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BẢNG TÓM TẮT CHUẨN ANH VĂN THPT A/ Tenses (Các thì) B/Subject –verb Concord(hoà hợp chủ-động từ) C/ The gerund,infinitive,and bare infinitive DExpressions of Quantity(thành ngữ đònh lượng) E/ Relative clause(mệnh đề quan hệ) F/ Reported Speech(câu tường thuật) G/Passive –active(chủ động-bò động) H/Prepositions(giới từ) I/Word –form(hình thức từ)+Modifiers(từ bổ nghóa) J/ Articles(mạo từ) K/Conditional sentenses(câu điều kiện) L/Wish clause(mệnh đề ao ước) M/Comparisons(các cấp so sánh) N/ Conjunctions-coordinators(liên từ-từ nối) O/Sequence of tenses(hoà hợp thì)*CHI TIẾT CHỦ ĐỀ 1: TENSES (CÁC THÌ) I-THE PRESENT SIMPLE(THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN) a/ Form: S+V- O/S/ES + Positive: ª I/we/you/they + verb ex: I work in a bank ª She/he/it + verb-s/es ex1: She works in a bank ex2: He watches television evary night + Negative: ª I/we you they + don’t + verb ex: I don’t work every day ªShe/he/it + doesn’t + verb ex1: She doesn’t work every day ex2: He doesn’t watch television every day + Question: ª Do + I/we/you/they + verb ? ex: Do you work every day? Yes,I do./ no,I don’t ªWhere they work? ªDoes + she/he/it + verb ? ex: Does she work in a bank? Yes,she does./ No,she doesn’t ªWhere does she work? She works in a bank b/USE :Chỉ thói quen,sự thật đúng, trạng thái việc bền lâu Ex1: He smokes 20 cigarettes a day Ex2: we go to the country every weekend Ex3: We live in Ho Chi Minh city Ex4: He works for a foreign company Ex4: She comes from China Ex5: I speak two languages Ex6: The sun rises in th East Ex7: Water boils at 1000 centigrade c/ Adverbs of time:EVERY(DAY,NIGHT,WEEK,MONTH,YEAR…),ALWAYS,USUALLY, OFTEN,SOMETIMES,RARELY,ONCE A WEEK,TWICE A WEEK … * Quy tắc thêm s/es vào động từ thứ số đơn : Quy tắc thông thường thêm -s vào hình thức động từ : Ex: wants , works ,drives…… Thêm –es vào động từ tận kí tự :O,CH,SH,S,X Ex: goes , teaches , washes , kisses , fixes ……… 3)Đối với động từ PHỤ ÂM +Y -ies Ex:carry carries ; fly flies ; study studies *Tuy nhiên , Đối với động từ NGUYÊNÏ ÂM +Y,ta thêm _s theo quy luật thông thường.Ex :stays,buys……………… II- THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS:(THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN) a/FORM: Subject + am/is/are + present participle(V –ING ) ex: - I am writing a letter now They are working at the moment She isn’t going home Are you learning English? Yes,I’m Is Maria reading at the moment? No, she isn’t Where are they going? They are going to the zoo b/USE: Chỉ việc diển việc tạm thời Ex1: - I can’t answer the phone I’m having a bath Ex2 : Peter is a student, but he is working as a waiter during the holiday Ex3: I’m working hard these days Ex4: Please don’t take that book Ann is reading it now Ex5: What’s the smell? Something is burning ex2: Why are you wearing that funny hat? * A future arrangement (sự xếp tương lai) Ex1: What are you doing tonight? Ex2: I am going to the party at his house c/ Một sô từ dấu hiệu NOW, RIGHT NOW, AT THE MOMENT… LOOK, LISTEN, BE QUIET… ex1: Look! The train is coming ex2: Listen! They are singing a song ex3: Be quiet! The baby is sleeping *QUY TẮC THÊM –ING VÀO ĐỘNG TỪ: 1) Theo quy luật thông thường thêm _ING vào động từ gốc Ex: going; doing; reading, playing…………… 2)Đối với động từ có âm tiếc mà tận NGUYÊN ÂM+1 PHỤ ÂM ta phải gấp đôi phụ âmtrước thêm _ING Ex:swim………….swimming ;sit……….sitting;get…………….getting;……… 3)Còn động từ tận 2NGUYÊN ÂM+1PHỤ ÂM ta không gấp đôi phụ âm Ex :read………reading ; speak………….speaking ;wear……….wearing;… 4) Đối với động từ tận –e ta phải bỏ _e thêm _ing Ex:write………writing ; come……….coming;take……… taking… ● ● ● ● ● 1) Đối với động từ có âm tiếc :phụ âm phải gấp dấu trọng âm(stress)nằm âm tiếc thứ hai,examlpe :ad’mit…………admitting ; pre’fer………… preferring;… Nếu trọng âm đặt vần đầu ta không gấp đôi phụ âm.Ex:’listen…………listening;’enter….entering… *NOTE :NHỮNG ĐỘNG TỪ ÍT DÙNG TRONG THÌ TIẾP DIỄN : 1/ Verbs of the mind (động từ trí tuệ): know,understand,think,believe,forget,remember,mean,doubt 2/Verbs of emotion and feeling(động từ cảm xúc tình cảm ):like,love,dislike,prefer,want,care 3/Verbs of the five senses(động từ giác quan ):see,smell,taste,hear ,touch 4/Verbs of possession(động từ sở hữu):have ,own, belong to 5/Other verbs :cost, need , contain(chứa đựng)depend (on)(tuỳ thuộc vào),consist of (bao gồm),seem=appear (dường như) MORE EXERCISES: EXERCISE 1: GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple present or present continuous 1/ I (have)…………………………………coffee for breakfast every morning 2/My brother (work) …………………………………in a shoes store this summer 3/The student (look up) …………………………………that new word right now 4/It (rain) …………………………………very much in the summer.It (rain) …………………………………now 5/We seldom (eat) ………………………………… before 6.30 6/Be quiet !The baby (sleep) ………………………………… 7/Look ! A man (run) ………………………………… after the train.He (want) …………………………………to catch it 8/I (need) …………………………………some money for my text books 10 9/Excuse me ,I(have) …………………………………to help a customer 11 10/John (like) …………………………………to go to museums 12 11/ Mother (cook) …………………………………some food in the kitchen at present She always (cook) …………………………………in the morning 13 12/Listen !I (hear) …………………………………some body knocking at the front door 14 13/I (see) …………………………………that you (wear) …………………………………your best clothes 15 14/I (do) …………………………………an exercise on present tense at this moment and I (think) ………………………………… that I (know) …………………………………how to use it now 16 15/She sometimes (buy) …………………………………vegetables at this market III- THE PRESENT PERFECT (THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH ) a/FORM: Subject + have/has + past participle(V3/ed) ex: - I’ve studied English for year - She has worked as a flight attendant ● I haven’t been to Dalat yet ● He hasn’t visited the capital ● Have you done your homework ? Yes, I have / No, I haven’t Has she arrived yet? Yes, she has / No, she hasn’t b/USE:có cách dùng bản: -Chỉ việc vừa xảy (JUST,RECENTLY,LATELY…) ● ex1: Have you ever seen a fire? Yes, I have ex2: I have seen that film several time ex1: The taxi has arrived ( It’s outside the house now) ex2: She has broken her leg ( That why she can’t walk) ex3: They have just built this house.