round the sun Ex3:He said that he often gets up at 8:00 II/ Sequence in adjective clauses (sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề tính từ) Động từ mệnh đề không kèm chế mệnh tính từ Dường liên kết trạng ngữ thời gian hoàn toàn hợp lý để diễn tả thời gian mà hành động xảy theo ý người nói Ex1:The letter that I received yesterday is on my desk Ex2:Yesterday I met the man who is going to speak next III/ Sequence in adverbial clauses of time (sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề trạng từ) Có trường hợp hoà hợp: Trường hợp Main clause 1/Mệnh đề Thì diễn tả thói quen Conjunctions when ……while …as …as soon as -1- Clause of time Mốc tại(hiện đơn/ tiếp diễn/ hoàn thành) Examples Ex1:We always take our umbrellas with us when it rains Ex2:I usually read the newspaper while I am waiting for the bus Ex3:He never goes home before he has finished his work Until Before after 2/Mệnh đề Thì diễn tả khứ hoạt động khứ 3/ Mệnh đề diễn tả hoạt động tương lai Thì tương lai (tương lai đơn tương lai hoàn thành Be going to ) Thì khứ tiếp diễn Mốc khứ(quá khứ đơn/ khứ tiếp diễn/ khứ hoàn thành) Hiện tại(hiện đơn/ hoàn thành) Ex1:I sat near the window whenever I took the bus Ex2:I met him while I was walking down the street Ex3:He left after he had finished his work Ex1:He will go when you finish your work Ex2:We will have already finished the work when you get back Ex3:I am going to wait until you have finished your work 4/ Mệnh đề Quá khứ đơn Ex1:It was raining hard when I got diễn tả khứ there hoạt động tiếp diễn Ex2:I was watching TV while my diễn father was reading có hành động khác xen vào/ tả hai hoạt động đồng thời diễn 5/ Mệnh đề Thì Chỉ dùng Ex1:The train had already left when diễn tả khứ hoàn khứ đơn I arrived at the station hoạt động thành xảy trước thời điểm khứ hành động khứ khác 6/ Mệnh đề Thì Quá khứ đơn Ex1 :She has played the piano since diễn tả hoàn she was a child hoạt động thành xảy khứ kéo dài đến tương lai *EXERCISES : SUPPLY THE CORRECT VERB TENSE : 1) Yesterday ,I (watch)………………………….television after I (finish)……………………… my homework 2) My elder brother (join)………………………….the army when he (be) -1- ……………………….eighteen 3) When the teacher came in ,the pupils (play)……………………………… 4) Yesterday ,while I (write)…………………………a letter ,the telephone ( ring) …………………………… 5) He (leave)……………………………as soon as he (hear )………………………….the news last night 6) I opened the door just as my boy-friend Tom ( ring )…………………………the bell 7) Until she spoke I ( not realize ) …………………… she (be)……………………… foreign 8) Dick (start ) ……………………school before he (be) ……………………………seven 9) You (feel)…………………………… better after you have something to eat 10) Susan (play)………………………………chess since she was a child 11) Bill said he (forget)……………………….to buy a new dictionary 12) Helen regretted that she (not can )……………………go with us 13) Our teacher (tell)………………………….us yesterday that he (visit) ………………… England in 1970 14) Our friends asked us why we (come)…………………………… here so early *MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST : 1) He fell down when he - to wards the church A) run B) runs C) was running D) had run 2) We - there when our father died A) still lived B) lived still C) was still living D) were still living 3) They - pingpong when their father comes back home A) will play B) play C will be playing D would play 4) I’ll come and see you before I - for America A) leave B) will leave C have left D) shall leave 5) The little girl asked what - to her friend A has happened B happened C had happened D would have been happened 6) John - a book when I saw him A) is reading B) read C) was reading D) reading 7) He said he - return later A) will B) would C) can D) would be 8) When I last saw him, he in London A) has lived B) is living C) was living D) has been living 9) After I - lunch, I looked for my bag A) had B) had had C) have has D) have had 10) Henry into the restaurant when the writer was having dinner A) was going B went C) has gone D) did go 11) He will take the dog out for a walk as soon as he dinner A) finish B) finishes C) will finish D) shall have finished 12) Before you asked, the letter - A) was written B) had been