MCAT verbal test (22)

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MCAT Section Tests Dear Future Doctor, The following Section Test and explanations should be used to practice and to assess your mastery of critical thinking in each of the section areas Topics are confluent and are not necessarily in any specific order or fixed proportion This is the level of integration in your preparation that collects what you have learned in the Kaplan classroom and synthesizes your knowledge with your critical thinking Simply completing the tests is inadequate; a solid understanding of your performance through your Score Reports and the explanations is necessary to diagnose your specific weaknesses and address them before Test Day All rights are reserved pursuant to the copyright laws and the contract clause in your enrollment agreement and as printed below Misdemeanor and felony infractions can severely limit your ability to be accepted to a medical program and a conviction can result in the removal of a medical license We offer this material for your practice in your own home as a courtesy and privilege Practice today so that you can perform on test day; this material was designed to give you every advantage on the MCAT and we wish you the best of luck in your preparation Sincerely, Albert Chen Executive Director, Pre-Health Research and Development Kaplan Test Prep © 2003 Kaplan, Inc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by Photostat, microfilm, xerography or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical without the written permission of Kaplan, Inc This book may not be duplicated, distributed or resold, pursuant to the terms of your Kaplan Enrollment Agreement Materials used in this test section have been adapted from the following sources: Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776 A E Housman, Preface to Juvenal, 1905 Governor Edward M Gramlich, 2/20/01, Remarks before the International Bond Congress, London, U.K.: "The Productivity Growth Spurt in the United States." Alan Greenspan, 12/5/00, Remarks at the America's Community Bankers Conference, Business Strategies for Bottom Line Results, New York, New York, "Structural changes in the economy and financial markets." Answer Key: B A D C B D D D D 10 D 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B A C B B A C A B D 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 D C A D D B B C A C 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 29 40 22 D C A B C D A D B C 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 A B B D D A C C A C 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 C C A D D A A B A D Passage I (Questions 1-6) Topic and Scope: A philosophical discussion of the origin and purpose of government, and of what such examination reveals about the best structure of government Purpose: to demonstrate that the best, most natural and simplest form of government is representative in nature, and lacking in unnecessary complexity Paragraph proposes a distinction between “society” and “government,” identifying the former as good and natural and the latter as a necessary evil Paragraph 2: constitutional monarchy, while better than its predecessors, is too complex Paragraph describes a chronology of events leading to the rise of society and then to establishment of government Paragraph continues the chronology from the first government through its evolution into a representative form, with a caveat about the need to assure that electors remain loyal to the interests of their constituents Paragraph presents an argument for the simplest form of government B (A), (C), and (D) each refers to a part of the passage that supports the main idea The overall purpose of the passage, however, is to argue that simple representative government is best, choice (B) A “Society” is a word that has a range of definitions In paragraph the passage identifies that what society means, as distinct from government, is companionship and mutual assistance This is consistent with (A), social relationships, customs and practices The passage makes no reference to the social dominance/subordinance of members of a community (B) or to established organizations or foundations (C) Furthermore, the sharp contrast drawn between society and government indicates that the author is not using the word in terms of political institutions (D) D In concluding the essential purpose of government is protection of property, the author relies on the history proposed in paragraph 3: a small group of individuals exist in a state of “natural liberty,” and are motivated to cooperate in order to overcome hardship and avoid solitude Subsequently, prosperity results in moral laxity resulting in a reduction in individuals’ “duty and attachment” to each other While the author’s “history” sounds plausible, and perhaps logical, he presents no evidence that such events actually occurred Examination of the logic of the argument reveals no evidence establishing that only cooperation arises in the postulated period of “natural liberty.” A plausible objection to the author’s argument is: even if most individuals in a state of “natural liberty” were motivated to cooperate, might not there be some who attempt to simply steal what they need? How would these be dealt with by the community? These questions unmask one the assumption in the argument (I) (II) is a plausible objection to the author’s argument, not something it assumes The author proposes that the community establishes government because of moral laxity, but identifies the purpose of government only as security and protection of property Since the author does not identify providing for those in need as an essential purpose of government, he must be 23 assuming that the functions of “society,” i.e., mutual assistance in time of hardship, are not impaired by the moral laxity resulting from prosperity Thus, (III) is an assumption Since (I) and (III) are both assumed but (II) is not assumed, the correct answer is (D) C The first sentence of the paragraph identifies constitutional monarchy as better than what preceded it What preceded it must have been another form of government It could not have been a state of natural liberty (society without government) as that would be inconsistent with the author’s argument that a positive state of affairs preceded the development of government Thus, (I) is strongly implied The passage then identifies constitutional monarchy as a form of government that has grown complex over time The comparison to a patient for whom physicians cannot agree on a diagnosis or remedy does not provide any basis to think that more disciplined evaluation is what is needed (II) Rather, the implication is that the situation, because of its complexity, is unlikely to be susceptible to remedy If the difficulties cannot be remedied, the implication is that constitutional monarchy has outlived its usefulness (III) Since (I) and (III) are implied, (C) is correct B The author argues for a distinction between society and government, protection of property as the essential purpose of government, and simple government as best A one-step inference from this argument is that the author would consider assistance to the poor to be within the province of society—individuals or associations outside of the governmental sphere Thus, (B) is correct (A) is