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Hyperlearning MCAT ® Verbal Workbook MCAT® is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not sponsor or endorse this product Hyperlearning MCAT Verbal Workbook 2011 Edition ® Jennifer Wooddell Senior Editor and Question Writer Alix Claps, M.A Edited for Production by Judene Wright, M.S., M.A.Ed National Content Director, MCAT Program, he Princeton Review he Princeton Review would also like to thank all the writers and editors of previous editions for their contributions Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2005, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997 by Princeton Review, Inc All rights reserved 2011 Edition his manual is for the exclusive use of Princeton Review course students, and is not legal for resale PrincetonReview.com Contents Practice Passages Practice Passages Solutions 91 MCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Tests Practice Test 169 Answer Key 184 Practice Test Solutions 185 Practice Test 197 Answer Key 212 Practice Test Solutions 213 Practice Test 225 Answer Key 240 Practice Test Solutions 241 Practice Test 255 Answer Key 270 Practice Test Solutions 271 MCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Passages MCAT Verbal Workbook Passage (Questions 1–7) [T]he…principle…can be paraphrased as “We see the universe.the.way.it.is.because.we.exist.” There are two versions of the anthropic principle: the weak and the strong The weak anthropic principle states that in a universe that is large or ininite in space and/or time, the conditions necessary for the development of intelligent life will.be.met.only.in.certain.regions.that.are.limited.in.space.and time The.intelligent.beings.in.these.regions.should.therefore.not be surprised if they observe that their locality in the universe satisies the conditions that are necessary for their existence It is.a.bit.like.a.rich.person.living.in.a.wealthy.neighborhood.not seeing.any.poverty One.example.of.the.use.of.the.weak.anthropic.principle.is.to “explain”.why.the.Big.Bang.occurred.about.ten.thousand.million years ago—it takes about that long for intelligent beings to evolve As.explained.above,.an.early.generation.of.stars.irst.had to.form These.stars.converted.some.of.the.original.hydrogen.and helium.into.elements.like.carbon.and.oxygen,.out.of.which.we are.made The.stars.then.exploded.as.supernovas,.and.their.debris went to form other stars and planets, among them those of our solar.system,.which.is.about.ive.thousand.million.years.old The irst one or two thousand million years of the earth’s existence were.too.hot.for.the.development.of.anything.complicated The remaining.three.thousand.million.years.or.so.have.been.taken.up by.the.slow.process.of.biological.evolution,.which.has.led.from the.simplest.organisms.to.beings.who.are.capable.of.measuring time.back.to.the.big.bang Few people would quarrel with the validity or utility of the weak anthropic principle Some, however, go much further and propose a strong version of the principle According to this theory, there are either many different universes or many different regions of a single universe, each with its own set of laws.of.science In.most.of.these.universes.the.conditions.would not.be.right.for.the.development.of.complicated.organisms;.only in the few universes that are like ours would intelligent beings develop.and.ask.the.question:.“Why.is.the.universe.the.way.we see.it?”