MCAT verbal test (20)

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MCAT Section Tests Dear Future Doctor, The following Section Test and explanations should be used to practice and to assess your mastery of critical thinking in each of the section areas Topics are confluent and are not necessarily in any specific order or fixed proportion This is the level of integration in your preparation that collects what you have learned in the Kaplan classroom and synthesizes your knowledge with your critical thinking Simply completing the tests is inadequate; a solid understanding of your performance through your Score Reports and the explanations is necessary to diagnose your specific weaknesses and address them before Test Day All rights are reserved pursuant to the copyright laws and the contract clause in your enrollment agreement and as printed below Misdemeanor and felony infractions can severely limit your ability to be accepted to a medical program and a conviction can result in the removal of a medical license We offer this material for your practice in your own home as a courtesy and privilege Practice today so that you can perform on test day; this material was designed to give you every advantage on the MCAT and we wish you the best of luck in your preparation Sincerely, Albert Chen Executive Director, Pre-Health Research and Development Kaplan Test Prep © 2003 Kaplan, Inc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by Photostat, microfilm, xerography or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical without the written permission of Kaplan, Inc This book may not be duplicated, distributed or resold, pursuant to the terms of your Kaplan Enrollment Agreement ANSWER KEY B B A D C A C C A 10 C 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B D C D C B B D A C 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 D B A B D A B C B A 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B D B D C A B C D A 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C A B D B D A C B D 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 D B C C B D B A B C Material used in this test section has been adapted from the following sources: Henry James French Poets and Novelists London: Macmillan and Co., 1884 20 Passage I (Questions 1-7) Topic: The fable Scope: To describe the instructional purpose of, and narrative techniques used in, the fable Paragraph defines the tale, the parable, and the fable, indicating the differences among these different narrative forms The author considers the fable superior to the other two because of its focus on conveying a moral maxim, social duty, or political truth Paragraph further explains the goals of the fable, and lists certain devices included in the text which may help to accomplish communication of its didactic message By cloaking the message within a fictional text, the fabulist assures that readers will be responsible for proper perception and interpretation of the intended lesson Paragraph describes why the fabulist is important, and the varying roles the fabulist plays in society as a teacher, censor, and model of behavior B Paragraph describes several rhetorical, or figurative, techniques used by the fabulist, including fictitious characters, speaking animals, and living trees These are elements of the fable that are praised by the author as successful means of subtly conveying a lesson (A), (C), and (D) stated or implied in Paragraphs (1st sentence), (final sentence), and (5th sentence); these are all examples of 180° classic wrong answer choices B Paragraph praises the potential moral function of the fable in its final sentence, mentions the use of language in the parable in the same sentence as a potential problem, and favorably compares the fable to the parable because of this difference between the two Though the author also mentions that the tale can be a report of historical events in the 3rd sentence of Paragraph 1, this characteristic is not given as a flaw nor used as a major point of contrast to justify the superiority of the fable A The main lack for which the author criticizes the parable and tale is that they not combine a lesson with a fictional narrative Answer choices (B) and (D) are OS, and (C) is FUD of a detail in the 3rd sentence of Paragraph D (A) is found in Paragraph 2; (B) and (C) are both mentioned in Paragraph Only (D) is not indicated as necessary for a fable C 21 The author turns to Phaedrus to corroborate his conclusion that a fabulist has the dual function of both amusing and instructing readers (A), (B), and (C) are all OS wrong answer choices A If readers not apply what they read in fiction to their own experiences, then the lesson contained in the fable will not be successful (B) and (D) are 180° answer choices, for they would both serve to strengthen the author’s conclusion (C) is FUD of one of the criticisms mentioned regarding parables C The author of the passage is clearly laudatory in his opinion of the fabulist, and only answer