a Distortion; it uses words that echo the author’s statements about what gives rise to society, not government (C) is Outside the Scope of the author’s argument (D) is incorrect for two reasons: (1) it assumes that the question is raised in a context of representative government; and (2) the author states a clear opinion on this point—he doesn’t leave it to be decided by vote D Both authors propose that the relationship between government and individuals is based on the creation of government by humans and on the nature of the purpose for which it was created The passage emphasizes the right of an individual to liberty in areas outside of government’s essential purpose, i.e., to protect property The contemporary emphasizes the right of an individual to expect government to accomplish those things which are the purposes for which it was created Although the passage and the contemporary not agree on the exact nature of the rights of the individual, both recognize individuals as endowed with certain rights in their relationship to government Thus, (D) is correct (A) is incorrect because it cannot be inferred from the quotation that the contemporary would identify the purposes of government as similar to the purpose proposed by the author (B) is incorrect because the author states that government is a necessary evil In contrast, the contemporary indicates a more positive attitude toward government as “a contrivance of human wisdom.” The contemporary does not restrict the nature of the “wants” that government should meet—they may go well beyond protection of property (C) is incorrect because, while the author of the passage states 24 that the best form of government is that which will accomplish a specified essential function while remaining as simple as possible, the contemporary’s use of the word “contrivance” indicates a belief that government is clever and/or ingenious, but not that it is simple Passage II (Questions 7-12) Topic and Scope: dinosaur extinction Purpose: to describe a discovery that revolutionized scientific thought about the extinction of the dinosaurs Paragraph introduces the discovery of fossil records from the time of the dinosaurs’ extinction Paragraph describes the specific finding—of “iridium” in high concentrations indicating a cataclysmic event—that affects theories on the mass extinction Paragraph outlines the two distinct theories about the cause of the event that caused the cataclysm Paragraph describes a possible explanation of the lack of giant craters consistent with the new theory Paragraph describes the way the cataclysm affected the environment D The first sentence indicates that the current theories, which emphasize “gradual” change could be thrown over by the relatively “sudden” deposit of materials Choice A is not mentioned in the passage The approximate date of extinction (B) and the discovery are linked in time, but that is not revolutionary to the theory Choice C’s assumption of a change in the dinosaur’s environment is not overthrown, but maintained, in this passage D The only fossil organisms mentioned in the passage were found in limestone, eliminating option I Option II is verified by the first sentence of the passage Sentence III is verified by the last sentence of the first paragraph So choice D is correct D The passage says that the absence of Pu-244 and the insignificant levels of Ir-191 and Ir-193 discounts the possibility that a supernova was the cause of the clay deposit Although the other choices may sound credible, they are not discussed in relation to isotopes within this passage 10 D The greater part of paragraph addresses the argument “that there is no geological evidence of the impact of such massive objects” by presenting responses This seems to indicate whichever hit, a ten-kilometer asteroid or a twenty-kilometer comet, we need an explanation why there is no evidence of two large bodies colliding – choice D Choices A and B are not contested Choice C, regarding composition, is left open; both asteroids and icy comets are large and both could carry the anomalous extraterrestrial matter 25 11 B Alvarez argues that clouds of matter could have blocked the sun, prohibiting photosynthesis, and thereby killing most of the plants that form the basis for the food chain Thus, his theory about the disappearance of dinosaurs relies heavily on the disappearance of plants If this theory is true there would be fossil evidence of many plants before the fallout layer of clay and very little fossil evidence of any plants in the strata after the clay strata Choice B captures this argument Choices A and C would undermine Alvarez’s argument, choice D would have no impact on his thesis 12 A Alvarez’s theory of stratospheric suspension is that fallout matter from a great collision between the earth and some large, iridium-rich, extra-terrestrial object -remained suspended like a cloud, blocking the sun’s rays from reaching the earth and preventing photosynthesis While the passage indicates that a large comet would have to be twice the size of a large asteroid to have the same cataclysmic effect, the passage didn’t indicate that the material of one or the other was more consistent with the isotopes or with the clay fallout, etc Thus the theory relies on one or the other colliding with the earth to create the matter-cloud, but it is not limited to one or the other This is consistent with choice A, and eliminates choice C Choice B is wrong because the cloud could not be created exclusive of the collision Choice D erroneously indicates that asteroid and comet together Passage III (Questions 13-18) Topic and Scope: Purpose: First Paragraph: Most historians argue that Americans of the pre-Civil War era looked on the plains as desert, while the author argues that this interpretation is too simplistic, that the pre-Civil War view of the plains was more sophisticated and differentiated Second Paragraph: The structural signal “In spite of,” at the outset of the paragraph, suggests that the author is about to provide some evidence in support of his revised interpretation of the pre-civil War view of the Great Plains Note that evidence drawn from newspapers and periodicals indicates that, while well-educated Northeasterners indeed thought of the Great Plains as desert before the Civil War, rural residents of the South and West considered them to be a “Garden.” Last Paragraph: This paragraph simply builds further on the notion that there were competing views of the Great Plains in pre-Civil War America; migrants in the 1840s and 1850s moved beyond the plains to the West Coast not because they thought of the plains as desert, but rather because the West Coast was “the logical and desirable culmination of the American drive to the Pacific.” 