written C) had written D) has been written 13) I shall be glad when he A) had gone B) did go C) went D) has gone 14) Ask her to come and see me when she her work A) finish B) has finished C finished D) finishing 15) After you finish your work, you - a break A) should take B) have taken C) might have taken D) takes 16) Almost everyone for home by the time we arrived A) leave B) left C) leaves D) had left 17) While her husband was in the army, Janet to him twice a week A) was writing B) wrote C) was written D had written 18) Since , I have heard nothing from him A) he had left B) he left C) he has left D) he was left -1- 19) “How are you feeling?” “I’ve been feeling better since -.” A) the doctor has came B) the doctor will come C) the doctor had come D) the doctor came 20) “I took the TOEFL It was really hard.” “ a lot before you took it?” A) Have you studied B) Did you studied C) Had you studied D) Do you study 21) Did you say that you here only three days ago? A).came B) have come C) had came D) come ********************************************************* Chapter 12 : THE SENTENCE AND ITS PARTS **************************************************** Sentence Câu Main clause Mệnh đề Subordinate clause Mệnh đề phụ Adjective clause Who, which, where… Mệnh đề tính từ Adverb clause Because, although, if… Mệnh đề trạng từ Noun clause That, what, why, how, … Mệnh đề danh từ MỆNH ĐỀ CHÍNH VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ Mệnh đề có chủ ngữ động từ, đứng độc lập câu: Mệnh đề phụ có chủ ngữ động từ, phụ thuộc vào mệnh đề có nghóa Mệnh đề phụ đứng độc lập: Main clause Subject + verb Subordinate clause -1- Subject + verb The admissions office telephoned after you left Main clause subordinate clause Câu phức có mệnh đề mệnh đề phụ (Các) mệnh đề phụ làm chức tính từ, trạng từ, danh từ Main clause Subject + verb Subordinate clause Subject + verb Subordinate clause +Mệnh đề tính từ bắt đầu đại từ who, which, where, whose, whom, that, theo sau danh từ đại từ mà miêu tả: Main clause Adjective clause Who / whose / whom Which / that where Earthworms are insects which are active at night +Mệnh đề trạng từ bắt đầu liên từ phụ before, after ,because, although, if, while, when , as ,as soon as ,until, no sooner …than v.v Main clause Adverb clause before, because although, if while, after Columbus discovered America while he was looking for India Nếu mệnh đề trạng từ bắt đầu câu, tách rời với mệnh đề dấu phẩy: While he was looking for india, Columbus discovered America +Mệnh đề danh từ that nghi vấn từ what, why, where, how: Main clause -1- Noun clause That … What … Why … How … Where … I was not surprised by what she wrote Main clause Noun clause EXERCISE Find the subordinate clauses in these sentences Tìm mệnh đề phụ câu sau A bee performs a special dance, when it has found food, to inform the others about it Most people will be happy if the law to reduce taxes is passed The house where Shakespeare live has been visited by millions of people Many people came to California in the 1860s believing that they would find gold All the offices are closed because it is the Fourth of July Mother’s Day, which is celebrated in May, has been observed since 1914 Benjamin Franklin, who was a famous statesman, was also a scientist and an author Although we call them shooting stars, meteorites are bits of matter from other planets entering the earth’s atmosphere (B) Adjective clause MỆNH ĐỀ TÍNH TỪ Main clause Adjective clause Which That Who Whom* Where When Whom thường không dùng văn nói tiếng Anh; who dùng thay Whom dùng văn viết tiếng Anh trònh trọng He is the man who I told you about (spoken) He is the man about whom I told you (formal written) -1- Ghi chú: Chú ý vò trí giới từ about Mệnh đề tính từ thường bắt đầu từ which, that, who, whom, where when: A cure for the common cold, which is caused by a virus, has not been found A person whose blood pressure is high may have heart disease Alexander, who was a great general, was an ambitious man Đôi từ giới thiệu which, whom, that, bỏ đi: That is the book which you gave me for my birthday (Omitted) That is the book you gave me for my birthday Như mệnh đề danh từ, mệnh đề