.The.answer.is.then.simple:.if.it.had.been.different,.we would.not.be.here! | © The Princeton Review, Inc The laws of science, as we know them at present, contain many.fundamental.numbers,.like.the.size.of.the.electric.charge of.the.electron.and.the.ratio.of.the.masses.of.the.proton.and.the electron We.cannot,.at.the.moment.at.least,.predict.the.values.of these.numbers.from.theory—we.have.to.ind.them.by.observation It.may.be.that.one.day.we.shall.discover.a.complete.uniied.theory that.predicts.them.all,.but.it.is.also.possible.that.some.or.all.of them.vary.from.universe.to.universe.or.within.a.single.universe The.remarkable.fact.is.that.the.values.of.these.numbers.seem.to have.been.very.inely.adjusted.to.make.possible.the.development of life For example, if the electric charge of the electron had been.only.slightly.different,.stars.either.would.have.been.unable to burn hydrogen and helium, or else they would not have exploded Of course, there might be other forms of intelligent life,.not.dreamed.of.even.by.writers.of.science.iction,.that.did not.require.the.light.of.a.star.like.the.sun.or.the.heavier.chemical elements that are made in stars and are lung back into space when the stars explode Nevertheless, it seems clear that there are relatively few ranges of values for the numbers that would allow.the.development.of.any.form.of.intelligent.life Most.sets of.values.would.give.rise.to.universes.that,.although.they.might be very beautiful, would contain no one able to wonder at that beauty One.can.take.this.either.as.evidence.of.a.divine.purpose in.Creation.and.the.choice.of.the.laws.of.science.or.as.support.for the.strong.anthropic.principle Practice Passages ฀ 1.฀ According.to.the.author,.the.“remarkable.fact”.that.the fundamental.numbers.in.science.appear.to.have.been perfectly.adjusted.to.enable.the.development.of.life.could provide.evidence.for: A B C D a.divine.force.in.the.creation.of.the.universe the.weak.anthropic.principle the.theory.of.evolution the.inlationary.model ฀ 2.฀ The.passage.states.that.the.weak.anthropic.principle promotes.the.notion.that: A the.earth’s.solar.system.is.ten.thousand.million.years old B intelligent.life.evolved.over.the.previous.three thousand.million.years C stars.exploding.into.supernovas.converted.hydrogen and.helium.into.carbon.and.oxygen D intelligent.life.formed.immediately.after.the.big bang ฀ 3.฀ According.to.the.passage,.one.difference.between.the.two versions.of.the.anthropic.principle.includes.which.one.of the.following? A Only.the.weak.anthropic.principle.can.“explain” why.the.big.bang.took.place.ten.thousand.million years.ago B Only.the.strong.anthropic.principle.can.account for.the.ideal.conditions.which.promote.life.in.our universe C The.conditions.under.which.complicated.organisms develop.are.a.function.of.limited.space.and.time in.the.weak.anthropic.principle,.and.a.function.of unlimited.space.and.time.in.the.strong.anthropic principle D The.weak.anthropic.principle.applies.to.a.single universe,.whereas.the.strong.anthropic.principle.can apply.to.multiple.universes ฀ 4.฀ The.author’s.use.of.the.analogy.“It.is.a.bit.like.a.rich person.living.in.a.wealthy.neighborhood.not.seeing any.poverty”.(paragraph.1).illustrates.which.one.of.the following.about.intelligent.life? A We.should.not.feel.astonished.that.there.are.no shortages.of.life-supporting.requirements.in.our.part of.the.universe B We.should.be.surprised.that.our.section.of.the universe.satisies.all.requirements.for.life C We.are.not.capable.of.observing.life.outside.our region.of.the.universe D We.should.not.be.amazed.that.other.places.in.the universe.may.also.satisfy.conditions.necessary.for life ฀ 5.฀ Which.of.the.following,.if.true,.would.most.strengthen.the theory.that.different.regions.of.the.universe.are.subject.to different.laws.of.science? A Some.physicists.predict.that.an.electron.in.the.far reaches.of.the.universe.will.have.a.greater.charge with.respect.to.its.mass.than.a.similar.electron.on Earth B Deep.space.probes.have.yet.to.ind.an.area.of our.solar.system.that.breaks.the.irst.law.of thermodynamics C Mankind.is.the.only.intelligent.and.complicated.life form.in.the.universe D Just.because.mankind.is.limited.to.space.and.time does.not.mean.that.the.entire.universe.is.similarly bound ฀ 6.