(The paint is very new) Chỉ việc xảy xảy thời điểm không xác đònh khứ(ALREADY…) Ex1: I have seen that film Ex2: They have visited HaNoi several times Chỉ hành động khứ ….kéo dài đến …và tương lai(NEVER,EVER,SINCE ,FOR.,NEVER…BEFORE,YET, NOT…YET,SINCE WHEN,HOW LONG…) ex2 : We’ve studied English since last year ex3: She’s been a teacher for 10 years IV- THE PRESENT PEFECT CONTINUOUS: a/FORM: Subject + have/ has + been + present participle(V-ING) ex: - I have been working ● She has been working ● I haven’t been working ● She hasn’t been working ● What have you been doing? ● Have you been painting? Yes, we have/ No, we haven’t ● Has he been crying? Yes, he has/ No, he hasn’t b/USE:GIỐNG NHƯ THÌ HTHT ,CHỈ NHẤN MẠNH SỰ LIÊN TỤC - Unfinished past: The present perfect continuous is use to express the activity which began in a past and is still continuing ex1: I’ve been working for the same company for 12 year ex2: How long have you been playing football? * Simple or continuous? * There is often litte or no differences betwen such these sentences in the simple or the continuous ex1: I’ve worked for the same company for 12 years ex2: How long have you played football? However, if the continuous is possible, English has a preference for using it - Present result: The present perfect continuous refers to a past activity and shows the present result of that activity ex1: She’s been crying (Her eyes are red) ex2: You’ve been fighting again ( You’ve got cut and bruises on your face) A: What’s that smell ( I can smell it now) B: I’ve been cutting the grass We understand that the activity has recently finished ex1: Look! It’s been snowing (The ground is all white) ex2: Look! It’s snowing (Present continuous- It is still snowing) * Notes: i/ As with all continuous tenses, the present perfect continuous expresses duration and activity over a period of time Certain verbs by definition not suggest duration The action is quickly finished For example: die/ start/ begin/ finish/ stop/ find/ lose/ break These verbs are usually found in the present perfect simple ii/ The present perfect simple is interested in the completed action This is why, if the subject of the verb has a quantity or number ,only the simple is possible ex1: I’ve eaten five pieces of toast this morning Not: I’ve been eating five pieces of toast this morning ex2: I’ve been cutting down trees this morning I’ve cut down ten ex3: She’s been smoking ever since she arived She’s smoked already But I ‘ve been having a shower ( This is an activity, so it can be expressed in the continuous) EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:Present perfect or present perfect continuous: 1/ I (try) …………………………………to learn English for years,but I (not suseed) ………………………………… yet 2/ I (wait ) …………………………………for two hours,but she (not come) …………………………………yet 3/She (read) ……………………all the works of Dickens.How many ……………… you(read) …………………………………? 4/I (wait) …………………………………here nearly half an hour for my girl-friend Anna 5/Jack (go) …………………………………to Paris for a holiday ;I…………………never(be) …………………………………there 6/That book (lie) ……………………………on the table for weeks ………… you (not read) ………………………it yet? 7/He (not be ) ……………………………here since Chrismas,I wonder where she(live) ………………………since then 8/Mary (rest) …………………………………in the gardent all day because she (be) …………………………………ill 9/She (work) ………………………so hard this week that she (not have) ……………………time to go to the movies 10/We (live) ……………………………here for the last six months and I (just decide) …………………………to move EXERCISE3 : GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:Present tenses 1/ I (be) ……………………………sorry.I (forget) …………………………… that fellow ‘s name already 2/Jack (look) ……………………………no trouble with my English lesson up to now 3/Michael (work) ……………………………thirty-eight hours a week 4/At present ,that author (write) ……………………………a historical novel 5/The weather generally(get) ……………………………quite hot in July and August 6/How long……………………………you(learn) …………………………… English? 1 2 V- PAST SIMPLE : a/FORM: S + V-2/ed Negative: S + didn’t + v Question: Did + s + v ? ex: - I/she worked hard ● I/she told him a good story ● I/she didn’t work hard ● I/she didn’t tell him a good story ● Did you/she work hard? Did you/she tell him a good story? * Quy tăc thêm _ED vào động từ hợp quy tắc : 1)Theo quy luật thông thường thêm _ED vào động từ gốc Ex: worked ,helped,washed…………… 2)Khi động từ –E ta cần thêm _D mà Ex:bake baked ;like liked ; use used 3) Đối với động từ có âm tiếc mà kí tự tận 1nguyên âm +1phụ âm ta phải gấp đôi phụ âm trước thêm _ED Ex: stopped , planned , grabbed ……………… *Nếu tận 2NGUYÊN ÂM+1PHỤ ÂM ta không gấp đôi phụ âm trước thêm-ED Ex: cooked, looked, loaded……… * Nếu phụ âm Y W ta không gấp đôi Ex: played, showed, ………… 4) Đối với đông từ có âm tiếc :phụ âm phải gấp dấu trọng âm(stress)nằm âm tiếc thứ hai,examlpe :Pre’fer preferred ;admit admitted … Tuy nhiên,khi dấu trọng âm nằm âm tiếc thứ ta không gấp đôi phụ âm,examlpe:’enter entered ,’visit visited 5) Đối với động từ PHỤ ÂM+Y ta biến Y -i+ed ex:carry……… carried ; burry……….burried ;study………… studied… b/USE:chỉ hành động xảy thời điểm xác đònh khứ: Ex1: I saw that film last night Ex2: He visited me yesterday Ex3: She went to Cantho days ago LAST(NIGHT/WEEK/MONTH/ YEAR), ( YEARS/3 MONTHS/4 WEEKS ) AGO, YESTERDAY, IN ( SUMMER), (IN 1980); WHEN (I) WAS YOUNG ) EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or Present perfect 1/We (study) ……………………………a very hard lesson the day before yesterday 2/We(study) ……………………………almost every lesson in this book so far 3/We(watch,never) …………………………… that television Program 4/We(watch) ……………………………an interesting program on television last night 5/My wife and I(travel) ……………………………by air many times in the past 6/My wife and I(travel) ……………………………to Mexico by air last Summer 7/I (read) ……………………………that novel by Hemingway several times before 8/I (read) ……………………………that novel again during