13 C This question asks about migrants in the 1840s, which is the topic of the last paragraph In this paragraph, the reader is told that these migrants were going to the West Coast, 26 so they had destinations other than the plains Choice (C) is the correct answer (A), (B) and (D) either distort or flatly contradict information in the passage 14 B A careful reading of the options in this Roman numeral inference question reveals that only Option II can be inferred about the diaries mentioned in the question stem, so (B) is the correct answer Option II is a valid inference because the author uses the diaries as an important source of information in support of his revised interpretation, information that the standard interpretation obviously ignored Options I and III contradict the passage, III because the author found valuable information in support of his interpretation in the diaries, and I because the diaries in question belonged to people who migrated beyond the plains, so they couldn’t possibly describe the transformation of the plains 15 B This question is in the ALL/EXCEPT format, so the correct answer is the choice that is NOT TRUE based on the information in the passage The best way to approach these questions is to use information in the passage to weed out the TRUE choices, thereby finding the NOT TRUE choice through a process of elimination Applying that strategy to this question, (A) and (C) appear in the second paragraph (D) appears in the middle of the third By process of elimination, the correct choice is (B), and indeed the passage never refers to “oral accounts” of the migration 16 A This question asks about the author’s attitude toward the standard interpretation of the pre-Civil War view of the Great Plains The author doesn’t completely trash the standard interpretation, but rather says that it needs to be revised in light of previously overlooked evidence Her or his attitude is slightly negative, so we need a slightly negative answer Choice (A) is the correct answer because it says the right thing and, furthermore, has the right tone (B) is much too negative in tone, while (C) and (D) are much too positive 17 C The answer this inference question lies in the first sentence of the last paragraph Since the desert image “had become prevalent” by the 1840s, it must have been more common than in the 1820s Thus choice (C) is correct (A) and (B) contradict the passage; (D) is Outside the Scope of the passage 18 A The last sentence of the second paragraph tells the reader that well-educated Northeasterners were most likely to think of the plains as desert According to information in the second and third paragraphs, Southern farmers, migrants, and Westerner were unlikely to view the plains as desert This eliminates (B) through (D) Note that problems and both start with “According to the passage, ” Students should be aware that many explicit detail questions start this way 27 Passage IV (Questions 19-25) Topic and Scope: Johannes Kepler's early scientific career Purpose: To show that Kepler's early ideas, which now seem totally insane to us, ultimately led him to make the astronomical discoveries that we find so significant The first paragraph tells us that Kepler believed the universe operated according to a set of simple mathematical rules that were accessible to human intelligence The second paragraph suggests that, although Kepler's conception of the solar system appears ridiculous in hindsight, his use of the available facts led to some important scientific discoveries—that Kepler was a true scientist in an age when most of his colleagues were pseudo-scientific cranks 19 B The first paragraph tells us that many of Kepler's early beliefs turned out to be mistaken and then goes on to describe some of those mistaken beliefs, particularly about our solar system The second paragraph indicates that, despite these mistaken beliefs, Kepler's vision and fidelity to the scientific facts of the time led to some important astronomical discoveries Choice B says just about this, so it's the correct answer to this question (A) and (C) are wrong because they distort information in the passage According to the passage, Kepler, like Newton and Einstein, believed that the universe is based on a set of simple mathematical laws that are discoverable The passage neither states nor implies that the early work of Kepler influenced the more rigorous work of Newton or Einstein, so (A)'s out While Kepler's beliefs about the universe were premised on his study of Greek geometry, there is no indication in the passage that those geometric studies laid the groundwork for our current understanding of the universe In fact, the passage states that his early theories about the universe seem rather ridiculous to the modern astronomer, so (C)'s incorrect And (D) is wrong because there isn't enough information in the passage to judge whether or not it's valid The passage never discusses Kepler's “most remarkable work,'' so we really don't know what methods he may have used in it 20 D This is an inference question about Kepler's early scientific beliefs Specifically, you're asked to determine which of his beliefs was still held centuries later Well, near the beginning of paragraph 1, the author suggests that Kepler believed that the cosmos was arranged according to a grand design—an order which humans were capable of grasping This same section of paragraph indicates that this view was held by Einstein, who was, of course, a 20th-century scientist So (D) looks like our answer, but let's see if any of the other choices are better Choices B and C might have looked tempting, but they're wrong Although Kepler believed that the planets were arranged concentrically, within perfect solids, around the sun, there's no indication in the passage that later scientists verified this belief, so choice B's out (Although the passage doesn't say so, planetary orbits are, in fact, elliptical, not circular, as you might already know.) (C)'s out for much the same reason as (B); although Kepler, following Euclid, believed there were only five ``perfect solids,'' the passage neither states nor implies that this 28 was subsequently verified by later scientists, so we have no way of knowing whether it's correct (A)'s a bit easier to eliminate because it's directly contradicted by information in the passage The author states explicitly that Kepler's notion of the solar system is considered to be absurd by later scientists 21 D This is another inference question—this time concerning a point of agreement between Kepler and the unenlightened alchemists described in line 52 In the 2nd paragraph, the author suggests that alchemists shared with Kepler the belief that intuition, or vision, was the path to discovery, making choice D the correct answer to this question Unlike Kepler, who was fanatical about making his theories consistent with existing facts, alchemists, it's suggested, were not overly concerned with reconciling theories and facts Put differently, Kepler was obsessed with facts, while alchemists were unimpressed by them So, choice B is out While alchemists' apparent disinterest in facts indicates that they were opposed to a marriage of science and religion, Kepler's mysticism and obsession with scientific facts indicates that his view was just the opposite, that he approved of a marriage between religion and science So, choice A's wrong, too Finally, while Kepler believed that the cosmos corresponded to a mathematical design, we don't know what alchemists thought about this issue, though the fact that they disparaged scientific thinking indicates that they probably did not believe this to be the case Thus, choice C's wrong as well 22 C This is a detail question about the “perfect solids'' discussed in the first paragraph Just before that, the author states that the concept of “`five perfect solids'' was contained in one of Euclid's theorems, so choice C is our answer As for the wrong