MCAT verbal test (24)

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MCAT Section Tests Dear Future Doctor, The following Section Test and explanations should be used to practice and to assess your mastery of critical thinking in each of the section areas Topics are confluent and are not necessarily in any specific order or fixed proportion This is the level of integration in your preparation that collects what you have learned in the Kaplan classroom and synthesizes your knowledge with your critical thinking Simply completing the tests is inadequate; a solid understanding of your performance through your Score Reports and the explanations is necessary to diagnose your specific weaknesses and address them before Test Day All rights are reserved pursuant to the copyright laws and the contract clause in your enrollment agreement and as printed below Misdemeanor and felony infractions can severely limit your ability to be accepted to a medical program and a conviction can result in the removal of a medical license We offer this material for your practice in your own home as a courtesy and privilege Practice today so that you can perform on test day; this material was designed to give you every advantage on the MCAT and we wish you the best of luck in your preparation Sincerely, Albert Chen Executive Director, Pre-Health Research and Development Kaplan Test Prep © 2003 Kaplan, Inc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by Photostat, microfilm, xerography or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical without the written permission of Kaplan, Inc This book may not be duplicated, distributed or resold, pursuant to the terms of your Kaplan Enrollment Agreement Materials used in this test section have been adapted from the following sources: Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume ANSWER KEY A B C A B C A A D 10 B 11 D 12 C 13 B 14 A 15 A 16 C 17 A 18 D 19 C 20 D 21 B 22 C 23 A 24 A 25 C 26 B 27 C 28 D 29 B 30 A 31 D 32 B 33 D 34 A 35 B 36 D 37 C 38 C 39 B 40 A 41 C 42 B 43 D 44 B 45 B 46 D 47 D 48 B 49 C 50 C 51 D 52 A 53 B 54 D 55 C 56 C 57 A 58 B 59 D 60 D Passage I (Questions 1-7) Topic and Scope: Why PCBs contaminate the Hudson River and issues relating to whether they should be removed Paragraph provides general historical context with respect to hazardous waste and its clean-up in the U.S Paragraph describes PCBs, which constitute a particular group of chemicals, the uses made of them Paragraph asserts that: PCBs are hazardous; they were, accordingly, banned; they nevertheless persist in the environment It then notes that the issue of cleaning up PCBs is controversial Paragraph describes a particular case of PCB pollution and some of its effects Paragraph outlines the positions of area residents, the polluter, and the EPA with respect to PCB cleanup in the particular location described in paragraph Paragraph identifies another issue with respect to PCB cleanup, which is not identified by the stakeholders whose positions were delineated in paragraph A That PCBs are heavier than water (statement I) can be inferred from the information that dredging is recommended to remove them from the riverbed If PCBs are on the riverbed, they must be heavier than water This inference is also supported by the reference in paragraph to PCBs as “heavy” liquids In evaluating whether PCBs are toxic to fish, examine what the passage specifically says The passage states that PCBs bioaccumulate in fish and that human consumption of fish from contaminated portions of the river is restricted Thus, it may seem plausible that PCBs are toxic to fish However, while the passage indicates that PCBs have been linked to cancer and developmental problems in humans, it provides no information supporting an inference that PCBs specifically injure fish Since PCBs are identified, in the second paragraph, as being “very stable,” they cannot also be “readily biodegradable.” Don’t be confused by the reference, in paragraph to “bioaccumulate,” which is consistent with stability but not with degradation B The passage indicates that the EPA is responsible for administering the Superfund Program, and that this program investigates hazardous waste sights Paragraph indicates that EPA has estimated that 1.1 million pounds of PCBs have accumulated in the Hudson River due to dumping by two capacitor manufacturing plants located along the northern range It is a valid inference, based on the preceding information (paragraph 1, third sentence), that this estimate results from an investigation by EPA, intended to identify the degree of pollution and its source Paragraph goes on to describe the specific evidence of this pollution, including existence of PCBs in estuary sediments Thus, it is a correct inference that the PCBs in estuary sediments were identified by EPA as having originated with the two plants along the northern Hudson Because rivers by definition flow toward the ocean, absent evidence to the contrary, this is a basis to infer that pollutants would tend to travel in that same direction down the river to its mouth Thus, choice (B) is correct the PCBs not necessarily remain where originally deposited While (A) sounds plausible, information in the passage provides no basis for an inference that there is another source of pollution (C) is incorrect because paragraph indicates that the field surveys found “substantial contamination,” which is inconsistent with presence at a background level (D) is too extreme to be a correct inference C To answer this inference question, look for evidence supporting each assertion The first paragraph indicates that companies found responsible for