my last vacation 9/I (have) ……………………………a little trouble with my car last week 10/However,I (have) ……………………………no trouble with my car since then 5 ● ● ● 1 VI- THE PAST CONTINUOUS: a/FORM: Possitive: subject + was/ were + present participle Negative: subject + wasn’t/weren’t + present participle Question: was/were + subjest + present participle ? ex: + The birds were singing + He was wearing a uniform + He wasn’t working + They weren’t working + Where was she going? +Were they having a bath? Yes, they were/ No, they weren’t b/USE:có cách dùng -Chỉ hành động động xảy thời điểm xác đònh khứ ex1: What were you doing at 8.00 last night? I was watching television -Chỉ hành động xảy (dùng QKTD),thì có hành động khác xen vào (dùng QK) ex: While I was having a bath, the telephone rang The students were working when the teacher walked in -Chỉ hai hành động đồng thời diển khứ Ex1: While I was reading book,my wife was writing a letter EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or past continuous: 1/He (work) ……………………………all day yesterday 2/When I(arrive) ……………………………at his house,he (still sleep) …………………………… 3/As we (cross) ……………………………the street,the policeman(shout) ……………………………at us 4/The light (go) ……………………………out while we (have) ……………………………dinner 5/The children (do) …………………their homework when their father (come) …………… back from the office 6/Bill (have) ……………………………breakfast when I (stop) …………………………… at his house this morning 7/While I(walk) ……………………………around the park, I(see) ……………………………Mrs John 8/When I (go) ……………………………out the sun (shine) …………………………… 9/Just as I (leave) ……………………………for home,a student (stop) ……………………………me in the hall 10/When the student (hear) …………………the bell ,they(get) …………………………… up and (leave) ………………………… VII- THE PAST PERFECT: a/FORM: Subject + had + past participle 1 ex: - By the time I got to airport, the plane had already taken off ● She had learned English before she came here b/USE:Chỉ việc xảy trước hành động khứ thời điểm khứ khác Ex1: Before I went to England,I had learned English very hard Ex2: After we had finished our work, we went out c) Dấu hiệu nhận biết QKHT: BY ( YESTERDAY, LAST MONTH(WEEK), LAST NIGHT ) AFTER + S+ HAD +V3/ed, S + V2 BEFORE +S +V2, S+HAD +V3/ed BY THE TIME WHEN ONCE AS SOON AS PAST CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE(S+HAD+ V3/ed(DÙNG QKHT) UNTIL EXERCISE : GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or past perfect: 1/They(go) ……………………………home after they (finish) ……………………………their work 2/He (do) ……………………………nothing before he (see) …………………………… 3/He (thank) ……………………………me for what I(do) …………………………… 4/ I (be) ……………………………sorry that I(hurt) …………………………… him 5/After they (go) ……………………………,they (sit) ……………………………down and (rest) …………………………… 6/My friend (not see) ……………………………me for many years when I (meet) …………………………… him last week 7/In England he soon (remember) ……………………………all he (learn) …………………………… 8/They (tell) ……………………………him they (not meet) …………………………… before 9/He (ask) ……………………………why we(come) …………………………… so early 10 10/She (say) ……………………………that she already(see) …………………………… Dr Rice 11 EXERCISE 7:GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS: past tenses: 12 1/When the phone (ring) ……………………………,I(have) …………………………… a bath 13 2/You (wear) ……………………………your new hat when I(meet) …………………………… you yesterday 14 3/When it (rain) ……………………………,she (carry) ……………………………an umbrella 15 4/The house(be) …………………………… much smaller than he (think) ……………………………at first 16 5/While you (play) ……………………………the piano,I (write ) ……………………………a letter 17 6/Before you (mention) ……………………………him,I (never hear) …………………………… of that author 18 7/When they (go) ………………to see them last night ,they (play) …………………………cards 19 They (say)…………………they(play) ……………………………since six ‘o clock 20 8/My friend (sing) ……………………………when I (come) ……………………………into the room 21 9/The little girl (ask) ……………………………what (happen) ……………………………to her ice cream 10/He (eat) ……………………………dinner when I(go) ……………………………to see him VIII- THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS) : a/FORM: Subject + had been + present participle b/USE:CÓ CÁCH DÙNG GIỐNG NHƯ THÌ QKHT NHƯNG CHỈ NHẤN MẠNH SỰ LIÊN TỤC CỦA HÀNH ĐỘNG.(Cho vài ví dụ ) IX- THE SIMPLE FUTURE: Will and Be going to a/ Will is used to: + Express a future prediction (một dự đoán) ex: - I think it will rain tomorrow ● You’ll feel beeter after you’ve taken this medicine + Express a future intention: ( dự đònh) ex: - I will see you next week ● I will bring her a birthday cake + Express a promise, a threat, or a decision: ex: - I’ll bring a book tomorrow (a promise) ● If you that again, I will punish you.( a threat) ● We’ll go back home at 8.00 (a decision) ● Note: Will express an intention or decision made at the moment of speaking, that is, not planned or premediated i(không đònh trước) ex: A: can I ring you tonight? B: Yes, I will give you my number It’s 3871425 b/Be Going to: is used to express future intention, plan or decision thought about before the moment of speaking ex: We’re going to get married in June When I grow up, I’m going to be a doctor ● Note: a/ Using will or Be going to concerns when the decision was made : ex1: A: We’ve run out of sugar B: Have we?I didn’t know.I’ll buy some when I go shopping ex2: A: We’ve run out of sugar B: I know I’m going to buy some whe I go shopping b/ Notice that going to go and going to come are often shortened ex1: When are you going home (not when are you going to go home) ex2: He is coming to see me this afternoon (not he’s going to come to see ) EXERCISES 8: I/ Complete these sentences ,using Will or Going to Poor Sue went to hospital yesterday I ‘m sorry to hear that.I…………………………………… some flowers 2)This room is very cold You are right.I…………………………………the heater 3)Are you still going out with Alice ? Oh,yes We…………………………………get married next year 4)Oh dear.I can’t this homework Don’t worry.I…………………………………you 5)Did you remember to book seats for the theater ? No,I forgot.I………………………………… now 6)It ‘s John ‘s birthday tomorrow Is it ?I can’t afford a present but I………………………………… a card 7)How old are you ? I ‘m 64.I …………………………………retire next year 8) Why are you buying so much food ? Because I …………………………………cook for ten people 9) Jack is very angry with you Is he ?I didn’t realize.I………………………………… ring him and apologize 10) Why are you leaving so early ? Because the teacher gave us a lot of homework and I …………………………………very carefully II/ Complete the second line of these dialogues : I ‘ve got a terrible headache I ‘ll get you an aspirin 2)I haven’t got any money at all I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3)John and Ann have just had a baby Have they ?I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… 4) What ‘s Jeremy ‘s phone number ? Just a minute I’ll …………………………………………………………………………………………… 5)I ‘ve lost my dog Don’t worry I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… III/ Answer the questions about your next holiday : I ‘m going on holiday next week Where to ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… That sounds lovely Where are you going to stay ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… And what are you going to ?Relax or see the sights or both ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… How are you getting there ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… And how long are you away for ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… Lucky you Have a good time I ‘ll send you a postcard X- THE FUTURE PROGESSIVE: a./FORM: Subject + will be + V-ing ex: At the time tomorrow, we will be taking the test b/.USE: The future progressive is used: i/ To express an activity that will start at afuture time and be in progress at a certain time in the future ex: At the time tomorrow, we will be talking the test ii/ When an action will take place at an indefinite time in a future In this case the simple future form can also be used ex: We will be seeing you there OR: We will see you there XI- THE FUTURE PERFECT: a/.FORM: a gave b has given c could give d had given 17/ Get me a glass of lemonade , if you to the kitchen a go b will go c going d went 18/ If I _ you I’d save some of your lottery winning a be b am c were d was 19/ If the chair _ break , Mr Dow can fix it for us a might b should c may d can 20/ If the car larger , we would have bought it a had been b has been c have been d been CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1/ “ Are you thinking about going to the Bahamas for the holidays ?” – “ No, but if I _ the time , I would definitely go ” a have b had c have had d would have 2/ “ It’s really raining ” “ Yes If the weather , we’ ll have to camp somewhere else ” a would get worse b might get worse c get worse d should get worse 3/ “ Why did you only send twenty dollars in the mail ?” – “ If I had more money , I given you more ” a will have b would have c would d have 4/ “ My boss made me work overtime again ” – “ If I were you , I _ my job ” a would quit b will quit c must quit d quit 5/ “ Thanks for your help ” – “ want more information , call again tomorrow ” a Were you b Had you to c Might you d Should you 6/ “ Remember the day I drove you to the airport ? ”- “ If you hadn’t me I would have been late ” a take b taking c took d taken 7/ “ Sally finally got here from Chicago ” – “ If she had come earlier , we _ taken her to the play ” a would be b would have c had have d would had 8/ “ I don’t know whether to take that mathematics course or not ” – “ If you , I’d take it ” a I am b I will be c I had been you d I were 9/ “ My car broke down when I was leaving Detroit and I had to take the bus ” - “ , we would have picked you up ” a Had we known b If we have known c We had known d If we did know 10/ “ It’s beginning to rain ” “ , we won’t be able to finish the ball game ” a If it stops b Should it stop c Unless it stops d If it didn’t stop 11/ “ Did you need help with your math last night ? ” “ If I had , I _ you ” a would call b called c would have called d will call 12/ “ I’d really like some lunch but I have so much work to ” – “ what you want and I can get it for you ” a Tell me b If you would say me c You will tell to me d If you tell me 13/ “John went to the hospital alone ” – “ If , I would have gone with him.” a had he told me b he had told me c he has told me d he would tell me 14/ “ Alice is moving to her new apartment next Saturday ” – “ I’ll be glad to help her , need some help ” a should she b if she will c if she d if she might 15/ “ Did you go sailing last weekend ? ” – “ No We would have gone , nicer ” a had the weather been b if the weather has been c would the weather be d if the weather might be 16/ This sailboat go faster if there were more wind a wouldn’t b shall c will d would 17/ I won’t lend you this money you promise to pay it back a if b unless c or d or else 18/ If Al had come sooner , he could eaten dinner with us a has b had c have d ‘ ve 19/ _ me and I’ll expalin the homework to you a Call b If you call c Calling d To call 20/ If a drop of oil is placed in a glass of water , it float to the top a would b will c shall d should *Finish each of the following sentences keeping the same meaning to the original sentences : 1)I ‘ll let you borrow my car but you must promise to use it carefully If……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………… 2) There will be a shortage of water unless it rains If……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………… 3)I don’t know the answer, so I can’t tell you ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………… 4)Do those exercises more carefully or you will fail the exams You……………………………………………………………….if………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 5)I was very busy, I couldn’t go to the meeting If I……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………… 6/ If I were free now, I would help you I am …………………………………… 7/ We not go because it rains If ………………………………………… 8/ Tom never does anything if you not tell him what to Unless………………………………………… 9/ We will go there unless it rains If it ……………………………………… 10/ You drink too much coffee , that is why you can not sleep If you………………………………….