฀ From.the.context.of.the.passage,.it.can.be.inferred.that.the author.favors.which.of.the.following? A The.weak.anthropic.principle B The.strong.anthropic.principle C A.combination.of.the.weak.and.the.strong.versions of.the.principle D It.cannot.be.inferred.which.version.the.author.favors ฀ 7.฀ In.this.passage,.the.author’s.tone.is.one.of: A a.critical.observer.of.Einstein’s.theories B a.researcher.presenting.her.new.approach.to understanding.the.anthropic.principle C a.scientist.describing.certain.theories.to.a.lay audience D an.awe-inspired.observer.of.the.universe © The Princeton Review, Inc | MCAT Verbal Workbook Passage (Questions 1–8) Often, the central problem in any business is that money is needed to make money The following discusses the sale of equity,.which.is.one.response.to.this.problem Sale of capital stock: a way to obtain capital through the sale of stock to individual investors beyond the scope of one’s immediate acquaintances Periods of high interest rates turn entrepreneurs.to.this.equity.market This.involves,.of.necessity,.a dilution.of.ownership,.and.many.owners.are.reluctant.to.take.this step for that reason Whether the owner is wise in declining to use.outside.equity.inancing.depends.upon.the.irm’s.long-range prospects If.there.is.an.opportunity.for.substantial.expansion.on a.continuing.basis.and.if.other.sources.are.inadequate,.the.owner may decide logically to bring in other owners Owning part of a larger business may be more proitable than owning all of a smaller.business Private placement One.way.to.sell.capital.stock.is.through private placement This means that the irm’s capital stock is sold to selected individuals, who are most likely to be the irm’s employees, the owner’s acquaintances, local residents, customers,.and.suppliers Private.sale.of.stock.is.dificult.because the new irm is not known and has no ready market for its securities However,.the.entrepreneur.avoids.many.requirements of.the.securities.law.when.a.stock.sale.is.restricted.to.a.private placement Public sale Some irms “go public” by making their stock available to the general public These are typically the larger small-business.irms The.reason.often.cited.for.a.public.sale.is the need for additional working capital or, less frequently, for other.capital.needs The.personal.inancial.objectives.of.owners may.also.enter.into.the.reasoning.behind.the.public.sale.of.stock In.undertaking.the.public.sale.of.stock,.the.small.irm.subjects itself to greater public regulation There are state regulations pertaining to the public sale of securities, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) also exercises surveillance over.such.offerings The.SEC.is.quite.tolerant.of.small.offerings, however,.by.permitting.“Regulation.A”.offerings.to.be.sold.with minimum.requirements.for.inancial.data.and.information Common stock may also be sold to underwriters, who guarantee.the.sale.of.securities The.compensation.and.fees.paid to.underwriters.typically.make.the.sale.of.securities.in.this.manner expensive The.fees.themselves.may.range.from.10.percent.to.30 percent,.with.18.percent.to.25.percent.being.typical In.addition, there are options and other fees that may run the actual costs higher The.reason.for.the.high.expense.is,.of.course,.the.element of.uncertainty.and.risk.associated.with.public.offerings.of.stock of.small,.relatively.unknown.irms | © The Princeton Review, Inc Studies.of.public.sale.of.stock.by.small.irms.reveal.the.fact that small companies frequently make inancial arrangements that are not sound Indeed, the lack of knowledge on the part of small-irm owners often leads to arrangements with brokers or.securities.dealers.that.are.not.in.the.best.interest.of.the.small irms The.condition.of.the.inancial.markets.at.any.given.time.has a direct bearing on the prospects for the sale of capital stock Entrepreneurs.found.the.early.years.of.the.1980s.to.be.strong.for new-venture.stock.sales For.example,.George.Ryan,.founder.and chairman of CADO Systems Corp, a microprocessor-computer manufacturer,.said.that.going.public.with.a.stock.sale.was.easy because.