pollution can be financially liable for the cost of cleanup Since companies inherently care about profit, absent evidence supporting another motivation, it is reasonable to infer a motivation of minimizing cost, choice (C) While it is plausible that the company is concerned about its public image (B), there is no basis in the passage for an inference that this is its overriding concern (D) is illogical If the company had commercial fishing interests, this would not be likely to make it oppose cleanup A In the first sentence of paragraph 5, the passage states that EPA hopes that removal of the PCBs will permit revitalization of commercial fishing on the Hudson Descriptions of the concerns of local residents or the company not refer to fishing While it seems plausible that the EPA would be concerned about the environment as a whole, the passage does not support that inference; the mission of EPA, as stated in the first paragraph, is to clean up “the worse of these sites nationwide.” Furthermore, the passage points out that EPA has not disclosed the ultimate fate of the PCBs and their impact on the larger environment B A local newspaper by definition would base its editorial on matters of concern to local residents Of the answer choices, only choice (B) reflects a concern attributed by the passage to local residents (A) is incorrect because PCBs are synthetic and were first developed in the 1880s Thus, the preindustrial level can be assumed to have been zero (C) is incorrect because the passage states that the EPA has already determined that PCBs will be disposed of outside of the local area (D) is incorrect because there is no indication in the passage that local communities will be affected by the cost of the dredging; the passage indicates the cost will probably be borne by the company C The passage indicates that PCBs tend to accumulate in living organisms Thus, it is not likely that avoiding consumption of fish will reduce an individual’s existing level of PCB concentration Since PCBs are also present in the air, it is also unlikely that an individual can avoid any further increase in PCB concentration, even if eating fish is avoided The best can be hoped is that accumulation of PCBs will be slowed, choice (C) Since there may be other causes of cancer and developmental problems, and since avoiding fish does not eliminate PCB exposure, (D) is incorrect A The passage indicates that the most potent source of PCB exposure in humans is consumption of fish Yet, the passage indicates that consumption of fish caught in contaminated sections of the river is prohibited The passage does not attempt to explain the parallel between the river’s contamination and PCBs in nearby residents Although the passage indicates that air along the river is contaminated, air is not indicated as a major source of exposure and there is no indication of whether PCBs in the air tend to parallel that in adjacent water Although some municipalities draw drinking water from the river, the passage does not indicate the degree of contamination in the sections of the river from which water is drawn In contrast, the passage does explain why PCBs were useful as components of electrical equipment and cooling systems (paragraph 2), why they accumulate in living organisms (paragraph 3) and gives examples of the reasons dealing with PCBs already present in the environment can be controversial (paragraph 5) Passage II (Questions 8-14) Topic and Scope: The resolution of a schism in the Roman Catholic Church Paragraph 1: What the council of Pisa did, and what problems resulted Paragraph 2: How the council of Constance undid the actions of the council of Pisa Paragraph 3: What positive steps the council of Constance took to resolve the basic problem A Both councils wanted to appoint a new pope, and depose all rival claimants Choices (B) and (C) are FUDs; they misuse details in the passage Choice (D) refers to something that was done by only one of the councils D All three statements describe things that the Council of Constance did, and the Council of Pisa did not do, which contributed to the success of the former 10 B Choice (B) is logically connected to the author’s use of the detail The other choices are not 11 D The Spanish did not the things that choices (A) and (C) says they did They did what (B) says they did, but these actions did not help resolve the division in the Church 12 C The author says that Benedict XIII and Gregory XII were deposed “with equal justice,” and that John XXIII was “the most profligate of mankind.” This suggests that none deserved to be pope He does not make any judgment as to who was the best of this bad lot Nor does he address the question of whose election was most legitimate 13 B If John XXIII had been able to remain pope, there would have been no need for another council to elect another pope But it would have been necessary to get rid of the earlier claimants to the title This would have reunited the Church We’re not told whether John would have moved the papal see back to Rome 14 A The deputies in question were representatives of the five most powerful countries The other choices are not supported by the passage Passage III (Questions 15-21) Topic and Scope: New research on memory loss in old age Paragraph memory loss in old age may not be unavoidable, because there are several types of memory Paragraph new methods of research have led to this discovery Paragraph loss of “episodic” memory (of events and details) is most associated with age, but may be prevented by exercising this faculty Paragraph “semantic” memory (of knowledge and facts) may actually improve with age Paragraph “implicit” memory (of activities done without intention) is not affected by age Paragraph sums up the results 15 A The third paragraph of the passage states that only episodic memory deteriorates with age The first sentence of this paragraph says that episodic memory contains memory of recent events and minor details; therefore, statement I describes the sort of memory that might be affected in old age Recollection of childhood events (statement II) is related to semantic memory, which is described in the fourth paragraph as possibly improved by age The ability to perform routine tasks (statement III) is based in the implicit memory, which the author describes in the fifth paragraph as unaffected by age 16 C To answer this question consider both the information contained in the passage and the author’s tone The passage suggests that current research contributes much to our understanding of how memory works; however, in the last paragraph the author qualifies his optimism—such studies only apply to certain memory problems Considering this, of the choices given the author’s attitude is best described as “reserved optimism.” The tone is too subdued for “unbridled enthusiasm” (A) “Wary skepticism” (B) doesn’t reflect the hopeful note to this passage “Unbiased objectivity” (D) is wrong because it also fails to capture the optimism and approval of the passage 17 A Current research refutes established ideas about memory and aging, choice (A) (B) correctly states that past investigations only tested episodic memory; however, the passage does not explain exactly why this was the case (C) is too general; this passage has to with just one aspect of the brain’s functioning— memory While the third paragraph discusses the reasons why episodic memory diminishes with age (D), this is just a detail supporting the passage’s main thrust 18 D The answer to this inference question can be found in the second paragraph, which suggests that recent developments stem from methodological changes, choice (D) Although the first and second sentences of the first paragraph say that it is commonly known that older people are often forgetful, the passage does not imply that such stereotypes have limited scientific research, and you cannot infer that scientists have attempted to dismantle such stereotypes or that such effort has changed our conceptions of the elderly (A) The author only mentions disease and injury-related memory loss in the last paragraph, and doesn’t imply that scientists have confused disease-related problems with age related memory problems (B) (C) is a Distortion; the idea that mental exercise might diminish memory loss (paragraph 3) resulted from, not led to, the new developments in memory research 19 C See paragraphs and Older people forget recent events but remember the distant past because recent events are stored in episodic memory, which declines with age, while distant memories reside in the semantic memory, which actually improves with age (A) is wrong in saying that childhood events exist as part of the implicit memory (B) incorrectly attributes memory of the distant past to implicit memory (D) incorrectly suggests that semantic memory is for recent events and that it seems to degenerate from lack of use after retirement 20 D Tying shoelaces is the kind of activity we perform without intentional effort— stored in the implicit memory and discussed in the fifth paragraph (D) Although amnesia is mentioned in paragraph 5, choice (A) is opposite; tying shoelaces is the kind of activity an amnesiac will remember 21 B Although the body of the passage optimistically relates developments in memory research, the last paragraph notes that such findings don’t address problems associated with illness, disease, or injury Choice (B) picks up on this while accurately reflecting the author’s tone (A) seems to fault the character of the research in a way that is not suggested in the passage The passage doesn’t suggest that problems of injury, disease and illness are “more critical” than other memory disorders (C) or that not conform to the tripartate model (D) Passage IV (Questions 22-28) Topic and Scope: Why we need to understand old ideas in order to understand new ideas Paragraph understanding old ideas is necessary to seeing how new ideas were developed Paragraph Darwin’s evolution theory was developed in the context of older ideas Paragraph many of the old ideas on which Darwin built were “Creationist” Paragraph Linnaeus and LeClerc are given as two examples Paragraph other scientists interested in the age of the earth developed antiCreationist evidence before Darwin 22 C The overall idea in this passage is that the build-up to Darwin’s synthesis of natural selection as the major mechanism for evolution was a result of hundreds of years of previous study of nature and attempts to understand natural relationships It was Darwin who stood on the shoulders of others who had a wide variety of ideas about how organisms change over time Thus, choice (C) is correct (D), while possibly tempting, is not correct, because old ideas should be dismissed if disproved, but they can still be learned from to understand new ideas Religious scientists did influence Darwin, but that is not the main idea of the passage, so (A) is incorrect As well, (B) is correct but not a main idea 23 A The passage indicates that long, gradual processes shaped mountains and other terrain; that new plants and animals being found “aroused suspicion” about Biblical accounts; and, that improvements in the relative dating of fossil finds brought into question the Biblical age of the Earth However, noted similarities between species had always been recognized, and