choice (C) reflects this subjectivity Answer choices (A) and (B) are to neutral, with their terms analysis and conclusion, and (D), although certainly suggesting the author’s favorable attitude towards fabulists, is OS, since the author never mentions honor and respect Passage II (Questions 8-13) Topic and Scope: The pattern of early marine evolution, particularly whether or not there were more phyla immediately after the Cambrian explosion than today Purpose: The author considers the argument between conventional theorists and revisionists Conventional theorists thought they had early marine evolution figured out, assigning even odd-ball fossils like the Problematica to present-day phyla The revisionists, in contrast, think the Problematica occupy phyla of their own, which arose during the Cambrian explosion and then died out Paragraph consists of a discussion of the appearance of the present day phyla during the Cambrian explosion and a few notes on what makes up a phylum Paragraph describes the Problematica and why they don’t fit in present day phyla Paragraph details the conclusions that revisionists draw from this—there were other phyla that appeared in the Cambrian and then died out Paragraph is a summing up of the difference between the conventional theorists’ and the revisionists’ views C This inference question is a good illustration of the value of a firm grip on the main idea and author’s purpose The revisionists think the Problematica occupy phyla of their own, which arose during the Cambrian explosion and then died out Hence, they are critical of trying to classify them into present phyla Choice C reflects this attitude Choices A and B misidentify the revisionists’ point of view; since they see these efforts as wrong-headed, they won’t react in either of these ways Choice D is wrong because they have a clear, sharp point of view on the question 22 A This question asks the function of certain statements in the passage Why is the author doing what he is doing? Paragraph states the conventional view that the Cambrian species all (or nearly all) fit in present phyla; paragraph challenges this idea, and then gives several examples Obviously, the examples given will be creatures that don’t fit neatly into present phyla, which is choice A Choice A is also specifically justified by last sentence of paragraph 2: If the Ediacaran fauna approach to respiration was like that of only a few modern creatures that are totally different from them in other ways, then they would not fit comfortably into any known phylum Choice B is wrong At least some of these physiological processes were similar to those of tapeworms They could and did absorb and excrete fluids (choice C)—even though they did it in an unusual manner And the fact that they didn’t resemble modern creatures doesn’t mean that they were closely related to Tullimonstrum All we know about Tullimonstrum is that it was banana shaped 10 C This is an inference question about present-day phyla, so look in the passage in which modern phyla are mentioned A phylum (as stated in the middle of paragraph is a group of organisms with “the same basic pattern of organization,” that is, possessing similar structures; today, there is a small number of phyla, each containing a large number of species (fourth sentence of paragraph 3) Putting these two points together gives us choice C Choice A is the situation that existed during the Cambrian, according to the revisionists Choice B is also out; diversity within phyla is not mentioned Choice D is contradicted by the discussion of natural selection in paragraph 4: All species undergo evolutionary change 11 B This is another logic question These organisms are mentioned in the middle of paragraph 1, when the author defines phylum as “a group of organisms with the same basic pattern of organization,” such as the “radial symmetry of jellyfish and other coelenterates.” The author is giving familiar examples to illustrate the concept of a pattern of organization, and jellyfish and worms are present-day creatures Choice B captures this idea These phyla have not died out, so you can eliminate choice A As they are present-day phyla, they are not closely related to the Problematica (choice C) The passage never mentions when these organisms evolved (choice D) 12 D This detail question asks what the conventional and revisionist theorists not disagree about They disagree on nearly everything, but they agree on choice D, as stated explicitly at the beginning of paragraph This is our answer (That sentence doesn’t mention the Cambrian period specifically, but the entire passage is about the Cambrian.) Choice A is an Opposite choice: It actually identifies the scientists’ overall disagreement Choices B and C are also specific points of disagreement 23 13 C This is a detail question, so go to paragraph in which the Problematica are discussed Statement I is true; the Problematica had unusual “patterns of organization”—that is, unusual shapes—which make them difficult