choices, (A) distorts a detail in the passage—the detail being that the work of ``all the great natural philosophers'' was premised on the notion of a universe arranged according to a set of simple mathematical principles This is quite different from saying that all these philosophers premised their work on Euclid's concept of ``five perfect solids.'' Choice B is wrong because, although the passage states that the five perfect solids are all formed by plane figures, it doesn't tell us whether the solids have four equal sides, except in the case of the cube (Based on your own knowledge, you might know that some of these solids, in fact, have more than four sides.) Choice (D)'s out because the perfect solids didn't yield any measurements of distances among planets In fact, all we're told in the passage on this issue is that Kepler believed they might provide information about distances among planets 23 A This question asks you to determine the meaning of the “`book of the world'' In order to answer a question of this sort, it's important to get a sense of the context in which the phrase appears In this case, the context is a discussion of Kepler's belief that the universe is based on a set of simple mathematical principles which are accessible to human intelligence; specifically, a set of principles based on Euclid's geometry So, this phrase is meant to refer to a mathematical conception of the universe, choice (A) Although Kepler's mathematical conception of the universe is based on Greek 29 geometry, there's no indication in the passage that Kepler ever wrote a treatise on this topic, so choice B's out Choice C is way off base, as the context in which the phrase appears is about Kepler's mathematical conception of the universe, not about human knowledge in general Despite the fact that ``God'' is mentioned in the same sentence as the phrase in question, the phrase was not meant to refer to a text of divine origin, but rather to a plan of the universe rooted in Greek geometry, so (D)'s out as well 24 D This question asks you to determine the author's purpose in quoting Einstein at the end of the passage This is another one of those questions which requires you to understand the context within which a statement appears Just before Einstein's statement appears, we're told that Kepler's great strength was in dovetailing the facts with his theories Einstein's remark reinforces the notion that facts, or (in Einstein's word) ``science,'' and theories (or “religion”) must complement each other in order for intellectual progress to occur In other words, the author's purpose in quoting Einstein is to emphasize a characteristic of Kepler's method and outlook, choice D Choice (A) is a Distortion of the author's reason for quoting Einstein By quoting Einstein, the author is expressing her approval of Kepler's scientific method Besides, since Einstein's quote does not specifically refer to Kepler, we can't conclude that he misconstrued Kepler's thought Although the quote refers to “science” and “religion,” these are actually euphemisms for facts and theories, respectively Einstein is pointing out that one is worthless without the other Therefore, the author didn't quote Einstein in order to point out a difference between scientific and religious thought, making choice B incorrect Finally, choice C is Outside the Scope; the quote is too vague to determine whether Einstein admired Kepler 25 D This is yet another question requiring you to understand context The last paragraph of the passage ends with the author quoting Einstein to support the notion that facts and theories have to be in harmony for scientific progress to occur Choice (D) is a variation of this theme The passage doesn’t mention Kepler's beliefs about his own work, so choice (A) makes no sense here Choice (B) is out because the passage ends by telling us that Einstein believed that facts and theory must complement each other This has nothing to with any “fundamental guidelines” that emerge during scientists' periods of youthful enthusiasm Choice (C)'s out for a couple of reasons First, the Einstein quote at the end of the second paragraph is there to point out a positive aspect of Kepler's thought, not a problem, so (C) doesn't follow logically at this point And, second, this passage is about Kepler's scientific methods, not about his alleged search for “cosmic harmony.” Passage V (Questions 26-33) Topic and Scope: variations in manuscripts of great books Purpose: to argue that the correct choice between differing manuscripts is made based on quality rather than quantity 30 Paragraph introduces an example of a scholar using a manuscript not favored by the majority, but ultimately proved correct Paragraph discusses the ignorance of many of those editing manuscripts Paragraph gives a specific example of incorrect method in selecting a manuscript Paragraph sums up the argument against lazy critics by an analogy 26 B Choices A and C are Opposite; they are expressly contradicted by the passage Choice D is Outside the Scope: the point here is not deciding which manuscript is best, but submitting that manuscript to one’s own judgement 27 B Option I is contradicted in paragraph of the passage Option II is supported by the passage as a whole, while option III is support in paragraph 28 C Although the author downplays the importance of a “best manuscript,” he does say that the Erfurtensis was the best manuscript of Cicero’s oration known in the 1830s, and that there are other manuscripts now known that are even better This suggests that the author would concede that some manuscripts really are better than others 29 A Choices (B) and (C) are FUDs; they refer to minor details, not to the bulk of the passage Choice (D) draws an inference that is not supported by the passage 30 C The reference is to lazy or ignorant critics who automatically follow rules—“the unintelligent” who “call themselves sane critics.” The word “mechanics” is an echo of the author’s claim, back in the second paragraph, that “they must have a rule, a machine to their thinking for them.” 31 D Choice D describes the approach to editing classics that the author is advocating Choices B and C are methods that he rejects in paragraph We are not told that anyone uses choice A 32 C According to the author, the discovery of a new manuscript would not strengthen or weaken the authority of any other manuscript And in any case, the critic’s judgment would still be supreme 33 A The author might disagree with options I and II, but they are at least defensible arguments Option III is simply an appeal to laziness 31 Passage VI (questions 34-40) Topic and Scope: The decline of amphibian populations in the southwest Purpose: to show that the misuse of pesticides is responsible for endangering amphibian species Paragraph identifies the area affected Paragraph introduces the method by which pesticides affect the amphibians Paragraph defines pesticides and explains how they harm species Paragraph describes a recent study that identified concentrations of specific chemicals from pesticides that are affecting the endangered species 34 B The fact that the red legged frog is listed as threatened under the U.S Endangered Species Act (B) is evidence that populations of amphibians have declined, but not evidence of a specific cause of the decline The remaining choices all