it is not indicated anywhere in the passage that these observations called into question the Biblical account of creation at all; thus, choice (A) is correct 24 A This is another “main idea” type of question In fact, if you realize that the main idea of the passage concerns all the previous ideas that helped Darwin formulate his groundbreaking theory, Choice (A) should jump right out at you All the other choices are smaller ideas in the passage – important, yes, but not what the author is trying to emphasize here 25 C LeClerc’s ideas, as discussed in the passage, have the most similarity to Charles Lyell’s, the geologist who concluded that the age of the Earth was far greater than the Bible stipulated Choice (C) is correct because, in addition to the Biblical age not accounting for measured features such as mountain building time, the Biblical age could apparently not account for LeClerc’s measured melting and cooling times of molten iron – which he related to the age of the Earth 26 B The author feels that Darwin’s theories cannot be presented in a vacuum, and that one can only understand their power and logic if he or she appreciates how these relatively simple ideas evolved themselves from a complex mesh of other ideas Nowhere in the paragraph or in the passage does the author imply choice (A), that Darwin does not deserve due credit for his ideas, nor is it suggested that the ideas were so simple that Darwin never needed much help, (D) In addition, (C) is incorrect because at the time of religious ideas on creation, there was little evidence to support evolution, as the passage states Thus, those who studied nature and came to form a body of knowledge that needed a reasonable unifying theory were, more often than not, individuals who were studying nature to find religious inspiration 27 C Statement I is not a correct statement here, because although the author feels one can appreciate Darwin’s work if he or she knows the past history that relates to that works, the author never asserts that Darwin’s theory cannot stand alone to be applied to and to explain many evolutionary phenomena In fact, Darwin’s ideas, and not ones previous to him, are the concepts that have withstood much scientific scrutiny Thus, choices (A) and (D) can be eliminated Statements II and III are both correct, and these are both assertions that the author makes in various parts of the passage to back up his introductory paragraph Thus, (C) is the correct answer here 28 D Uniformitarians, like geologist Charles Lyell, are described in the passage as those who believe that major features of the Earth’s terrain have been built up over long periods of gradual erosion, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions Thus, Choice (D) is correct Catastrophists, as the name implied, were a group of people who proposed that sudden, catastrophic forces could account for the major features of Earth’s terrain, while creationists and Darwinists focused much more on phenomena involving nature’s organisms and ecosystems, rather than on Earth’s geology Passage V (Questions 29-33) Topic and Scope: Nicholas the Unlucky (not Nicholas II himself) and Bark’s claim that “Nicholas II presided over, but didn’t contributeto, the fall of Czarist Russia Paragraph contemporary Americans care more about relating to one another than about making good reasoned judgments Bark’s book represents this “compassion craze” Paragraph contrasts Bark’s contention with the prevalent view of Nicholas Paragraph reviews Bark’s account—undisputed by the author—of conditions in Russia in Nicholas’s time Paragraph an extended quotation of Bark, described as “confused and confusing.” Paragraph Bark’s discussion of Count Pobedonostsev Paragraph rates Nicholas the Unlucky low, “reality avenges itself.” 29 B Read above and below the line reference The relevant lines are: “To the contrary, turbulent times are perfect for redoubling the faith of ages; the first reaction to discomforting ideas is hatred The first sentence conveys Bark’s idea that in times of turmoil leaders re-invest in traditional values To illustrate this point, Bark uses Woodrow Wilson Since history has “smiled” on Wilson—who is “stalwart;” he stood the course—we can infer that his re-investment was successful Choice (A) is a Distortion—it goes too far Whether Bark endorses the trend is unknown What’s more, this choice leaves too much unacknowledged; it does not, for example, recognize the implied comparison of Nicholas to Wilson (C) is FUD Bark, not the author, believes this And leaders re-invest in the faith of ages, not in reform (D) is Outside the Scope We have no knowledge of the author’s view on this point 30 A The author contrasts Nicholas’s confrontation with modernity with that of the Hohenzollerns, so the author must believe that the two cases are comparable (B) is FUD The reference to the Hohenzollerns is at the end of paragraph 6, whereas the reference to “the inalienable Russian truth” appears in paragraph Nothing links the two references (C) is a Distortion True, the author seems to treat modernity, Westernness, and Europeanness synonymously, but this is in paragraph 3; it has no bearing on the discussion of the Hohenzollerns (D) is a Distortion The author implies that Nicholas should have modernized, but not using “the same policy reforms” as those in other countries What’s additionally suspect about this choice is the mention of Japan and Prussia, countries clearly outside the scope of the question stem 31 D Choices (A) and (B) view the author’s argument in the last paragraph as weak Yet the argument is clearly stated and supported with persuasive illustrations (C) is