………………………………… 11/ He is too old, so he can not go bushwalking If………………………………….………………………………… 13/ Jane is too short, she can not apply for the job If Jane were……………………………………………………………… 14/I can’t come because I have to look after my children If _ 15/ Do those exercises more carefully or you will fail the exams You _ unless 16/ I don’n know the answer , so I can’t tell you If _ 17/ I won’t help you if you promise to work harder Unless 18/ You must hurry or we’ll miss the train Unless we 19/ Larry didn’t buy the shirt because she didn’t have enough money If Larry………………………………………………………………… 20/ If you work harder, you make more products The harder you work , the ……………………………………………… 21/ The weather was very bad , so we didn’t go on a picnic If …………………………………………………………… 22/ He works hard and he will pass his exams If ……………………………………………………………………………………… 23/We can avoid waiting by booking the tickets in advance If ……………………………………………………………………………………… 24/We must go or we ‘ll be late If ……………………………………………………………………………………… 25/They wanted to buy the house ,but they hadn’t got enough money If they ……………………………………………………………………………………… 26/ I regret not going to the airport to say good-bye to him If ……………………………………………………………………………………… * Finish each of the following sentences in the suitable ways: 1) If I were you, ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2)If John had studied harder , ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3)If it doesn’t rain next Sunday, ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4) I will find a good job if……………………………………………………………………………………… 5)I would not have gone if……………………………………………………………………………………… 6)I would tell him the truth if……………………………………………………………………………………… *Make conditional sentences from these fạcts : I will lend you my car,but you must promise to drive it carefully ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………… 2)Mai wants to speak English well,but she has no real opportunity to practise ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3)We didn’t have much money,so we couldn’t go abroad ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4)You got bad marks in English because you didn’t practise it well yesterday ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5)She can’t take a taxi That ‘s the reason why she is late ……………………………………………………………………………………… He came to class late.That ‘s the reason why his teacher was so angry ……………………………………………………………………………………… CHỦ ĐỀ 12 :WISH CLAUSE(MỆNH ĐỀ AO ƯỚC) Future Wish : SUBJECT + WISH(ES) (THAT) SUBJECT +WOULD/COULD +V Ex1: He is studying very hard at maths,chemist and biology He wishes he would be a doctor in the future Ex2: Hoa is living in HaNoi for her study.She misses her parents in Hue She wishes she could visit them every day Present Wish : SUBJECT + WISH(ES) (THAT) SUBJECT +V(past form) Ex1: She isn’t a manager She wishes she were a manager Ex2:Ba only gets mark for his English test He wishes that he got mark 10 3)Past wish : SUBJECT + WISH(ES) (THAT) SUBJECT + HAD +V(past participle) Ex1: I ‘m sorry that I didn’t go to the party last Sunday I wish that I had gone to the party last Sunday Ex2: It ‘s a pity that you were not here last weekend I wish you had been here last weekend *SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE I can’t play the guitar I wish…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………… 2)He is sorry that he hasn’t done his homework He wishes………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………… 3)I didn’t meet them at the party I wish…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………… 4)I am not good at English I wish…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………… 5)It is a party I didn’t take a trip last week I wish…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………… *MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST “Joe has three sisters,doesn’t he?” “No wonder he wishes he ……………………….a brother A) had B) have C)will have D)can have 2)” I hear that the Jenkinses lost all their money gambling in Las Vegas” “ Now they wish they……………………………” A) have never gone B) never go C)never went D) had never gone 3)” My daughter wants to go to Disneyland.” “Many children wish they …………………………there.” A) can go B) will go C) could go D)go 4)“ Monica is such a nice person ” “Yes.I wish I………………………her more often” A) see B) will see C)saw D) have seen 5)“Are you coming to the gym ?” “I wish I………………………….,but I have to work.” A) had B) could C) will D) could have CHỦ ĐỀ 13:COMPARISONS(CÁC CẤP SO SÁNH) 1/ So sánh So sánh as +adjective+as less+adjective+than 2/ So sánh : a/ Đối với tính từ ngắn (một âm tiết ) tính từ tận Y: adjective + er+than *Note :phải biến Y thành I trước thêm er b/ Đối với tính từ dài (nhiều âm tiết ): More + Adjective + than *Chú ý :Than xuất câu có thành tố so sánh xuất 3/ So sánh : a/ Đối với tính từ ngắn (một âm tiết ) tính từ tận Y:The +Adjective+est b/ Đối với tính từ dài (nhiều âm tiết ):The most+adjective CÁC TÍNH TỪ BẤT QUI TẮC : NGUYÊN CẤP SO SÁNH SO SÁNH NHẤT HƠN Good(tốt) Better(tốt hơn) The best(tốt nhất) Bad(xấu ) Worse(xấu hơn) The worst(xấu nhất) Little(ít ) Less(ít hơn) The least(ít ) Much/many(nhiều) More(nhiều The most(nhiều nhất) Far(xa) hơn) The Farther/The further Farther/further (xa nhất) (xa hơn) *MULTIPLE CHOICE: COMPARISONS 1/ Hotels have developed _ restaurants a as rapidly as b so rapidly that c as rapid as d as rapid than 2/ Commercial centres are _ they were many years ago a as popular than b the most popular c more popular than d most popular than 3/ Computers are considered as a much modern than b modern as c the most modern d more modern 4/ A supermarket is a shopping centre a less convenient as b less convenient than c not so convenient than d the most convenient as 5/ Vietnam becomes _ to foreign tourists a most and most attractive b much and more attractive c the more attractive d more and more attractive 6/ Can Tho is _ from Sai Gon than Bien Hoa is a farther b further c far d farer 7/ Bao yen sings _ than this singer a well b better c gooder d more good 8/ Of all the ball – point pens , which one you like _ ? a best b the