to fit into modern phyla Statement II is also true; the second half of paragraph notes that the unusual physiology of the Ediacaran fauna place it within the Problematica Statement III is not mentioned in the passage; we don’t know when these organisms became extinct Passage III (Questions 14-20) Paragraph introduces George Sand as an example of a female author who wrote under a male pseudonym, and whose pen name has become more familiar than her original given female name Paragraph explores one possible reason for choosing the pen name George Sand: at the beginning of her writing career, she collaborated with Jules Sandeau, and their publisher suggested the joint name J Sand for their works Once Sandeau’s contribution decreased, however, Aurore decided to slightly change the pseudonym but to retain the last name because it was already familiar to her reading public Paragraph presents a second possible reason for the pen name: the last name can be seen as a representation of important places, people, and names in Aurore’s life This particular explanation emphasizes the author’s talent and creativity rather than giving credit for her pseudonym to a publisher or an early lover The two reasons are not necessarily mutually exclusive, for Aurore was aware of the connection between her pen name and her lover’s name Paragraph describes some of the advantages and consequences of using a male pseudonym The passage concludes by declaring that the reasons for choosing this masculine pen name are really not important to an appreciation of George Sand’s vast and varied literary work 14 D The author does not express a very strong opinion about the use of pseudonyms, so answers (A), (B), and (C) are distortion of the author’s attitude Only (D) correctly describes the author’s curiosity about George Sand’s pseudonym, as shown by the transitional sentence at the end of paragraph 15 C Paragraph mentions both (A) and (D) and paragraph explains (B) The passage never indicates if she was unable to publish works under her given name and was thus forced to write under a pseudonym 16 B Paragraph indicates that the use of a male pseudonym correlated nicely with George Sand’s dressing habits, allowed her more liberty within Parisian society, and helped to 24 distance her persona as a writer from the other roles she fulfilled (A) is completely Outside the Scope; (C) is a Distortion of the information in paragraph 2; (D) is a Distortion of the first few sentences of paragraph 17 B The author appeals to Cate’s authority as a biographer of George Sand in paragraph in order to provide evidence for the first reason given as to why and how Aurore Dupin chose her pen name (A) and (C) are distortions of the reasoning and information in paragraph 2, and (D) is totally Outside the Scope 18 D This choice is FUD of the 3rd sentence of paragraph 1, which refers to portraits of the author which did not mention her real name (A), (B), and (C) are all detailed in paragraph and are given as reasons for the familiarity of her male pseudonym as opposed to the relative obscurity of her given female name 19 A The first sentence of paragraph strongly suggests that the author favors this second reason, since it gives more credit to Aurore Dupin as a creative talent (B) starts off well, but the second part is 180° from the information in the middle of paragraph (C) is Outside the Scope: the author never describes George Sand as “rational” and “innovative.” (D) is a Distortion of the second sentence of paragraph 20 C The first sentence of paragraph draws this exact comparison between her masculine dress and her masculine pseudonym (A), (B), and (D) are all Outside the Scope, and (A) and (B) are 180° from the description of her roles in life given in the 3rd sentence of paragraph Passage IV (Questions 21-26) Topic and Scope: The main idea of this descriptive passage about boomtowns is simply that these towns experience many infrastructure problems as a result of rapid population fluctuations, and these problems damage the quality of life for all residents The first paragraph provides a definition of boomtowns and lists their problems The second paragraph talks about rapid population fluctuations in boomtowns Even though structural signals have not been covered yet, you may want to elicit from students that the structural signal “Hence” links rapid population fluctuations to infrastructure problems The third paragraph discusses another contributing factor to boomtown problems; inadequate tax revenues The structural signal “For example” indicates that the author is about to provide an example of the preceding point—that boomtowns are often unable to tax development projects that affect them The last paragraph lists 25 some of the specific infrastructure problems of boomtowns and their social consequences for old and new full-time residents The structural signal “Until recently” suggests that these problems have finally been acknowledged by urban planners 21 D All three options are