a Distortion Merely asserting that reality avenges itself would not undermine anything: arguments are undermined by facts (or by other arguments), not by isolated assertions The claim that reality avenges itself is part of the author’s overall point of view; it cannot, by itself, undo an argument (D) correctly reports a significant, legitimate reason why the author’s argument is strong 32 B Choice (A) is a Distortion According to the second paragraph, “Bark concedes that Nicholas was a poor leader.” (B) aligns neatly with the claims of paragraph 2, “the prevalent view of Nicholas.” (C) is FUD; it might initially hold some appeal, because the reference in the question stem to workers and strikes might get us thinking of economics—the topic to which the reference to 1860 is connected in paragraph But nothing in the question stem would bear on (e.g.: contradict) the reference to 1860 (D) is a Distortion The episode might lend some support to, but certainly would not by itself confirm, Bark’s view that czarism was doomed 33 D (D) raises two considerations that run counter to what we know about the compassion craze First, we know from paragraph that the compassion craze is “barely a decade old,” but according to this choice, Nicholas the Unlucky was written several decades ago Second, the compassion craze is a reflection of “American compassion,” but this choice gives Bark “very little exposure to American cultural values.” The combined effect of these two considerations is to cast doubt on the idea that Bark’s book exemplifies the compassion craze Choice (A) is Outside the Scope The biography at issue is that of Nicholas; that Pobedonostsev comes off poorly is immaterial Even if we “regard as unflattering” the depiction of Pobedonostsev, we could easily still believe that “the compassion craze has swept up biography.” (B) is Outside the Scope The claim in this choice is completely consistent with the author’s assertion about the compassion craze This choice says little more than that biographers are sincere—but so what? (C) is Outside the Scope Like the previous choice, this one comes down to the idea of sincerity Passage VI (Questions 34-39) Topic and Scope: Historico-deductivist charges against positivism and the positivist defense in the scientific study of international relations Paragraph gets right into the historico-deductivist critique: positivists don’t seem to recognize that objectivity is impossible because researchers bring bias to their work, and because “cloudy” activity in the international realm lacks the “clock-like” precision of laboratory activity Paragraph provides an example Paragraph swings over to arguments in defense of positivism Most positivists aren’t as extreme as historico-deductivists like Dougherty (“clocks and…clouds” in paragraph one) make them out to be Paragraph reports that historico-deductivists also produce value-driven research findings Paragraph says positivism can get us to surprising (“counterintuitive”) truths 34 A The author depictis a posteriori overdetermination as an obstacle to the production of nomothetic statements (paragraph 2) Statement I must therefore be correct; eliminate choices (B) and (D) Statement II reflects a misunderstanding of overdetermination, which involves causes, not effects Eliminate choice (C) Finally, quickly confirm the untruth of statement III Since we have no reason to believe that historico-deductivism is somehow exempt from the problem of overdetermination, we cannot infer that, because of overdetermination, historico-deductivism is better suited than positivism to the study of world politics 35 B Begin by reading around the reference: The second sentence (“We needn’t grasp at the torch with eyes closed, fearing to be blinded.”) is a repetition of the first, in a clearer metaphor “Apodictic findings” in the first sentence corresponds to the torch in the second So the answer must be the choice that comes closest in meaning to “apodictic findings, ” which seem to represent the ideal sort of results sought after by international relations scholars No one would seek out propensity to error (A) And political phenomena and methodological commitments in (C) and (D), respectively, can really neither be sought nor avoided But (B), nomothetic, or lawlike, generalizations are an ideal (Apodictic means incontestably true; logically doubtless.) 36 D Nomothetic statements are “rarely if ever possible” in the study of international relations, because “too many [causes] can be determined.” In other words, for historico-deductivists, there seems to be some basic incompatibility between multiple causality and the production of nomothetic statements Choice (D) encapsulates this reasoning (A) is FUD Historico-deductivists probably believe that positivists as such cannot fully account for the cause(s) of World War I But historico-deductivist arguments about overdetermination not rest on this specific assumption about the war Note that the reference to the war is only illustrative—an instance of the difficulties of positivism (B) is a Distortion The historico-deductivists doubt complex social events successfully studied through the scientific method—not that they cannot be studied at all Choice (C) is a FUD First, the passage doesn’t particularly characterize verifiability or replicability, so we have no basis for believing that the latter is somehow more of an impediment than the former Second, the scope of the question stem is a posteriori overdetermination, which has to with discerning the cause(s) of events, not with the verifiability or replicability of research findings 37 C Dougherty seems to believe that positivists would try to