“today’s.venture.market.is.so.hot.that.if.you.had.a.corner hot.dog.stand,.you.could.take.it.public There.is.a.push.to.take companies.public.”.Market.conditions.do.change,.however,.and therefore.must.be.studied.carefully Practice Passages ฀ 1.฀ The.passage.implies.that.an.owner.who.chooses.not.to.sell capital.stock.despite.the.prospect.of.continued.expansion is: A subject.to.increased.regulation B more.conservative.than.might.be.necessary.under.the circumstances C likely.to.lose.control.of.the.business D sacriicing.security.for.rapid.growth ฀ 2.฀ Which.one.of.the.following.reasons.might.prompt.an owner.to.sell.stock.through.a.private.placement.offering? A B C D Raising.capital.without.diluting.ownership Raising.capital.without.incurring.debt Raising.capital.with.less.interference.from.the.SEC Desiring.the.general.public.to.become.co-owners ฀ 3.฀ Under.what.circumstances.might.owners.decide.to.take their.irms.public? A When.they.have.personal.reasons.for.wanting.to raise.money B When.an.underwriter.offers.to.guarantee.the.sale.for an.unusually.low.rate.(e.g.,.10.percent) C When.they.want.the.irm.to.grow.rapidly D When.the.irm.is.very.small.(e.g.,.a.hot.dog.stand) ฀ 4.฀ When.a.irm.goes.public.through.an.underwriter,.all.of.the following.are.true.EXCEPT.that: A the.more.money.the.irm.raises.in.the.sale,.the.more the.underwriter.proits B if.no.one.will.buy.stock.in.the.new.irm,.the underwriter.contributes.the.capital C the.high.fees.charged.by.underwriters.may.offset.the costs.they.incur.when.a.company.fails D the.underwriter’s.proits.are.relatively.low.in.the case.of.private.placement.offerings ฀ 5.฀ Which.one.of.the.following.about.capital.stock.can.be inferred.from.the.passage? A A.irm’s.employees.can.only.buy.private.stock.in that.irm,.not.capital.stock B Those.who.have.capital.stock.in.a.company.own.part of.that.company C The.lack.of.knowledge.about.capital.stock.of.smallirm.owners.leads.to.many.business.bankruptcies D The.sale.of.capital.stock.is.the.most.common.way businesses.generate.capital ฀ 6.฀ Which.of.the.following.best.expresses.the.main.idea.of the.passage? A The.condition.of.inancial.markets.inluences.the success.of.businesses B The.sale.of.equity.is.one.way.for.businesses.to.raise money C Relatively.unknown.irms.can.succeed.through public.offerings.of.stock D The.stock.market.is.intrinsically.related.to.the business.world ฀ 7.฀ Based.on.the.passage,.which.one.of.the.following statements.most.accurately.describes.SEC.policy? A The.SEC.keeps.a.close.eye.on.small.irms.because they.frequently.make.inancial.arrangements.that.are not.sound B The.SEC.seeks.to.protect.business.owners.from.the risks.of.venture.capitalism C The.SEC.seeks.to.protect.the.public.from.the.risks.of venture.capitalism D The.SEC.limits.the.fees.underwriters.can.charge ฀ 8.฀ Sale.of.capital.stock.will.necessarily.result.in.all.of.the following.EXCEPT: A B C D dilution.of.ownership growth.of.the.company regulation.by.securities.laws acquisition.of.capital © The Princeton Review, Inc | MCAT VerbalReasoning PracticeTest4 Solutions MCAT Verbal Workbook TEST SOLUTIONS Passage I 272 | B A:No heauthorspeciiesavarietyofreasonsthatmodernlistenersmayfailtoappreciatecontemporary music hus the passage suggests that people today criticize modern music for those speciiccharacteristics,notbecausetheybelieveittobeinsuicientlyuniversal heauthor doesusetheword“universal”inparagraph5,butinthecontextoftheclaimthatcontemporarymusicshouldbelistenedtobecauseofitsuniquequalities B:Yes Inparagraph3theauthorsaysthatavoidanceofsentimentandfeelingisthe“reproach thatisrepeatedmoreoftenthananyother.” C:No heauthorstatesthatmodernmusicdoesexpresssubtletiesoflightanddark(paragraph6) D:No Lackofstraightforwardmelodyisonepotentialproblemorsourceofconfusion(paragraph 