help to establish a correlation specifically between exposure of amphibians to insecticides and population declines Specifically: organophosphates are used in agriculture; the San Joaquim Valley is more intensely agricultural then the Sacramento Valley; amphibians east of the San Joaquim Valley had higher incidence of organophosphates (A) Yosemite National Park lies east of the San Joaquim Valley; the coast lies west of this valley; prevailing winds are easterly; amphibians east of the San Joaquim Valley had a higher incidence of organophosphates than amphibians from the coast (C) Organosphosphates impair (reduce) the level of the cholinesterase; cholinesterase levels are highest in coastal areas; coastal areas are not in the path of prevailing winds from the agricultural San Joaquim Valley (D) 35 C The line reference in the question stem refers to the third sentence of the first paragraph The fifth sentence of that paragraph introduces the notion that damage to amphibian species in the specified habitat may result from pesticide use in agricultural areas upwind from this habitat The author refers to the specified habitat as “seemingly” pristine Use of the word “seemingly” indicates that things may not, in fact, be as they seem It would not be surprising to find evidence of pesticide damage in an obviously agricultural area The reference to “seemingly pristine” in this context prepares the reader for the passage’s finding that the condition of amphibians studied in the specified habitat does not support the perception that it is “pristine,” at least in terms of intrusion of pesticides Thus, (C) is correct (A) sounds plausible, but is incorrect because the passage does not address whether the damage to the environment can be repaired (B) is incorrect because the author does not focus on remedies (D) is incorrect because the passage does not establish that some amphibian species are still “abundant.” 36 D The passage states that the red-legged frog is currently listed as threatened under the U.S Endangered Species Act, and identifies two other species that have been proposed for listing However, the passage provides no equivalent information to support a conclusion that the Pacific Treefrog is considered seriously threatened Therefore, (A) is incorrect Since Pacific treefrog specimens were collected from a number of areas, it can be inferred that this species is reasonably abundant, and that 32 this may be a reason it was chosen for study Presumably, the red-legged frog was not studied either because it was too difficult to find, or because it was not proper to collect it because of its protected status Thus, (D) is correct (B) is incorrect because information in the passage does not demonstrate that the lower levels of cholinesterase found in Pacific treefrogs constituted a marked depression Therefore, the depression of cholinesterase may not indicate that the absorption of organophosphates at a toxic level Furthermore, the passage does not rule out the possibility that there may be other conditions threatening the Pacific treefrog If there are other conditions threatening the treefrog, phasing out organophosphates may not prevent loss of its populations (C) is incorrect both because it is not clear that the lower level of cholinesterase activity actually produces a greater rate of mortality in the treefrog and also because there may be other factors affecting the abundance of the treefrog in the two locations 37 A To answer this question, it is necessary to identify the author’s perspective on the decline in amphibian populations without making unsupported assumptions about this perspective The author’s focus is on the particular, rather than the general He is reporting on research findings involving a limited scope of study, both in terms of the species, the geographical area, and the specific nature of the environmental impact (A) is most consistent with this viewpoint (B), (C), and (D) all introduce information not supported by the passage: the passage does state that declines of amphibians in California have been “dramatic,” but provides no basis to determine that he considers them “more dramatic” than those that may have occurred elsewhere; the author identifies intense agriculture and pesticide use as problematic in a particular area, the San Joaquim Valley, but does not take any position on how widespread these practices are in the world as a whole 38 D This is a detail question The passage focuses in detail on a class of pesticides identified as “organophosphates.” To answer this question, it is necessary to identify precisely what the passage states about pesticides and what it states about organophosphates The correct answer is (D), since the passage asserts that pesticides are used to increase agricultural production In other words, pesticides have a benefit in agricultural applications (B) is incorrect, because the assertion refers to organophosphates, but not pesticides in general C sounds plausible, but there is no actual evidence presented that pesticides are not used anywhere in the Sierra Nevada (A) is too broad The passage does state that insecticides “may” be transported, but not that they are Furthermore, we don’t know if all pesticides are carried on air currents or just some pesticides or what constitutes a “long distance.” 39 B The structure of the passage is to: describe a problem (amphibians are dying off in areas of California); offer a hypothesis about its cause (insecticides used in other areas); present some background information about the responsible agent (insecticides); and present findings of a study intended to support the hypothesis introduced in the first paragraph Thus, the correct answer is (B) 33 40 C In the first paragraph, the passage introduces an hypothesis that the reason that particular pristine areas are experiencing reduction in amphibian populations is that insecticides are transported from agricultural areas to the pristine areas The findings in the third paragraph appear to validate that hypothesis However, what if the amount of insecticide used in agricultural areas is not actually greater than that used for lawn care in suburban areas? What if the Sacramento Valley and/or coastal areas engage in heavy use of pesticides, even though they are not intensely agricultural? Admittedly, the article does not specify the types of pesticides used on lawns However, the new information about insecticide use in lawn care does indicate the need for a more precise measure of amount and type of insecticide discharge than a measure based solely on whether an area is agricultural Thus, (C) is correct (A), (B) and (D) are incorrect because the information in the article does not contradict the factual information about the general effects of organophosphates presented in the second paragraph or the specific empirical findings of organophosphate and cholinesterase activity levels in frogs presented in the third paragraph Passage VII (Questions 41-46) Topic and Scope: Productivity growth; specifically, a recent surge in productivity growth in the U.S and a factor that may have fostered it Purpose: to show that new information and communication technologies contributed to the recent surge in productivity in the U.S The first paragraph describes the recent productivity growth spurt in the U.S and indicates, both through