take a “cloudy” subject such as “the nature of reciprocity” and impose on it “clocklike” scientific analysis Choices (A) and (B) can quickly be eliminated, on two grounds First, from the passage we know nothing of the precepts of historico-deductivism; its tenets are never stated and only very obliquely implied So we have no real basis for making judgments about historico-deductivist studies Second, Dougherty is almost surely a historico-deductivist Since the “clocks and…clouds” remark was a criticism, it’s implausible that Dougherty was criticizing his own research school (D) is Outside the Scope, unrelated to the debate between positivists and historico-deductivists about the study of international relations 38 C Begin by identifying Williams’s underlying principle: that the fact that some ideal (whatever “apodictic findings” are, we can tell that they’re desirable) may be unachievable should not deter us from trying to “come as close as possible” to it The principle underlying choice (C) is almost identical to the one on which Williams’s rule rests The principle of (A) seems to be that a creator’s opinion of his or her work is the highest standard by which to judge that work The principle of (B) seems to be that there are many different, coequal kinds of intelligence And the principle of (D) seems to be that a person should be more influenced by the potential dangers associated with an activity than with the desirability of that activity 39 B Here’s an example of the sort of question we hope for when we take on a passage as challenging as this one What can “reasonably be inferred?” The style of the passage is academic—a consideration that rules out choice (D) (and probably (C)) The passage is about the scholarly study, not the actual conduct, of international relations—a consideration that rules out (C) Finally, while historical subjects appear in the passage, they so only to illustrate arguments put forth by international relations scholars—a consideration that rules out (A) Passage VII (Questions 40-47) Topic and Scope: Attempts to use quality control for administrative reform of welfare, evaluation of its effects and effectiveness Paragraph introduces the problems of welfare during the Nixon administration and the difficulty in achieving reform through legislation Paragraph introduces and defines the term performance monitoring or quality control Paragraph begins discussion of the supposed purpose of quality control as well as its actual effects upon the welfare system The latent political function of quality control is mentioned, as are the improper penalties imposed on state agencies and the unreasonable administrative practices that led to denial of welfare for qualified applicants Paragraph continues the discussion of the negative consequences of quality control by introducing the issue of bias in the welfare delivery process, which again had a detrimental impact on potential welfare recipients Paragraph develops a discussion of the contradictory nature of the theory and practice of quality control, and concludes with a subtle condemnation of the federal government’s attempt to use performance measures for resolving the fiscal troubles of welfare 40 A The second sentence of paragraph declares that Nixon’s administration “was unable to secure a legislative majority for comprehensive welfare reform,” which is neatly paraphrased in choice (A) (B) is half-right and half-wrong in relation to the first sentence of the paragraph, since no mention is made of federal support in particular (C) is completely outside the scope (D) is a Faulty Use of Detail of the discussion in paragraph about the presidential administration’s attempts to enact welfare reform, for reform efforts were not focused solely on decreasing the caseload but rather on general reform of the entire system 41 C Paragraph presents and discusses the negative consequences of the performance monitoring instituted by the OMB and the HEW, and choices (A), (B), and (D) are paraphrases of several sentences in this paragraph Only the effect mentioned in (C) cannot be found in the passage 42 B The next to last sentence of paragraph suggests that the author of the passage would prefer that states maintain some autonomy from the federal government, so that federal authorities cannot “indirectly influence state administrative practices” or “encroach[ ] on areas of nominal state authority.” Choice (A) contradicts the author’s argument in paragraphs and that administrative reforms led to unreasonable demands on many welfare recipients (C) is outside the scope since the author never makes any recommendation about the best solution for welfare reform, and instead focuses on the problems of one particular attempt at reform (D) contradicts the statement in Paragraph that “quality control appears to have initiated a process of effective disentitlement.” 43 D Paragraph introduces the negative consequences of quality control or performance monitoring, and the sentence with the quoted phrase provides one reason for its ineffectiveness, as supported by the example given in the following sentence Choice (A) is FUD of the final sentence of the paragraph; (B) is a Distortion of the first few sentences of the paragraph; and (C) is FUD of the second sentence of the paragraph Remember that question stems with phrases like “in order to” are asking you to determine the function of a particular sentence or idea, so other details or ideas mentioned in the paragraph may not be directly related to the particular idea in the question Both (A) and (C) are prime examples of exactly this type of FUD 44 B The final sentences of paragraphs and support choice (B), stating that some qualified applicants were denied welfare due to overly stringent procedural guidelines, and that worker demands on applicants could be unreasonable to the point of harassment (A) is opposite from the correct answer choice, and (C) is contradicted by the opening sentences of paragraph 3, which declare that quality control “penalized states only for overpayments and payments made to ineligible individuals.” (D) is directly contradicted by the statement towards the end of paragraph that “quality control ironically eroded the government accountability that it was ostensibly intended to guarantee.” 