tính từ that, có mệnh đề tính từ which EXERCISE Choose one word or phrase, (A), (B), (C), or (D) to complete the sentence: Chọn từ cum từ, (A), (B), (C), (D) để hoàn chỉnh câu: Alexander Fleming, , received the Nobel prize in 1945 (A) who discovered penicillin (B) which discovered penicillin (C) he discovered penicillin (D) that discovered penicillin John James Audubon, who was a naturalist and an artist, wrote a great work called Birds of America (A) which it is (B) which is (C) whom is (D) is Immigrants after 1880 settled mainly in large cities (A) which came to America (B) they came to America (C) came to America (D) who came to America Hawaii, which is part of a group of islands, _ active volcanoes (A) that has (B) which has (C) has (D) who has In the ear, just above the cochlea, there are three small semi-circular canals _ as an organ of balance (A) that function together (B) function together (C) are function together (D) they function together Amsterdam, Holland, which is sometimes called the Venice of Northern Europe, (A) which has many canals (B) it has many canals (C) with many canals (D) has many canals The Egyptians constructed walls and embankments marvel even today (A) they are considered (B) which are considered (C) are considered (D) who are considered Ernest Hemingway, a novelist and short-story writer, developed a prose style (A) who influenced an entire generation of authors (B) influenced an entire generation of authors (C) that influenced an entire generation of authors (D) has influenced an entire generation of authors (C) Adverb clause MỆNH ĐỀ TRẠNG TỪ Mệnh đề phụ trạng từ giới thiệu liên từ phụ sau: Time After, before, since, when, while, whenever, as, as soon as, once, Thời gian until, as/so long as, by the time (that), now that Manner As if, as though Thể cách Condition If, unless, even if, only if, in case (that), whether or not, in the event Điều kiện (that), provided (that) Cause and Effect Because, since, so (that), in order (that) Nguyên nhân kết Opposition Although, while, though, even though, whereas -1- Đối lập Comparison Than, as So sánh When we went to Rome, we saw the Coliseum (time) Even if it rains, the competition will be held outside (condition) They went on a field trip although it was raining (opposition) EXERCISE Fill in the blanks with one of the words from (A), (B), (C), or (D) Điền vào chỗ trống từ chọn (A), (B), (C) (D) It looked dark and heavy _ it was going to rain (A) although (B) unless (C) as if (D) whereas _ I get your call, I will leave (A) As soon as(B) As though (C) By the time (D) Now that he had read the instructions several times, he knew what to (A) Whereas (B) After (C) Until (D) While he cannot afford a car, he rides a bicycle (A) Unless (B) Whereas (C) Though (D) Because _ the cities not provide better and cheaper mass transportation, the traffic problem will get worse (A) So that (B) Even though (C) If (D) Before you go to Canada, you should visit Toronto (A) When (B) As (C) Since (D) Unless riding a bicycle is good leg exercise, it does not use up a lot of calorie (A) As (B) Although (C) Because (D) S that She tuned off the cassette player _ she could study (A) now that (B) even if (C) so that (D) in case (D) Noun clause Main clause Noun clause Which… What… When… Where… Who… How… Whose… Why… -1- MỆNH ĐỀ DANH TỪ Mệnh đề danh từ bắt đầu từ nghi vấn what, where, how, why…: Subject Chủ ngữ What she wears is exciting Why she failed was clear Object Túc từ I don’t know why he said that We were told where to mail it Main clause Say Feel Think Believe Rumour Report Noun clause That… Mệnh đề danh từ làm chức túc từ sau động từ saying, thinking, believing, feeling, that: I felt that he was telling the truth You said that it would be difficult Trong mệnh đề danh từ làm chức túc từ, từ that bỏ The students felt that the test was too difficult (Omitted) The students felt the test was too difficult EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Identify the noun clauses, if any, in the following sentences: Nhận biết mệnh đề danh từ, có, câu sau: The professor stated quite clearly that all the papers would have to be given in next week The students