evidence presented and with its tone, that it is remarkable when placed in historical context The first part of the second paragraph prepares the reader for a hypothesis to be introduced in its last sentence, by defining relevant terms and also by identifying several factors recognized to affect productivity, in preparation for reducing the focus to capital invested in a specific methods of production: new technologies The third paragraph discusses evidence for the specific causal relationship first suggested at the end of the second paragraph 41 A A resurgence is defined as a return to a former level Only in the case of the U.S does the passage provide enough historical information to determine that growth in productivity first was reduced and then increased again to its former level Thus, (A) is correct 42 B The passage identifies a correlation between current use of new technologies and an increase in the rate of productivity growth Since correlation in itself does not establish causation, an argument based on correlation should be examined to determine whether it actually establishes: (1) a causal relationship between the phenomena correlated and (2) the direction of causation In this case, neither test is met While it seems plausible that utilization of new technologies improved productivity, the logical structure of the 34 argument in the passage does not rule out causation having moved in the other direction Therefore, the direction of causation is assumed (D) The passage provides no evidence of trends in other factors identified as affecting productivity growth Therefore, the passage assumes that one or more of these are not the overriding cause (A) The argument can also be examined for the validity of its measurement of the phenomenon correlated While it appears plausible that spending on information technology would reflect use of this technology in production, if we deny this and assume that a significant amount of technology is used for other purposes, it becomes apparent that the author offers no evidence supporting how new technology is actually used (C) Some of it may be used, for example, for individual entertainment or education The passage states, but provides no support for, the revolution in technology constituting a world-wide phenomenon However, this statement is not a premise of the argument that new technologies have been important in raising productivity in the U.S in recent years If we deny (B), and affirm that the revolution in technology is NOT a world-wide phenomenon, the argument is unaffected Thus, (B) is the correct choice for this EXCEPT question 43 B To answer this question, consider the focus of the passage and its overall direction The passage focuses on productivity growth in the U.S and whether it is related to utilization of new technologies Although the passage contains details about historical trends in productivity in the U.S (A) and about use of technology in other countries (D), these details are mentioned only in support of the overall purpose of demonstrating that the current productivity growth spurt in the U.S is related to new technology The author is unlikely to next delve into these supporting details Similarly, although the author mentions other factors which can affect productivity, this is done for the purpose of providing a context for introduction of the factor central to his discussion: capital invested in new technology (a method of production) Given that there is no indication that the author considers other factors central to the current productivity growth spurt, there is no basis to expect that the author would then return to discuss other factors that may impact production However, since the author focuses on what is happening in the current period, the next logical topic for discussion would be whether the current trend will continue (B) 44 D In this type of question, look for the alternative that is consistent with what is stated or strongly implied by the author (A) is inconsistent with the author’s tone in the first paragraph In that paragraph, the author uses “big news” and “extraordinary” in referring to the productivity growth spurt These words imply that the author would not consider the change “natural.” Furthermore, in the third sentence the author makes reference to “cyclical movements” in productivity, which occurred in the period from the early 1970s through the mid-1990s This implies a contrast with the “extraordinary” change that occurred in the late 1990s, strongly implying that the author does not consider the latter change a “cyclical” change (B) is closer to the author’s statements, but still not close enough to be the correct answer Although the author would agree that the change in the late 1990s was “remarkable,” there is no evidence that he considers it more 35 remarkable than the “sudden” drop in productivity that occurred in the 1960s (C) is incorrect because there is no indication that the author is interested in promoting action to improve the economic situation in other countries (D) is correct as it succinctly paraphrases the main idea of the passage 45 D Each paragraph of a passage serves a purpose in the development of the ideas of the passage In answering this type of question, it is important to choose the alternative that applies to the paragraph as a whole, not to just part of the paragraph (D) is correct because it identifies how the paragraph as a whole contributes to the overall direction of the passage (A) can be eliminated because it describes only the first two sentences of the paragraph (B) and (C) can be eliminated because they describe only the third and fourth sentences of the paragraph and also because (C) goes beyond the scope of the passage While the passage identifies the important effect of capital investment in information technologies on methods of production, (C) refers to capital investment in general 46 A The passage indicates that there is a correlation between investment in new technologies and productivity growth in developed countries and that the U.S., in the 1990s, invested heavily in new technologies and experienced greater productivity This evidence, although not conclusive, could be helpful in identifying why productivity growth was greater in the U.S (A) Although the passage provides evidence of changes in U.S productivity growth in three different periods, it does not provide evidence of actual spending on new technologies in any period other than in the late 1990s Thus, (B) is not correct (C) is not correct because the passage does not provide any evidence related to how factors that affect productivity changed to foster improved productivity growth in the period from the end of World War II through the 1960s Similarly, the passage does not address how factors that affect productivity changed to reduce productivity in the six countries in the post-1995 period Passage VIII (Questions 47-54) Topic and Scope: The passage addresses the state of poetry as an art in the author’s country More specifically, the passage focuses on why there is both too little native poetry and too little appreciation of what native poetry there is Purpose: to argue for investment in and appreciation of native poetry The first paragraph informs us that the author lives in a country that thinks well of its intelligence and education, but has little appreciation