45 B The ostensible purpose of quality control was to achieve fiscal accountability As it turned out, HEW (the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare) used it to penalize states only for overpayments (B) and payments made to ineligible individuals, and not to hold states responsible for unreasonable delays in the welfare process (A)—see the middle of paragraph HEW used quality control to withhold federal reimbursements for state welfare payments it deemed improper, and the passage implies that this practice led to the tightening, not the easing, of rules for federal reimbursement (C) Quality control was a way to curb the provision of welfare administratively—not legislatively—and no official changes were made in the actual rules for welfare eligibility (D) 46 D In paragraph 3, the author states that quality control penalized states only for overpayments and payments made to ineligible individuals, and not for underpayments, erroneous denials, unreasonable delays, etc The tone here, as elsewhere, is critical Thus, it is reasonable to infer that the author would support more evenhanded enforcement of accountability as a way to improve the welfare system, so choice (D) is correct Decreasing the number of welfare applications is also one of the adverse effects of quality control that the author would wish to reverse (A) The author never implies that the quality of the caseworkers was at fault for practices that arose after the implementation of quality control—the caseworkers were just conforming to standards which made them accountable only for errors of liberality, not of stringency, so (B) would not really make a difference Out-of-control spending on welfare was a big reason for the quality control program, and increases in that spending would not eliminate the negative effects inherent in the quality control program itself, so (C) can be rejected Passage VIII (Questions 47-53) Topic and Scope: the formation of hydrocarbon reserves and how they can be located Paragraph how hydrocarbon reserves are formed Paragraph the two types of “trap” in which hydrocarbon reserves form Paragraph using seismology to find stratigraphic traps, and some problems in the method Paragraph recent improvements and the future 47 D Every paragraph deals with choice (D), which constitutes the topic and scope of the passage (A) is FUD; this is addressed only in the first half of the passage (B) may be tempting, but look back at the passage: seismologists are discussed only in the second half You might miss this fact, since seismology is the subject of the part of the passage you just finished reading; this is why taking a moment to look back over the whole passage before tackling the questions can pay off (C) is a detail discussed only in paragraph 48 B Answering this question simply involves identifying the right sentence in the passage—it is an explicit detail The last sentence of paragraph contains many of the words of the question stem; look there for your answer It says “the density contrasts … are often very small”—that is, “there is little density contrast” Choice (A) is a detail from discussion of how resolution can be improved—a different but related matter (C) and (D) relate to the primary limitation on seismic method mentioned earlier in that paragraph 49 C Again, the answer is found principally just by locating the relevant sentence The question directs you to the third sentence of paragraph When a sentence begins with the words “For example”, the immediately preceding sentence or sentences will explain what this is an example of: in this case, it’s simply an example (or “illustration”) of how stratigraphic traps are formed by sediments Choice (A) is a Distortion of this purpose (B) is an additional detail mentioned in giving this example, but not the author’s purpose (D) relates to the information developed later in the passage, not here 50 C Since not all reservoirs have a “stratigraphic seal” (because most known reserves are in structural traps, according to the end of paragraph 2), choice (C) can be easily eliminated as a necessity If you were in any doubt or failed to pick up on this important distinction made between “structural” and “stratigraphic” reservoirs, you can still eliminate the other choices In the first paragraph, we are told that the hydrocarbons will be lost “unless they encounter impermeable rocks” and that they can be extracted “if the rock within which they are trapped is highly permeable”—so (A) and (D) are needed (B) is only very tangentially referred to (“after being formed deep within the earth”), but clearly necessary 51 D Where are “carbonate reservoirs” mentioned? At the beginning of paragraph 4, we are told the most common stratigraphic traps “with the possible exception of carbonate reservoirs” are in sandstone So carbonate reservoirs are stratigraphic traps that may be more common than those in sandstone We are then told that the sandstone traps are “much thinner than a seismic wavelet.” If that were also true of the carbonate reservoirs, they