best c most d the most 9/ The _ we start , the sooner we will be back a early b.earliest c earlier d more early 10/ The sooner , the _ a better b best c good d more good 11/ The harder this farmer works , he becomes a the poorest b the poorer c the more poor d poorer 12/ My father is as yours a old b as old c older d so old 13/ Ho Chi Minh city is than Ha Noi a large b largest c more large d larger 14/ She is the _ daughter in the family a older b more old c eldest d oldest 15/ She speaks English as _ as you a clear b clearly c clearness d very clear 16/ Ho Chi Minh city is than Nha Trang a more large b as large c not so large d larger 17/ Your pencil is _ as mine a as sharp b.not sharp c sharper d sharp 18/ This car is _ than mine a less expensive b as expensive c expensive d not so expensive 19/ The _ he is , the more miserable he gets a richer b more riches c more rich d none is correct 20/ He is the _ student in this class a very intelligent b most intelligent c more intelligent d less intelligent COMPARISONS 1/ “ Would you like to comment on Ann’s qualifications ? ” “ _ the people in the company , Ann is the most skilled ” a In all b From all c.Of all d To all 2/ “ John’s grades are really bad ” - “ Yes , but Tim’s are ” a.worse b worst c badder d so worse 3/ “ Which dress you think I should wear to the party ? ” – “ I like the blue one _ the others ” a more as b more than c more d better 4/ “ Jane doesn’t seem interested in learning to win ” – “ You’re right Betty is the of the two ” a most enthusiastic b more enthusiastic c enthusiastic d most enthusiastically 5/ The original painting looks the reproduction a alike b exact like c like d similar 6/ “ Do you like the color of the new carpet ? ” – “ Yes , it’s definitely nicer the others we looked at ” a then b as c than d that 7/ “ I don’t think this material is the quality I want ” - “ I’m sorry It’s _ we have right new.” a the bested b the better c the best d the more good 8/ “ John and Kate are very _ each other ” – “ Yes I’m surprised that they got married ” a different about b different to c different form d different than 9/ “ How tall is Yuonne ? ” – “ She is as I am ” a as height b so tall c as same height d the same height 10/ “ I’ve got ten dollars ” – “ I think I have money than you ” a least b fewer c less d fewest 11/ “This soup is hot ” – “ The better ” a hot the b hotter the c hottest d hotter 12/ “Henry and Dolores are careful ” – “ Yes, but Olga is _ of the three ” a the carefulest b carefulest c the most careful d the more careful 13/ The harder we studied , _ a we got more confused b the more confused we got c we got so confused d the most confused we got 14/ “Have you decided which you like best, the round table or the square table ? ” “ Of the two , the round one is ” a the nicest b the nicer c nicer d a nice one 15/ “Why are you moving ? ” – “ Because our new house has space than the old one ” a a lot of b more of c a lot more d most 16/ “Who is _ , Jim or Alan ? ” a more tall b taller c tallest d the tallest 17/ More 50 percent of the students passed the test a of b that c then d than 18/ Are you Tom ? a the same age as b so old as c old as d as old 19/ Joe is of the two students a the quietest b quieter c the quieter d quietest 20/ _ all the cities I’ve visited I like New York the best a Of b From c Out d With EXERCISES : EXERCISE :Use the proper form of adjectives or adverbs in parentheses : 1)Mary is…………………….(pretty)……………………her sister A new house is………………… (expensive)…………………………….than an old one His job is……………………….(important)……………………… than mine Of the four ties,I like the red one (well)………………………………………… Today English is the……………………….(international) …………………………………… of languages Bill is (good)………………………than you thought Disk is the ……………………… (careful)……………………….of the two workers The teacher speaks English ………………………….(fluently)…………………………….than we EXERCISE 2:Complete the sentences using a comparative form: It ‘s too noisy here.Can we go somewhere………………………………………………………………………………….? This coffee is very weak.I like it a bit……………………………………………………………………………………………? The hotel was surprisingly big.I expected it to be ………………………………………………………………… The weather is too cold in this country.I expected it to be…………………………………………………… My job is a bit boring,sometimes I ‘d like to something……………………………………………………… It was surprised how easy it was to use the computer I thought It would be………………… Your work isn’t very good.I ‘m sure you can do…………………………………………………………………………… Don’t worry The situation isn’t so bad It could be……………………………………………………………………… You ‘re talking so loudly.can you speak a bit …………………………………………………………………………………? You hardly ever phone me Why don’t you phone me ………………………………………………………………? EXERCISE 3:Complete the sentences using the structure “-er and –er”or “more and more “: It has become ……………………………………………………………to find a job.(hard) That hole in your pullover is getting……………………………………………………….(big) As I waited for my interview, I became……………………………………………… (nervous) As the day went on ,the weather got …………………………………………………… (hot) As the conversation wẹnt on,he became…………………………………………… (talkative) *SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION :Rewrite these sentences ,using the words given,keeping the same meaning to the original ones: 1/ If you are happier , you look younger The happier …………………………………………………………… 2/ Minh is better at chemistry than Hung Hung is………………………………….