2),butitisnotthemost commonproblem hatproblemwouldbethe“reproachrepeatedmore oftenthananyother,”themusic’sapparentlackofsentimentandfeeling(paragraph3) A A:Yes hepassageassertsthatrepeatedhearingsofintricatemelodieswillclarifytheirappeal (paragraph2) B:No heauthorrecommendslisteningrepeatedlytothesamepiece(paragraph2),notabandoningitforanotherpiece C:No Inparagraph2theauthorsuggestslisteningtothepieceagain,notcastingitasidefora diferentpieceanddiferentcomposer D:No heauthorgivesexplicitadvice;listentothatpiecerepeatedlyuntilitbecomesclear D A:No hecorrectanswerwillbeastatementmadebytheauthorthatisinconsistentwiththe scenariopresentedinthequestion heauthor’sassertionthatoldermusicshouldseemforeign toushasnodirectrelevancetothecaseofthecounterfeitmusic B:No Controversyandresentmentarenotissueshere C:No hescenariodescribesapieceinthestyleofthesixteenthcentury;itsuggestsnothing aboutsensitivitytocontemporarymusic D:Yes hequestiondescribesanexactduplicationofthesixteenth-centurymodeofexpression; the author claims in the statement cited in the answer choice that such duplication is impossible(paragraph6) © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 4 D A: No We would expect to ind such climaxes in modern music (paragraph 6) Milhaud and Schumanarepresentedasmoderncomposerswhosemusicshouldstrikeusaslessforeignthan thatoftheolder(deceased)composers(paragraph5) B:No WewouldexpecttoindabandonmentandhysteriainmoderncomposerssuchasBartók (paragraph4) C: No Sessions and Bartók are shown to be modern composers through the author’s contrast betweenthemandBrahmsandTchaikovsky(paragraph4) husitwouldnotbesurprisingto discoversuchclimaxesandexplosionsintheirwork D:Yes BuxtehudeandCherubiniarecomposersofthepast(paragraph5) hereforeitwould besurprisingtoindclimaxesofabandonmentandexplosivehysteria,characteristicsof contemporarymusic,intheircompositions(paragraph6) B A:No heauthorarguesthatmodernmusicisorcanbejustasenjoyableasromanticcompositions, not that romantic music is just as good as contemporary works B:Yes heauthorarguesthatwedonotexpectthemodernEliottowritewiththevoiceofthe romanticsHugoandScott,andmakesananalogytowhatweshouldnotexpectofcontemporarymusic(paragraph4) C:No heauthormentionsEliotandHugotodrawananalogy,nottodramatizediferences between literature and music (paragraph 4) D: No he author suggests that Eliot’s work is diferent from that of writers of the past, and so should be appreciated on its own terms He uses this claim to make the point that listeners who complain that modern music is too dry and cerebral simply not suicientlyappreciate thecharacteristicmusicalspeechoftheirowntime(paragraph4) C Note: he credited response will be one that either strengthens or has no effect on the author’s contention A: No his choice would weaken the passage by indicating that romantic standards of comparisonhaverelevancetocontemporarymusic;theauthorhimselfrecognizesavalidanalogy betweenmusicandliterature(paragraph4) B:No hischoiceweakenstheanalogymadebytheauthorbetweenreaders’appreciationof modernwritingandtheappreciationlistenersshouldhaveformodernmusic(paragraph4) Ifcontemporaryreaderspreferromanticworks,theauthor’scontention(thatthosewhofail toappreciatemodernmusicareusinginappropriatestandardsofcomparison)becomesless convincing C:Yes hischoicewouldhavenoefectontheauthor’scontention hefactthatEliotstudied worksfromthepastdoesnotindicatethathefollowedtheirstylisticmodelsorthatcontemporaryliteraturedoesnothaveitsownuniquelanguage D:No hischoicedirectlycontradictstheauthor’sclaimsthateachperiodhasitsownunique formofexpression(paragraph6),andthatwecannotjudgecontemporarymusicandliteraturebyromanticstandards(paragraph4) © The Princeton Review, Inc | 273 MCAT Verbal Workbook Passage II 274 | D A:No hecorrelativitythesisindicatesthatifwedoshowthatwehaveobligationstoanimals, animalsmusthavecorrespondingrights(paragraph5) heauthorhasussupposethatwe