of its own literature, and particularly poetry It briefly mentions a common explanation, that times are hard and there is little leisure for study, but dismisses it as a cause which is less important than other, more subtle, causes The second paragraph, while acknowledging problems with the quality of native poetry, indicates that the root cause of the difficulty is in the lack of edification in the audience The third paragraph calls for a greater investment in appreciation of poetry 36 The fourth paragraph tells us the author’s country is largely settled by immigrants, and notes that this is another cause of the lack of appreciation of native poetry: even those who appreciate fine literature are wooed away from the young literature of their country by nostalgia for that of their homelands The fifth paragraph offers hope It notes that some “true poetry” has been written in this country and that attention to nurturing these efforts will bring forth further fruits 47 C This is an inference question, so to determine the best answer, identify what information is provided in the passage about each of the factors indicated as choices Paragraph indicates that the country was settled by “emigrants,” i.e., those who left another country Since the third paragraph also indicates that these “emigrants” currently retain memories of their former home, immigration to their current home can be inferred to have happened within their lifetime, i.e., recently (A) The fourth paragraph mentions that the country is “youthful” and “unveils majestic forms to exalt and inspire,” implying that it possesses areas that are beautiful and unspoiled (B) The first paragraph identifies as fact that the vast majority of people must focus on acquiring the “necessities of life” and lack time for intellectual pursuits While the author does not accept this as a satisfactory explanation for the lack of native poetry, he does not dispute its status as a fact This indicates that the standard of living in the newly settled country is probably lower than some other countries, such as the “immigrants” former home The first paragraph of the passage indicates that the young country makes “pretensions” to “educational achievement” as well as natural intelligence This would indicate that educational institutions are present and well-thought of, although perhaps not of the quality that the residents attribute to them 48 C This question asks you to correctly identify assertions made in the passage Choice I is a statement that succinctly paraphrases the first part of the second paragraph Edification is instruction that encourages intellectual, moral or spiritual improvement If, as asserted by the author, viewing poetry as fanciful, contrived, or contrary to reason is a false conception, then individuals suffer from it either due to lack of capacity or lack of education that would develop their intellectual understanding of poetry’s true nature If, as the author asserts, poetry is the highest embodiment of truths, then spiritual or moral improvement would enable individuals to see this Choice III is a paraphrase of the author’s assertion in the third paragraph that the emigrants cling to the things that are from, or remind them of, their homeland Choice II goes beyond what is stated in the passage The author does state, in the last sentence of the second paragraph, that imperfections exist in native poetry He also indicates that native poets of genius may be discouraged from pursuit of their craft However, in the first sentence of the third paragraph he states “some true poetry has been written in our country.” He does not, however, compare the quality of the best of this “true” native poetry to the level achieved by poets of the immigrants’ homeland, leaving open the possibility that there may be some native poetry that is as high in quality as that from the homeland 49 A 37 A theme that appears throughout the passage is a discussion of what we perceive, and whether this tells us more about the phenomena that are the subject of perception or about the capacity of the observer The author’s point is that what is harder to perceive (subtle), with attention can be more rewarding than what is easily accessible to the mind or senses (palpable) In the first paragraph, a common explanation of the reason native poetry is not appreciated is mentioned, and then dismissed as one that is, although “palpable,” not as powerful as explanations are more subtle (i.e., harder to perceive) In the second paragraph, the author discusses misconceptions about poetry These misconceptions arise either from “incapacity” to perceive the truth (from which we can infer that the truth is not obvious or easily perceived), or from limitation of the powers of perception only to that which is widely available (easily seen), but of poor quality In the third paragraph, the author returns to the theme of the commitment that is required for appreciation of poetry and makes a distinction between what is deeply felt (palpable) in the heart, but may yet be too subtle for many to express in words In the third paragraph, the author uses the metaphor of memories that “throw a charm around everything that comes from our former home.” In other words, the reader perceives the obvious fact that the work reflects his former home, but does not critically examine the subtle literary devices that constitute its overall literary quality In the last paragraph, the author contrasts “soft spring breath” of his hoped-for appreciation of native artists with the “chilly atmosphere” of winter The contrast is not between the warmth of summer and the cold of winter Rather, it is between what is palpable (chilly) and what is more subtle (soft spring breath) The author is not demanding trumpets and wild applause as the necessary approval, but only enough encouragement that the young plant is not extinguished by a palpably inhospitable atmosphere Thus, (A) is correct The remaining choices all are distinctions made only in a part of the passage 50 C If the passage is an introduction to a larger work, then its function is to prepare the reader for what is to follow The focus of the passage is on the need to appreciate and encourage native poetry The passage also mentions that, despite difficult circumstances, some high quality native poetry exists These remarks could certainly be to prepare the reader to savor and enjoy a group of poems of that type to follow Thus, (C) is correct (B) is not a likely purpose, as the author focuses primarily on the problems of native poetry, and the need to encourage it Poetry of the mother country is mentioned only to clarify one of the circumstances that is detrimental to native poetry Although the passage mentions the need for sustained application to the craft of poetry, this is in order to clarify how lack of appreciation affects potentially great native poets Any further explanation of what is involved in the craft of poetry is lacking Therefore, the essay is not likely to introduce a textbook on poetic technique (A) (D) is incorrect because it is too broad The author does not focus on poetry and criticism in general, but on a particular area of poetry 51 C The line reference in question leads you to the second sentence of the third paragraph of the passage Reading the sentences before and after reveals the context of the