………………………………… 3/ Jane can swim further than I can I can’t swim _ 4/ John speaks English more fluenthy than I I can not ……………………………………… 5/ Ann is a better swimmer than me I can not………………………………… 6/ I not think my school is bigger than yours I not think yours school……………………………………………………………… 7/AIDS is more dangerous than cancer Cancer _ 8/Your house is bigger than mine My house is _ 9\ People in the North work much harder than people in the South People in the South don’t _ 10/ Jane is prettier than my sister My sister ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11/Jane is the tallest girl in her class Nobody ……………………………………………………………………………………… 12/She is more beautiful than her mother Her mother is not ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13/Mum doesn’t speak English as well as Dad Dad speaks ……………………………………………………………………………………… CHỦ ĐỀ 14: CONJUNCTIONS-COORDINATORS(LIÊN TỪ-TỪ NỐI) a/ Từ kết nối mục đích :so that /in order that (để mà ) present tense +so that /in order that + S…may … can …… past tense + so that /in order that +S…might… could… Would… b/ Từ kết nối nguyên nhân :because/because of (bởi vì) because S+V… (clause) because of noun/noun phrase c/ Từ kết nối điều kiện :although/even though/though (mặc dù)= despite of that although even though +S +V… though Despite of that +clause (S+V ) In spite of + noun/noun phrase d/ Các từ nối khác dùng cấu trúc đồng dạng : ● And/ but/or /nor ● Not only…but also/as well as/both …and… ● CONNECTED STATEMENTS +Too/so :thể đồng tình câu khẳng đònh : A: I ‘m a student B:I ‘m ,too/ So am I Ex2: A: I like coffee B: I ,too/ So I +Either/Neither : thể đồng tình câu phủ đònh : Ex1:A: I am not hungry B: I am not ,either/ Neither am I Ex2: A:I didn’t watch that film last night 10 B: I didn’t either/Neither did I ● TAG – QUESTIONS(câu hỏi đuôi) -Nếu mệnh đề trước thể khẳng đònh phần đuôi phải phủ đònh ngược lại *MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST ON CONNECTED STATEMENTS & TAG – QUESTIONS 1/ They never came to class late , and a neither did we b so did we c we did either d neither we did 2/ My wife had never been to Hue , and I a never have b neither have c neither had d neither did 3/ They are studying pronunciation with Mr Brown , _ ? a are they b aren’t they c they d don’t they 4/ She should have obeyed her parents , _ she ? a should b should have c shouldn’t have d shouldn’t 5/ My father doesn’t speak Chinese, and _ a my mother does neither b my mother doesn’t too c neither does my mother d so doesn’t my mother 6/ The air – hotess knows the time that plane is due to take off , _ ? a doesn’t she b isn’t it c doesn’t she d did she 7/ This is the second time she has been here , _ ? a has she b hasn’t she c isn’t this d isn’t it 8/ They must as they are told , _ a so must I b I must either c I too d I am too 9/ “ I don’t like strong coffee” - “ No , _ ” a I don’t too b either don’t I c me either d neither don’t I 10/ He hardly has anything nowadays , ? a has he b doesn’t he c does he d hasn’t he 11/You’ve never been in Italy, _ ? a haven’t you b have you c been you d had you 12/ Sally turned in her report , _ ? a had she b did she c hadn’t she d didn’t she 13/ You have a ticket to the game, _? a you b haven’t you c don’t you d have you 14/ Tom knows Alice Reed, _ ? a doesn’t he b does he c is he d isn’t he 15/ We should call Rita , ? a should we b shouldn’t we c shall we d should not we 16/ Monkeys can’t sing , ? a can they b can’t they c can it d can’t it 17/ These books aren’t yours , _ ? a are these b aren’t these c are they d aren’t they 18/ That’s Bob’s , _ ? a is that b isn’t that c is it d isn’t it 19/ No one died in the accident , ? ( British English ) a didn’t they b did he c didn’t he d did they 20/ I’m right , _ ? a aren’t I b amn’t I c am not d not I am *Lưu ý :liên từ dùng để nối kết từ/cụm từ có chức ngữ pháp gọi cấu trúc đồng dạng Ex1:He will leave at six and arrive at nine Ex2:That dress is beautifull but expensive Ex3:He could work as a chemist or an engineer *EXERCISES: I) Join these sentences using the provided word in bracket: He was very busy.He came to see us.(although) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 2)He didn’t learn his lession.He got a bad mark.(because) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 3)He works very hard at English.He often gets good marks in it (so) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 4)The book was very interesting He read it from cover to cover.(so…that…) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 5)Tom didn’t go to the meeting.He was ill.(since) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 6)It was a hard exercise.We couldn’t it (such…that) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 7)She is clever.She can everything by herself.(enough to) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 8)The play was short.They enjoyed it.(however) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 9)He is clever.He is hard working ,too.(not only…but also ) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 10)They brought the boy to the hospital.They wanted to cure his deafness.(in order to) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 11)The laser beam is very miraculous.It is widely used for the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers.(so…that) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 12)The patient followed his doctor ‘s advice.He wanted to be well soon.(so that) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 13)My grandmother is so weak She can’t lift thebox.(too…to) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 14)Some labor-saving appliances are convenient.Housewivies can use them.(enough for) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… II)Rewrite the sentences as directed : 1)Because you work with people constantly ,you must have good judgement and tact (Use Because of instead of Because) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 2)That pharmacist has killed thechild because of his carelessness in filling the prescription .(Use Because instead of Because of) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 3)He stayed at home.He didn’t go to the movies (Use instead of to combine these sentences) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 4)Mai doesn’t want to watch TV.Lan doesn’t want to watch TV either (Join these with Neither…nor…) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 5)Lin speaks English clearly.She speaks English fluently (Connect these with Not only…but also) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 6)It rained so heavily that they had to delay the flight.(Use Such….that) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 7)That was such an easy exercise that every pupil could it.