havesuchobligationsforthesakeofexplainingthethesis,butthepassageneverindicatesthat wedoinfacthaveobligationstoanimals B:No heopponentsofthethesisarguethatitisinvalidbecauseobjectsandresourceshaveno rights(paragraph6) Itistheproponentsofthethesiswhoraisetheissueofdirectvs indirect duties(paragraph7) C:No heauthorneverstatesapersonalpositiononthequestionofwhetherornotanimalshave rights D: Yes If it were to be demonstrated that we have obligations to animals, and the thesis itself isaccepted,itwouldbetruethatanimalshaverights(paragraph5) Noticethemoderate wordingofthisanswerchoicecomparedtochoiceA B A:No hecorrectanswerwillbeinconsistentwithAquinas’sviewsastheyaredescribedinthe passage Accordingtotheauthor,Aquinasbelievesthatwehavenodutiestoanimals;henever indicatesthatGoddoesnotlovethem B:Yes Paragraph3tellsusthatAquinasbelievesthatwesinonlywhenwefailtofulilladuty toourselvesortoGod,andthatwehavenodutiestoanimals heonlywayslayingofanimalsandplantswouldbeasininthesetermsisifitleadsustosinagainstrationalbeings hequotepresentsananalogybetweenhumansononehandandanimalsandplantsonthe otherbyclaimingthattakingthelifeofanyplantoranimalisasin“forthesamereason” (deprivationoflife)thatkillingahumanisasin hisequivalencedrawnbetweenhumans andanimalsisinconsistentwithAquinas’sviewsastheyarepresentedinthepassage C:No hisstatementisnotinconsistentwithAquinas’sviewthatourtreatmentofanimalsisto bejudgedbyitsefects on humans (paragraph 4) D: No Aquinas agrees that animals are irrational (paragraph 4), and the passage never indicates that he supported human friendship with them his choice is not inconsistent, and so does not undermine the author’s depiction C A: No All we know of Descartes from the passage is that he believed (unlike Aquinas and Aristotle) that animals are not sentient (paragraph 3) Aquinas would disagree with the statement that we have obligations to animals, but we not know Descartes’ position on the subject B: No As in choice A, we only know of Descartes’ position on sentience We cannot infer anything from that about his position on reason C:Yes hepassagedeinessentienceas“thecapacitytoexperiencepleasureorpain”(paragraph 2) hus Aquinas, who unlike Descartes believes animals are sentient (paragraph 3), wouldagreewiththestatementandDescarteswoulddisagree D: No his answer choice applies to the discussion of correlativity in the inaltwoparagraphs NoinformationisgiveninthepassagetoallowustodeducethepositionofeitherDescartes orAquinasonthatissue © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 10 D A: No he author deines sentience as “the capacity to experience pleasure and pain” (paragraph 2) hequotefromSartreentailshowmanactstodeineorcreatehimselfintheworld—there isnoconnectioninthequoteorinthepassagebetweenfeelingsandactions B:No hecorrelativitythesis(ifwehavedutiestoothers,theyhavecorrespondingrights(paragraph5)hasnodirectrelevancetothisquote C: No he issue of direct vs indirect duties arises in the context of discussion of the correlativity thesis(paragraphs5and7),whichhasnorelevancetotheSartrequote D:Yes heauthordeinesautonomyas“thecapacitytomakefreechoices”(paragraph2) Inthequotegiveninthequestion,Sartredescribeshowmanmakesanddeineshimself throughhisfreewill:“hewillbewhathemakeshimself”orwhathechoosestobe 11 12 D A:No hecorrelativitythesis,asdescribedhere,makesnoclaimsorassumptionsbasedonequal rightsamonganimalsorbetweenanimalspecies B:No Proponentsofthethesisarguethatwehaveanindirect,notadirectdutytothingssuchas oceansandwoodlands—ourdirectdutyistofuturegenerationsthemselves(paragraph7) C:No heproponents’positionindicatesthatwehaveadirectdutytofuturegenerations(paragraph7) D:Yes Criticsofthethesisclaimthatwehaveadutynottodestroycertainthingsthatclearly not have corresponding rights (paragraph 6) he proponents respond that we have only