mentioned in the first and/or last paragraph as possible consequences of poor planning and underfinancing: option I (unsatisfactory labor conditions) see lines 13 and 67-70 Option II (inadequate police protections) see lines 50-51 Option III (poor community relations) see lines 9-16 Note that once a student has decided that both I and II are possible, there’s no need to even look at III, because choices (A), (B), and (C) can all be eliminated 22 B This is an ALL/EXCEPT detail problem that should be done by the process of elimination Choice (A) is mentioned in lines 24-26, so it can be eliminated Choice (C) is mentioned in lines 42-44; and (D) is in lines 33-36 Thus, by elimination, the answer is (B) 23 A The correct choice for this “inference” question is (A), which uses different language to make a point that is made in the text See second paragraph 24 B Choice (A) is too strongly negative in tone to describe the author’s attitude toward boomtown-related tax programs (D) complacent (meaning self-satisfied), in contrast, is too positive (C) isn’t right because there’s nothing in the third paragraph to suggest that the author is astonished by these programs (B), however, sounds right The author describes these programs in a matter-of-fact manner that suggests “concern,” but not anger or dismay 25 D The point made in choice (D) appears in the middle of both the first and the fourth paragraphs 26 A The first sentence of the last paragraph states a finding — large-scale development in sparsely populated areas causes social problems The rest of the paragraph then goes on to describe these problems in some detail That makes (A) the correct answer (B), (C) and (D) are easy to eliminate, since no prediction is made, no point of view is stated, and no proposal is set forth Passage V (Questions 27- 33) Topic: Poetry Scope: How factual errors of imitation in poetry can be justified by artistic means 26 Paragraph introduces three types of imitation and the thesis that poetry does not need to be as accurate or correct as politics or other arts Paragraph describes two kinds of errors that may be found in poetry as well as how these errors should be interpreted in terms of their fault’s severity Paragraph explains in further detail the common poetic errors and how they can be justified Paragraph gives the poet potential responses to objections or criticism regarding poetic errors in comparison to reality or probability, and mentions Sophocles and Euripides as exemplar authors Paragraph concludes with a contrast between the possible and the probable, and expresses the author’s preference for probable impossibility as opposed to improbably possibility 27 B The end of paragraph and the beginning of paragraph describe how certain errors of accuracy or factual information can be excused so long as the poet’s language is not faulty Answer choices (A), (C), and (D) all fall into this category of error; only (B) mentions an error at the level of language as opposed to content 28 C Paragraph contrasts Sophocles and Euripides in that the former describes humans in an idealized manner, whereas the latter shows human characters according to reality (A), (B), and (D) are distortions of this comparison 29 B The author claims that poets are like painters in that all artists are imitators (A), (C), and (D) are Outside the Scope answer choices, since the author does not praise poetry to the detriment of other art forms 30 A (B) is described in the last sentence of paragraph 4; (C) is explained in the beginning of paragraph 4; and (D) is the subject of the nd sentence of paragraph 31 B The entire passage is devoted to showing what poets must imitate, how they may create artistic imitations, and why unrealistic characters or situations may be rationalized in the context of these imitations (A) is Outside the Scope; (B) and (D) are FUD 32 27 D Paragraph concludes that the impossible can be justified by the poet’s successful fulfillment of artistic requirements (A) is FUD of the 1st sentence of paragraph 1; (B) is Outside the Scope since reader credibility is not addressed by the passage; (C) is Distortion of the final sentence of the passage Passage VI (Questions 33-40) Topic: Race Scope: Problems with the notion of biological races and evaluation of proposal to abandon racial typologies Purpose: To explain problems with the idea of race as a biological fact, and to argue that racial categories should be abandoned In the first paragraph the author introduces the problem and foreshadows her argument (in favor of abandoning racial taxonomies) In the second paragraph she explains that human groups are not races biologically speaking, but rather "social races." In the third paragraph the author argues that similar physical features not necessarily indicate recent common ancestry The fourth paragraph examines different societies' criteria for determining race, using the examples of the US and Brazil In the fifth paragraph the author argues that race should be abandoned