felt their assignments were too time-consuming In the last five minutes, the professor always reviewed his lecture John was worried about his grade point average We were always told what to study for the final The office did not know how much next year’s tuition would be The girl will tell you where to pick up the registration package Each group cheered for their team as they scored their points (E) Test on the sentence and its parts BÀI KIỂM TRA VỀ CÂU VÀ CÁC THÀNH PHẦN CỦA CÂU Time: minutes Thời gian: phút Choose the one word or phrase, (A), (B), (C), or (D), that best completes the sentence: -1- Chọn từ cụm từ (A), (B), (C), (D) để hoàn chỉnh câu nhất: Fish have nostrils _are used for smelling, not for breathing (A) they (B) what (C) whom (D) that the Industrial Revolution came to America, the majority of the population lived in rural areas (A) Before (B) During (C) Because (D) So that The commercial bottle cork is obtained from the cork oak, in the Mediterranean region (A) who grows (B) is growing (C) growing (D) which grows Pearl Buck, who was the first American woman to win a Nobel prize for literature, for her novel The Good Earth (A) who is best known (B) which is best known (C) is best known (D) best known Kelps are valuable to man for fertilizer they contain chemical elements (A) which (B) that (C) while (D) because , which was purchased from Russia in 1867, is the largest state in the U.S (A) Alaska (B) When Alaska (C) It is Alaska (D) Alaska is that It is believed causes insomnia (A) too much caffeine which (B) that too much caffeine (C) it is too much caffeine (D) too much caffeine that Earthworms breathe through their skin must be kept moist (A) and which (B) they (C) which (D) who Seafood higher in sodium than fish from fresh water (A) are (B) which are (C) that are (D) they are 10 Early settlers in America believed that an over-supply of blood some diseases (A) has caused(B) it caused (C) caused (D) that caused 11 _, a famous hunter, was chiefly responsible for opening up the upper part of the old Southwest (A) It is Daniel Boone(B) Daniel Boone (C) It was Daniel Boone (D) Daniel Boone was 12 Benjamin Franklin’s poor Richard’s Almanac, which he published from 1732 to 1757 information and proverbs in an interesting way (A) it presented (B) and it presented (C) when it presented (D) presented 13 The Dark Ages in Europe a period which lasted for more than 500 years (A) that was (B) it was (C) was (D) which was 14 Marco Polo, _ traveled to the Orient with his father and uncle, wrote a book about his travels (A) which (B) who (C) that (D) whom 15 The stimulation that infant animals receive affects their behavior they become adults (A) during (B) since (C) because (D) when 16 , which had been brought to Europe from China in the 15 th Century, helped seamen to navigate (A) The compass (B) It is the compass (C) which the compass (D) that the compass 17 In 1846 Dr William Morton introduced the use of ether as an anesthetic _ became a great boon to surgery (A) so (B) and (C) which (D) who 18 Steamboats did not replace sailing vessels on the high seas _ later in the 1860s (A) until (B) although (C) because (D) unless 19 _ is toasted, the brown on the outer surface consists of dextrin, which is easier to digest than starch (A) Because a slice of bread (B) when a slice of bread (C) Although a slice of bread (D) while a slice of bread 20 Conifers are important to man they supply much of his lumber and most of the wood pulp for paper (A) whereas (B) although (C) whenever (D) because -1- -1- ... d quickest 10 / I’ve always found Fred to be a _ person a politely b impolitely c not polite d polite 11 / He is a customer a regular b regularly c irregular d not regular 12 / A ... …………………………………………………………………………………… 10 To eat in a restaurant is more fun THAN cooking at home ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 11 ALTHOUGH he liked to eat good... …………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Going on vacation is more fun than to work in the summer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 11 When he was a college student,
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