indirectdutiestosuchthings,andthatthethesisappliesonlytocasesofdirectduty(paragraph7) Ifweweretohaveadirectdutytofuturegenerationstopreservetheecosystem,it wouldsupportthedistinctiondrawnbytheproponents Itwouldalsofurtherundermine theircritics’supposedcounterexamplebyshowingthatcorrelativitycouldexplainour dutytopreserveresourceswithoutclaimingthatthoseresourcessomehowthemselveshave rights D A: No Descartes is mentioned only in passing as someone who holds a diferent position on sentience (paragraph 3) he author does not dwell on or highlight this diference B: No he author does mention that the idea that a being must be able to reason in order to have rights goes back to Aristotle (paragraph 2) However, sentience and reason are discussed in the second paragraph in order to introduce the author’s discussion of Aquinas’s views, a discussion which continues on into the third and fourth paragraphs Furthermore, sentience and reason are presented as necessary, not suicientconditions Wehavenodutiestowardsbeingsthat lackthem(paragraph2),yetthepassageneverindicatesthatwedohavedutiestowardsallbeingsthatsatisfythoseconditions C:No heauthorneverexpressesapersonalopinionontheissueofanimalrights Furthermore, sentienceandrationalityarepartoftheauthor’sdiscussionofduties Hisconsiderationof whethertheexistenceofdutieswouldentailtheexistenceofrightscomeslaterinthepassage, intheinaltwoparagraphs D:Yes heauthorraisestheissuesofsentienceandrationalityinordertointroducethe discussionofAquinas’sclaimthatwehavenodutiestowardsanimalsbecausethey,while sentient,lackthecapacityforreason(paragraph2) © The Princeton Review, Inc | 275 MCAT Verbal Workbook 13 B A: No his statement is suggested as a belief held by Aquinas (paragraph 4) he author never indicatesthatheagreeswithAquinasonthispoint B:Yes Intheirstparagraphtheauthorstatesthatthesatisfactionofcertainconditionsmay causeustohavedutiestowardsbeings,includinganimals Notethattheauthorneverstates hisownopiniononwhetherornotthoseconditionsarefulilledbyanynon-humanbeing C:No hisistakingtheauthor’sstatementinthebeginningofparagraph5tooliterally he authorhasussupposethatwedohavesuchanobligationinordertoexplainthecorrelativity thesis,notinordertoindicatehisownbeliefsonthetopic D:No heauthordescribesothers’beliefsthatwehaveadutytopreservegreatart(paragraph6) However,wecannotinferthattheauthorfollowsthisbelief Notethewordingused:“some argue”and“oursupposedduty.” Passage III 14 276 | B A:No heauthor’sdescriptionofthecurveformesotheliomainparagraph7wouldapplyto PMLaswell hemortalitycurvecannotbesymmetrical helowerboundarymustbezero, asthediseasecouldatthelatestbediscoveredatorsoonafterdeath(paragraph7) However,a fewindividualsmightliveformanyyearsafterdiagnosis,thusskewingthecurvetotheright B:Yes Seeparagraph7 hediscoveryofthediseasebeginsthecurveatzero Accordingtothe author,onecoulddieatthesametimethatthediseaseisdiscovered,butnoearlier However,whilehalfthosediagnosedwoulddiebeforethemedianpointandhalfafter,some peoplemaylivemuchlongerthanfourtosixmonthsafterthemedian(thatis,longerthan eighttotwelvemonthstotal) Ifoneperson,forexample,livedforseveralyears(alikelypossibility), the curve would extend far to the right to include that individual hus the curve wouldbeskewedtotheright C:No heauthorstatesthatdiseaseisdiscoveredatdeathorbefore(paragraph7) huswecannothaveafewindividualswhosediseaseis“discovered”longafterdeathpullingthecurveto theleftinthesamewaythatatleastafewlong-termsurvivorsarelikelytopullitouttothe right D:No hereisnoevidencegiveninthequestionofthepassagetoindicatethatthemean (average)mortalityforPMLwillbelowerthanthemedian(themiddlenumberintheseries) lengthofsurvival © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 15 16 17 B A: No his choice is too wishy-washy to signiicantly strengthen the author’s claim he third paragraphproposesapossiblecausalconnectionbetweenattitudeandabilitytoightof cancer he fact that not all people with sanguine or cheerful personalities