(Use so…that) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… 8)Although the weather was bad,the pilot landed the land safely .(Use Inspite of instead of Although) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… 9)He went out inspite of the rain .(Use Although instead of Inspite of) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… 10) The astronauts orbited the earth in two hours (Begin the sentence with It took) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… III) *SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION :Rewrite these sentences ,using the words given,keeping the same meaning to the original ones 1/She and I had never seen there before -Neither she My sister is not very intelligent and I am not intelligent -Neither my sister 3/ We haven’t got a dishwasher and we haven’t got a micro –oven -We have got neither………………………………………….nor……………………………………………………… 4/Lan doesn’t like oranges and Hoa doesn’t either -Neither Lan 5/He remembered, and so did she -He didn’t 6/He was given a gifl So were you ( Join into one sentence, using” as well as”) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7/My sister has already got married So has my brother.( Join ino one sentence, using”both…and”) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8/She hasn’t done her homework I haven’t done my homework.( Join into one sentence, using”Neither…nor”) ……………………………………………………………………………………… IV)* SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION :Rewrite these sentences ,using the words given,keeping the same meaning to the original ones: 1/ I came here because I wanted the English course I came here because of…………………………………………………………………… 2/ They worked very hard in spite of their old age Although………………………………………… 3/ Although his knowledge of English is still poor , Nam gets along very well in discussion In spite of…………………………………………………………………………………… 4/He came to class late yesterday because his car was broken Because of _ 5/Although he lives in London for years, he writes in German In spite of 6/Because of the cold weather, we stayed at home Because the 7/He passed the exam in spiteof his laziness Although 8/ He didn’t go to school because of his unless Because he _ 9/Because of his love for teaching, David would continue this teaching career.( Use “because” instead of “because of”) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10/ She was seriously ill but she enjoyed life very much Although………………………………………………… 11/ The flight was delayed because of the bad weather Because the weather……………………………………… 12/ Cars cause pollution, but people stilll want them Although……………………………………………… 13/ The flight was delayed because of the bad weather because the weather……………………………………… 14/ Cars cause pollution, but people stilll want them Although……………………………………………… CHỦ ĐỀ 15:SEQUENCE OF TENSES(HOÀ HP THÌ) I/ Sequence in noun clauses(sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề danh từ) 1/ Khi mệnh đề mốc tại(hiện đơn/ tiếp diễn/ hoàn thành)thì mệnh đề danh từ có liên kết chặt chẽ hợp lý với trạng ngữ kèm theo diễn tả thời gian hành động xảy Examples : Ex1:I see that I haven’t understood the lession yet Ex2:He says that he often comes here Ex3: He says that he will get married next year Ex4:She knows that you arrived yesterday Ex5:you have already told me that you are going to quit your job 2/ Khi mệnh đề mốc khứ (quá khứ đơn/ khứ tiếp diễn/ khứ hoàn thành) động từ mệnh đề danh từ khứ Ex1:He had done all that was necessary Ex2:He saw that he had made a mistake Ex3:He found that the road was very long *Note 1:Với trạng ngữ ALWAYS chẳng hạn,thì liên kết với phải khứ,với TOMORROW chẳng hạn liên kết với khứ WOULD,với ALREADY ,thì liên kết với phải khứ hoàn thành Ex1: He saw that he always made a mistake Ex2:He said that he would be here tomorrow Ex3:He believed that his friend had already forgtten him *Note 2:Khi động từ mệnh đề danh từ diễn tả kiện ,một hành động ,một chân lý,một thật thường tình ,hoặc thói quen nay,thì dùng mệnh đề khứ Ex1:Galileo found that the earth is round Ex2:He proved that the earth goes round the sun Ex3:He said that he often gets up at 8:00 II/ Sequence in adjective clauses(sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề tính từ) Động từ mệnh đề không kèm chế mệnh tính từ Dường liên kết trạng ngữ thời gian hoàn toàn hợp lý để diễn tả thời gian mà hành động xảy theo ý người nói Ex1:The letter that I received yesterday is on my desk Ex2:Yesterday I met the man who is going to speak next III/ Sequence in adverbial clauses of time(sự hoà hợp mệnh đề mệnh đề trạng từ) Có trường hợp hoà hợp: Trường hợp 1/Mệnh đề diễn tả thói quen Main clause Conjunctions Thì Clause of time Examples Mốc tại(hiện đơn/ tiếp diễn/ hoàn thành) Ex1:We always take our umbrellas with us when it rains Ex2:I usually read the newspaper while I am waiting for the bus Ex3:He never goes home before he has finished his work Mốc khứ(quá khứ đơn/ khứ tiếp diễn/ khứ hoàn thành) Hiện tại(hiện đơn/ hoàn thành) Ex1:I sat near the window whenever I took the bus Ex2:I met him while I was walking down the street Ex3:He left after he had finished his work Ex1:He will go when you finish your work Ex2:We will have already finished the work when you get back Ex3:I am going to wait until you have finished your work Ex1:It was raining hard when I got there Ex2:I was watching TV while my father was reading …… … … 2/Mệnh đề diễn tả hoạt động khứ 3/ Mệnh đề diễn tả hoạt động tương lai 4/ Mệnh đề diễn tả hoạt động diễn có hành động khác xen vào/ tả hai hoạt động đồng Thì khứ Thì tương lai (tương lai đơn tương lai hoàn thành Be going to ) Thì khứ tiếp diễn Quá khứ đơn khứ tiếp diễn thời diễn 5/ Mệnh đề Thì khứ diễn hoàn thành tả hoạt động xảy trước thời điểm khứ hành động khứ khác 6/ Mệnh đề Thì diễn hoàn thành tả hoạt động xảy khứ kéo dài đến tương lai *EXERCISES IN TEXTBOOK Chỉ dùng khứ đơn Ex1:The train had already left when I arrived at the station Quá khứ đơn Ex1 :She has played the piano since she was a child THE END
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