altogether, and cites the problem of racism as further justification 33 B The third paragraph explains the causes of human physical or phenotypic differences Because this is an "EXCEPT" question, all of the wrong answer choices are supported by the passage and the right answer choice is not (A) is wrong: Differences in racial taxonomies are mentioned in paragraphs two and four Paragraph brings up the idea of social races and paragraph four discusses an example of different cultures' racial classification systems (C) is wrong: The third paragraph discusses the mismatch between ancestry and physical traits (D) is wrong: The author notes in the second paragraph that there are no such thing as human races in a scientific sense, for the reason mentioned in this answer choice 34 D The third paragraph presents the example of Brazil's racial classification system in contrast to that of the USA The author notes that races in Brazil are based on appearance alone and that they can change from day to day Therefore, getting a sun tan, which would alter a person's appearance, could conceivably change the race of someone in Brazil All the other choices are Outside the Scope None of these are mentioned in connection with Brazilian racial categories 35 C The passage criticizes the notion of race as a biological category A vertical scan of the verbs in the answer choices could have helped students eliminate wrong answers relatively quickly Choice A is Outside the Scope No hypothesis is advanced in the passage nor are any recent discoveries identified (B) is too narrow The passage does contrast the 28 classification systems of the USA and Brazil, in paragraph 3, but this comparison is not the purpose of the passage overall This answer choice could have been eliminated in a verb scan, since the overall purpose of the passage is not comparison (D) is too narrow Worldwide variations in the phenomenon of racial taxonomy are brought up as support for the author's argument that race is not biological This answer choice could have been eliminated in a verb scan because the passage is argumentative, not descriptive 36 A The author argues in the first and fifth paragraph that racial categories should be abandoned for the betterment of society We can assume therefore that she believes conscious effort can improve society Choice B is wrong: The author does not favor Brazil's system over that of the USA; she states that neither is scientific She presents them both for purposes of illustration (C) is Outside the Scope The author argues that racial categories should be abandoned and that such a change would be beneficial; valued beliefs are not mentioned in the passage (D) is a Distortion—too extreme The passage does not discuss any beliefs except systems of racial classification 37 B Paragraph discusses the mismatch between appearance and ancestry: appearance results from a variety of evolutionary forces active in various parts of the world, making it an unreliable indicator of recent ancestry It suggests that people could share physical features without being closely related Choice A is Outside the Scope It may be true that our racial categories mis-identify people's skin color, but the passage does not allude to this problem (C) is Outside the Scope The question of early human evolution does not arise in the passage This answer choice does not provide a problem with racial classification; there's no reason why our species' descent from Africa should make racial categories any less valid This answer choice should have been eliminated because it is logically inconsistent: if humans first evolved in Africa, we're all descended from the original line of humanity (D) is Opposite The passage states that ancestry is the legal criterion for race in the United States (paragraph 4) 38 C In paragraph the author mentions that the illogical racial classification systems in some states are "legacies of slavery" and in paragraph she notes "the genesis of our racial taxonomies themselves in the history of colonialism and slavery" Choices A and B are Outside the Scope There is no discussion of changes in social races worldwide to warrant this claim (D) is also Outside the Scope The passage does not cite any accurate racial classifications Colonialism and slavery are mentioned as influences on our current taxonomy but there is no mention of or comparison with a previous system 39 D The passage identifies scientific races as "reproductively isolated branches of a species" This means that they must have had a significant period in their history in which they could not reproduce with other members of the same species, possibly due to geographic circumstances Answer choice D is a rough paraphrase of the conditions 29 required for races to form Choice A is a Distortion, extreme Although scientific races would have been "reproductively isolated" at one point, the passage does not assert that members of true races could no longer interbreed (B) is Outside the Scope The passage does not speculate