Financial accounting 9th kieso kimmel chapter 01

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Preview of Chapter Financial Accounting Ninth Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso 1-1 Accounting in Action Accounting in Action Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Explain what accounting is [2] Identify the users and uses of accounting [3] Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept [4] Explain generally accepted accounting principles [5] Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption [6] State the accounting equation, and define its components [7] Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation [8] Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared 1-2 What is Accounting? Accounting consists of three basic activities—it  identifies,  records, and  communicates the economic events of an organization to interested users 1-3 LO What is Accounting? Three Activities Illustration 1-1 The activities of the accounting process The accounting process includes the bookkeeping function 1-4 LO 1 Accounting in Action Accounting in Action Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Explain what accounting is [2] Identify the users and uses of accounting [3] Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept [4] Explain generally accepted accounting principles [5] Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption [6] State the accounting equation, and define its components [7] Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation [8] Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared 1-5 Who Uses Accounting Data Internal Users Illustration 1-2 Questions that internal users ask 1-6 LO 1-7 LO Who Uses Accounting Data External Users 1-8 Illustration 1-3 Questions that external users ask LO Accounting in Action Accounting in Action Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Explain what accounting is [2] Identify the users and uses of accounting [3] Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept [4] Explain generally accepted accounting principles [5] Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption [6] State the accounting equation, and define its components [7] Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation [8] Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared 1-9 The Building Blocks of Accounting Ethics In Financial Reporting United States regulators and lawmakers were very concerned that the economy would suffer if investors lost confidence in corporate accounting because of unethical financial reporting 1-10  Recent financial scandals include: Enron, WorldCom, HealthSouth, AIG, and others  Congress passed Sarbanes-Oxley Act of (SOX)  Effective financial reporting depends on sound ethical behavior LO Financial Statements Statement of Cash Flows  Information on the cash receipts and payments for a specific period of time  Answers the following: Where did cash come from? What was cash used for? What was the change in the cash balance? 1-60 LO Financial Statements Question Which of the following financial statements is prepared as of a specific date? a Balance sheet b Income statement c Retained earnings statement d Statement of cash flows 1-61 LO 1-62 LO APPENDIX 1A 1-63 Accounting Career Opportunities Public Accounting Private Accounting Careers in auditing, taxation, and management consulting serving the general public Careers in industry working in cost accounting, budgeting, accounting information systems, and taxation Governmental Accounting Forensic Accounting Careers with the IRS, the FBI, the SEC, and in public colleges and universities Uses accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct investigations into theft and fraud LO Explain the career opportunities in accounting APPENDIX 1A Accounting Career Opportunities “Show Me the Money” Salary estimates for jobs in public and corporate accounting Illustration 1A-1 Upper-level management salaries in corporate accounting Illustration 1A-2 1-64 LO Key Points 1-65  International standards are referred to as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)  Much of the world has voted for the standards issued by the IASB Over 115 countries require or permit use of IFRS  The fact that there are differences between what is in this textbook (which is based on U.S standards) and IFRS should not be surprising because the FASB and IASB have responded to different user needs LO 10 Key Points 1-66  Debate about international companies (non-U.S.) adopting SOX-type standards centers on whether the benefits exceed the costs The concern is that the higher costs of SOX compliance are making the U.S securities markets less competitive  The textbook mentions a number of ethics violations, such as Enron, WorldCom, and AIG These problems have also occurred internationally, for example, at Satyam Computer Services (India), Parmalat (Italy), and Royal Ahold (the Netherlands) LO 10 Key Points 1-67  IFRS tends to be simpler in its accounting and disclosure requirements; some people say more “principles-based.” GAAP is more detailed; some people say it is more “rules-based.”  U.S regulators have recently eliminated the need for foreign companies that trade shares in U.S markets to reconcile their accounting with GAAP  Because the choice of business organization is influenced by factors such as legal environment, tax rates and regulations, and degree of entrepreneurism, the relative use of each form will vary across countries  The conceptual framework that underlies IFRS is very similar to that used to develop GAAP LO 10 Key Points  1-68 The more substantive definitions, using the IASB definitional structure, are as follows ► Assets A resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity ► Liabilities A present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits Liabilities may be legally enforceable via a contract or law, but need not be, i.e., they can arise due to normal business practice or customs LO 10 Key Points  1-69 The more substantive definitions, using the IASB definitional structure, are as follows ► Equity A residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities ► Income Increases in economic benefits that result in increases in equity (other than those related to contributions from shareholders) Income includes both revenues (resulting from ordinary activities) and gains ► Expenses Decreases in economic benefits that result in decreases in equity (other than those related to distributions to shareholders) Expenses includes losses that are not the result of ordinary activities LO 10 Looking to the Future Both the IASB and the FASB are hard at work developing standards that will lead to the elimination of major differences in the way certain transactions are accounted for and reported In fact, at one time the IASB stated that no new major standards would become effective until 2011 The major reason for this policy was to provide companies the time to translate and implement IFRS into practice, as much has happened in a very short period of time 1-70 LO 10 A Look at IFRS IFRS Practice Which of the following is not a reason why a single set of highquality international accounting standards would be beneficial? a) Mergers and acquisition activity b) Financial markets c) Multinational corporations d) GAAP is widely considered to be a superior reporting system 1-71 LO 10 A Look at IFRS IFRS Practice The Sarbanes-Oxley Act determines: a) international tax regulations b) internal control standards as enforced by the IASB c) internal control standards of U.S publicly traded companies d) U.S tax regulations 1-72 LO 10 A Look at IFRS IFRS Practice IFRS is considered to be more: a) principles-based and less rules-based than GAAP b) rules-based and less principles-based than GAAP c) detailed than GAAP d) None of the above 1-73 LO 10 Copyright “Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc All rights reserved Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.” 1-74 ...1 Accounting in Action Accounting in Action Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Explain what accounting is [2] Identify the users and uses of accounting. .. What is Accounting? Three Activities Illustration 1-1 The activities of the accounting process The accounting process includes the bookkeeping function 1-4 LO 1 Accounting in Action Accounting. .. 1-13 LO Accounting in Action Accounting in Action Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Explain what accounting is [2] Identify the users and uses of accounting
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