would be included as examples of the problem being discussed, rather than cited as possible exceptions So it is implicit that they are thicker than a seismic wavelet The wrong choices are all irrelevant to this discussion Answering this inference question requires carefully focussing on only the relevant sentences 52 A The author tells us that seismology is the “primary means of exploring for oil” (paragraph 3) and that it is not a perfect tool—with limitations that affect the ability to detect some of the “most common stratigraphic traps” (paragraph 4), but “recent developments” give promise of improvement (paragraph 5) This parallels choice (A) closely (B) is too extreme: if it were intrinsically flawed, there wouldn’t be any point in pursuing it (C) paints too rosy a picture (D) is a Distortion: the author doesn’t contrast the “theoretical” and “practical” applications of seismology 53 B Again, the question requires that you focus closely on the relevant language in the passage The author says that “the primary limitation of the seismic method … is resolution” and that resolution is related to the seismic wavelet being thinner than the features you are searching for When you must identify how the author would want to improve the situation, this kind of evidence of the author’s emphasis is helpful Anything that reduces the length of the seismic wavelets addresses what the author considers the most important problem—that’s choice (B) The wrong choices relate to less important aspects of improving seismic research which are discussed Passage IX (Questions 54-60) Topic and Scope: The three social functions of popular music Paragraph merely introduces the topic Paragraph the first two functions, creation of identity and management of feelings Paragraph the third function, organizing time, and its particular applicability to the young 54 D The author states that there are three functions of popular music, then fills in some detail and description for each—a simple structure Wrong choices (A) and (C) focus on details in the passage (B) is Outside the Scope; the author presents his or her own theory without any others for contrast 55 C Classical music is never mentioned in the passage, but the author makes several statements about music in general, including the statement in the second sentence of paragraph 3, that “one of the effects of all music…is to focus our attention on the feeling of time.” Choice (A) is a detail specific to popular music, mentioned in paragraph (where music is compared to sport) (B) is also from the second paragraph, and relates only to “popular love songs” (D) applies only to popular music, and is discussed in the third paragraph 56 C Choices (A) and (B) are FUD, traps for those who read too quickly; banality, embarrassment, and incoherence are mentioned as characteristic of our own declarations of love, for which popular love songs provide an antidote Choice (D) is Opposite; the author expressly states his or her respect for the love songs as “important because they give shape and voice to emotions” (C) in the middle of paragraph 57 A In discussing popular music’s ability to create a sense of community and collective pride, the author adds the reference to sport as a parallel aspect of popular culture (B) is the opposite of this; the two are parallel, not contrasted (C) and (D) are Outside the Scope and irrelevant 58 B The bulk of the last paragraph is devoted to how music’s ability to “organize our sense of time” is particularly relevant to youth Choice (A) goes too far; the author addresses only a small part of the “experience of youth” in the paragraph (C) is way Outside the Scope And (D) also goes beyond the scope of the paragraph; no analysis is offered of the relationship between music and time—it is simply asserted 59 D To answer the question, locate the relevant text and focus on exactly what is stated there, excluding details from other sections of the passage Popular music and its contribution to our sense of identity is discussed in the first half of paragraph Choice (A) is FUD; differences between the young and old are mentioned only in the last paragraph (B) is contradicted in the discussion of “popular love songs” as providing language different from our everyday language (D) is a detail from the discussion of popular music’s function “in the management of feelings” in the second half of paragraph 60 D Again, first locate the relevant text, then look for an answer consistent with the relevant details, rather than details from other parts of the passage The question addresses the third function, discussed in the last paragraph Youth, the author says, “is experienced…as an intense presence.” Choice (D) would contradict this, and weaken the author’s argument (A) and (B) would support the author’s statements that for youth moments have “nostalgia coded into them” and that youths experience “impatience for time to pass and a regret that it is doing so” The attitude of older people toward popular music (C) is irrelevant to this author’s view of how youth experience it ...Materials used in this test section have been adapted from the following sources: Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline... established ideas about memory and aging, choice (A) (B) correctly states that past investigations only tested episodic memory; however, the passage does not explain exactly why this was the case (C)... nor avoided But (B), nomothetic, or lawlike, generalizations are an ideal (Apodictic means incontestably true; logically doubtless.) 36 D Nomothetic statements are “rarely if ever possible” in
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