on how many races would exist if humans had true races Since this would depend on specific circumstances, there is no way of knowing a priori how many races there would be (C) is a Distortion The passage discusses genetics, ancestry and appearance in paragraph four It suggests that these not always go together in our current racial taxonomies, with the examples of classification in the USA and in Brazil However, it does not discuss how these three factors might be used if human groups formed true races 40 A The fourth paragraph discusses racial classification in the USA The author notes that race is legally determined by ancestry although people think it is identified through genetics or appearance She also discusses an inconsistency in the legal rule for labeling mixed race children Choice B is Opposite The passage states that the system of classification in use in the USA is not scientific North America outside of the USA is not addressed (C) is Outside the Scope The passage does not recommend a superior method of racial identification (D) is a Distortion The passage implies that these factors may contradict each other and does not advocate for the use of any of them Passage VII (Questions 41-46) Topic: Gautier as a poet Scope: Gautier’s unique talents over-ride any limitations Paragraph introduces Gautier as an admirable and talented poet, despite any limitations he may have had The author considers that Gautier had a unique and inimitable talent, and that none of his successors has come close to replicating his particular style Paragraph indicates that readers should be entertained by poetry, and concludes by declaring that Gautier’s mastery of his own talents can serve as a lesson to others Paragraph continues the author’s discussion of Gautier’s unique talents, and lyrically describes the poet’s attitude towards the natural world and art The author remarks that Gautier was extraordinarily attentive to and interested in life, and that he was blessed by Nature with an exceptional sensibility 41 C Answer choice A is discussed in the beginning of paragraph 3; choice B is implied by the remark on his “spontaneity” in the middle of paragraph 1; and choice D is mentioned at the end of Paragraph Gautier’s educational background, choice C, is not presented in the passage 42 30 A At the end of paragraph 1, Gautier is favorably compared to Musset, and paragraph praises Gautier in comparison with Browning Answer choice B is FUD of the 1st sentence of paragraph 1; (C) is Opposite since the author praises Gautier throughout the passage; D is FUD of the middle part of paragraph 1, since the other authors are not directly associated with attempts at imitations of Gautier’s style 43 B Answer choices A and D are Opposite since they would help to strengthen the author’s conclusion Choice C, which contains irrelevant historical information, would have no effect on the conclusion Only B would undermine the author’s conclusion that Gautier’s limitations were secondary to his poetic talent 44 D Choices A and C are Outside the Scope answer choices; choice B is FUD of the first two sentences of paragraph Only (D) correctly paraphrases the phrase in paragraph that provides a meaning for the words “pagan bonhomie” in the question stem (“…magnificent good temper and the unquestioning serenity of his enjoyment of the great spectacle of nature and art”) 45 B The first sentence in paragraph clearly states that readers of poetry should be entertained “before all things.” Choices A, C, and D are not discussed in the passage, and thus are Outside the Scope answer choices 46 D Paragraph implies that Gautier was not overly concerned with death or the “outlying darkness” of the world, but rather preferred to concentrate on “the great spectacle of nature.” Choice A is Outside the Scope and too extreme; Choices B and C are also both Outside the Scope Passage VIII (Questions 47- 54) Topic and Scope: Mental imaging, and studies exploring it Purpose: To categorize experiments that have been done in support of the analog position of mental representation Paragraph introduces the topic and establishes the author’s purpose Each of the remaining paragraphs explore one type of experiment that has helped develop our understanding of the nature of mental imaging 47 31 A The first sentence clearly states that the analog position is choice A Choice B directly contradicts this claim, and there is no support for Choice D Since complex problems need not take more steps, Choice C is a misreading of the analog position 48 C Given the assumptions of the analog position, (C) is the best answer Choice A directly contradicts the premises of the analog position, and there is no evidence for Choice B or D 49 B The subjects were forced to demonstrate that they knew the positions of the objects on the maps, so choice A is incorrect There is no mention of consulting real maps during the actual experiment, lending no support for choice C It is also not specified that it takes subjects longer