statement: To appreciate poetry it is not necessary to be able to write it, but it is 38 necessary to experience the kind of deep feelings that are expressed in the poetry of those who have this power of expression Those who disparage poetry lack those deeper feelings “Tongueless poetry of the heart” uses a metaphor to emphasize the depth of the need which poetry fills, even in those who have not the facility to write it (C) (B) is incorrect because, although the author considers those who cannot appreciate poetry deprived, this is in the sentence following the phrase The pronoun “this” in the sentence containing the phrase must refer back to something mentioned earlier, which in this case is the “many who are not gifted with the power of giving expression to the deeper sensibilities.” (D) is incorrect because the author, in a sense, considers poets and those who read them to be in a symbiotic relationship It is those who not feel who the author considers defective Those who feel but cannot write have both the gift of feeling and the gift of being to appreciate literature that reflects those deep feelings 52 C The passage mentions all four explanations as being detrimental to the growth of poetry Thus, the question is how to determine which is considered most important (C) is the correct choice because the second paragraph begins by indicating that “nothing so seriously militates against the growth of our native poetry as the false conceptions that prevail respecting the nature of poetry.” (A) can be ruled out because the author indicates that, while this has an effect, it is “by no means satisfactory” and there are “other causes which exert a powerful antagonism.” (B) can be eliminated as the author indicates that failure of native poets to devote themselves to learning their craft is an effect of the attitudes that result from misconceptions about poetry (D) can be eliminated because it applies to the few readers who not suffer from the misconceptions and because there is not the same emphasis given to it as a primary cause as is given to (C) at the beginning of the second paragraph 53 A This question is an application question asking you to compare the author’s statements to several others and to determine which most closely reflects the ideas contained in the passage Choice (A) indicates a contrast between the creation of a poem and its refinement The metaphor of a piece of ice melting on a hot stove indicates a natural process of response to what is occurring This is consistent with the second paragraph of the passage that indicates that exposure to “lower forms” of poetry lead to the misconception that poetry is fanciful or contrived On the other hand, the quote indicates “A poem may be worked over once it is in being.” This indicates the importance of application to craft similar to what is stated at the end of the second paragraph Thus, (A) is the correct answer (B), in contrast, agrees that poetry should not be contrived, but does not acknowledge the aspect of craft and devotion (C) may at first seem plausible and related to the ideas in the passage, as it makes the distinction between one’s own age and ages past, which could be considered analogous to the distinction between one’s home of the past and one’s home of the present However, the distinction between home past and home present is made in the passage with respect to readers of poetry, rather than to poets (D) expresses an idea that is mostly contrary to the ideas in the passage Rather than focusing on a poem as a spontaneous and 39 natural reflection of what is in the poet’s heart, it appears to advocate contriving a set of objects or a chain of events directed to producing an emotion in the reader Thus, it is inconsistent with the values expressed in the first paragraph of the passage 54 D Any of the choices could be consistent with use of the term “native.” To identify the choice that most likely reflects what the author means, it is necessary to look at what the author sees as the qualities that make native literature valuable and unique, and then to determine which choice is MOST consistent with literature that has these qualities As with many verbal reasoning questions, the challenge here is to find the choice that is neither too narrow nor too broad Since the author refers to his country as “youthful,” he appears to be writing from the perspective of one who is an immigrant, or a child of immigrants, rather than that from the perspective of an aboriginal person, to whom the country would more likely be spoken of as the ancient home of his ancestors Therefore, (A) is not correct Since the author speaks of the country’s ability to inspire, both through its natural beauty and through the discovery of what is new, his vision of “native” literature is likely to be that which reflects the (new) circumstances and (new) environment of his country Thus, the closest choice is (D) (B) and (C) are slightly off the mark One who lives in a country (or one who is born in a country) may or may not produce art which reflects his country of residence (or birth) Passage IX (Questions 55 –60) Topic and Scope: the importance of punctuation Purpose: to argue that punctuation deserves more attention First paragraph: the importance of punctuation Second paragraph: the need for a treatise outlining correct punctuation Third paragraph: reasons for the avoidance of the dash by printers Fourth paragraph: explanation of the correct use of the dash Fifth paragraph: summary 55 D The support for Options I and II is in paragraph 3, and for Option III in paragraph 56 A Choice A correctly reflects information in paragraph Choice C is directly contradicted by the passage 57 A The author says that it is correct to use dashes to present two or more expressions of the same idea, so we can conclude that he does NOT believe that every idea should be expressed in only one way Paragraphs and indicate that the author would agree with (B), (C), and (D) 58 B 40 The author mentions his proposed article in connection with the statement that the principles of punctuation are very simple Note that the mention of an unwritten article about punctuation does not support the author’s claims to be an authority on punctuation, as (C) suggests 59 A Choice A correctly summarizes the information in paragraph Choice B is a Distortion of this same information: The second word or phrase is in some respect an improvement on the first, but if it really rendered the first “superfluous,” there would be no reason to keep the first The author recommends dashes for cases where the first thought is worth keeping 60 D The author mentions “axiom” and “paradox” in connection with the point that improper punctuation can distort the “spirit” of a sentence 41 ...Materials used in this test section have been adapted from the following sources: Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776 A E... explanation why there is no evidence of two large bodies colliding – choice D Choices A and B are not contested Choice C, regarding composition, is left open; both asteroids and icy comets are large and... relationship between the phenomena correlated and (2) the direction of causation In this case, neither test is met While it seems plausible that utilization of new technologies improved productivity,
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