to start scanning longer distances, which eliminates (D) 50 D There is no support for choice A, that objects are scanned in order of size; there is also no support for choice C It is not stated that the larger object is in front of the smaller object, so choice B is incorrect 51 D This question is trying to get us to consider what is implied by the statement that the results are due to experimenter effects If the results are due to experimenter effects, then it might be possible to create any pattern of results one wanted to, which is answer (D) (C) is contradicted by the premises of the question Choices A and B also imply that the results are not influenced by experimenter effects 52 B The analog position both predicts that there will be a relationship between scanning and distance and that this relationship will be linear Any other pattern contradicts this position Options II and III contradict this prediction; therefore choice B is the correct answer 53 C If subjects can alter the rate at which they scan mental images, this implies that the rate is not due to properties of the image, which contradicts A B and D are contradicted by the nature of the question Passage IX (Questions 54-60) Topic: Methods of study Scope: Development of a particular methodological approach to abstract ideas Paragraph discusses the author’s scholarly background in philosophy and mathematics The author explains why he found the study of logic problematic since it wasn’t useful for passing knowledge along to others, and since many of its precepts seemed to be false 32 Paragraph explains the problems found by the author during his study of geometry and algebra, including their narrow focus on figures, rules, and numbers Paragraph concludes the previous discussion with the author’s decision to develop some other methodological approach The paragraph concludes with a long metaphor about vice in government, and thereby proposes that close observation of a select number of principles is preferable to attempting to integrate a large number of principles Paragraph presents the first precept, which entails caution as well as lack of judgement in the acceptance of the veracity or falsity of ideas and concepts Paragraph states the second precept, which can basically be summarized as “divide and conquer” – that is, divide large concepts into small manageable pieces in order to understand them Paragraph continues along the same vein, for the author declares that he will advance slowly in his thinking and analysis Paragraph gives the fourth and final precept, which indicates the author’s concern with being complete and thorough in his studies 54 C Answer choices A, B, and D are paraphrases of statements made in paragraph Lack of understanding is never mentioned, so choice C is Outside the Scope 55 B The end of paragraph indicates that the “spirit” plays an important role in the author’s approach to determining truth, implying that instinctive reactions are just as important as intellectual knowledge For this same reason, choices A and C are Opposite answer choices D is FUD of details mentioned in paragraphs and 56 D Answer choice D paraphrases the long and complicated sentence that ends paragraph (A) is completely Outside the Scope, (B) is a Distortion of the beginning of the final sentence of paragraph 3, and (C) is FUD of the same sentence 57 B Paragraph discusses the problems with geometric analysis, including the fact that it is largely irrelevant except for abstract ideas and that its applications are limited to figures, so both statements I and II are paraphrases of parts of paragraph Statement III is a Distortion of the sentence in paragraph that shows how geometry requires intellectual fortitude at the same time as it neglects the imagination For this reason, answer choices A, C, and D are incorrect 58 33 A Paragraph summarizes the author’s reasoning for developing his own methodological approach after attempting to study the existing tenets of philosophy, geometry, and algebra Choices B, C, and D are all Outside the Scope answer choices 59 B Paragraph contains the author’s precept that each “difficulty” should be divided into smaller parts in order to better understand and resolve it, so answer choice B is correct (A) is FUD, for the author mentions his own study of logic when he was younger but does not pronounce an opinion Answer choice C is a paraphrase of the author’s second precept, and is Opposite for this question Likewise, choice D is mentioned in paragraph 1, so is another Opposite answer 60 C The end of Paragraph 3, combined with precepts 1, 3, and 4, demonstrate that the author values a careful, orderly, and consistent method Answer choices A, B, and D are Outside the Scope 34 ... 50 C A B D B D A C B D 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 D B C C B D B A B C Material used in this test section has been adapted from the following sources: Henry James French Poets and Novelists
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