get cancer does not show that their personality played any causal protective role B:Yes hisindicatesthatwhenaperson’sattitudeimproves,theyarelesslikelytodiefrom ovariancancer,thussupportingtheexistenceofacausalconnection Noticetheword“signiicantly,”whichmakesthischoicestrongenoughtobolstertheauthor’sclaim C: No his statement would somewhat weaken, not strengthen the passage he author argues in paragraph that a positive attitude may boost the immune system and improve one’s ability to ightcancer hisanswerchoiceindicatesthattheimmunesystemhaslittletodowith whether or not we have cancer D:No hisstatementwouldweaken,notstrengthentheauthor’sargumentthatapositiveattitudeoremotionalstatuscanhelpapersontoresistcancer(paragraph3) C A:No Mesotheliomahasamedianmortalityofeightmonths(paragraph2) Amedianisthe midpointinaseries,meaninghalfthepeoplediebeforeeightmonths,andhalfafter(paragraph7) hereforeamajoritywillhavediedaftereightmonths,notwithinsixmonths B:No Whiletheauthorsuggeststhatmostpeoplewouldmisunderstandormisinterpretthestatistical information in the literature (paragraph 4), he does not suggest that misinterpretation oftheirownlifeexpectanciesconstitutesirresponsibility C:Yes Inparagraph4,theauthorclaimsthatthemajorityofpeoplefacedwiththesestatistics would(incorrectly)believethattheywilldiewithineightmonths D:No heauthorneversuggeststhatpeopleeithercanorwillchangetheirpersonality D I: True heauthorstatesthatPlatoniclogicseesmeansandmediansas“hard‘realities’,”yet thatinfactvariationisthetrue“reality”(paragraph5) II: True heauthorwouldrejectaPlatonicquestforahardandclearmarkeroftheboundary atwhichlifebegins(paragraph5) III: True Platonicthoughtholdsthatcleardistinctionsandcategorizationsdeine“reality,” whiletheauthorbelievesrealityliesinvariation(paragraph5) Passage IV 18 B A:No heJellybyphenomenonoccurswhenpeopletrytoixtheproblemsofotherswhileignoring problems at home (paragraph 5) he policeman may be working to solve the problems of others,butthereisnoindicationthatheisfailingtohelppeopleinhisownneighborhood B:Yes Apsychiatristtriestohelpothers,butatthesametimethispsychiatristisignoringhis ownproblems Outofthesefourchoices,thisoneistheclosesttothepassage C:No Neithersolvingtheproblemsofothersnorignoringone’sownproblemsisinvolvedinthis example D:No heemployerishelpingothersinhisownbusiness,andthereisnoreasontoconclude thatheisignoringproblemsinhisownhome © The Princeton Review, Inc | 277 MCAT Verbal Workbook 19 B A: No “Ideologues” in this context refers to European feminists he author does not suggest that thesefeministsarepoliticallytotheright B:Yes hisparagraphcontinuestheauthor’sdiscussionoftheirrelevanceofEuropeanfeministideastoZimbabweanreality he“ideologues”aretheEuropeanfeministswhoare lecturingtheAfricanwomen C:No heideologuesaretheEuropeanfeministswhoarebeingmockedorcriticizedbythe Zimbabweanwomen D:No heideologuesareEuropeans,notAfricans 20 C Note: he correct answer will be a statement that is inconsistent with the decisions described in the question A:No RespectingZimbabweantraditionisnotinconsistentwithfocusingontheproblemsof othersratherthantheproblemsinone’sowncountry Furthermore,itdoesn’tunderminethe author’sclaimthatthephenomenonitselfarisesoutofthecolonialexperience B:No hereisnoreferencetoattitudestowardsthepastinthenewscenariodescribedinthe question C:Yes Ifthemajorityoffeministsagreedonauniiedpoliticalagenda,itwouldundermine theauthor’sclaimthatpoliticalgroupsareunabletoworktogether(paragraph1) D:No Perhapstheymightindsomethingtovalueinthefutureiffeministsdocometobemore responsivetotheirconcerns,butthisdoesnotmeanthattheycurrentlyseevalueinfeminist ideas 21 278 | A A: Yes Part of political movements’ intolerance of the past is the belief that they are doing everythingfortheirsttime,evenwhenthisisclearlynotthecase(paragraph1) B:No hisistakingLarkin’sstatementthat“weinventedsex”abittooliterally C:No AsinchoiceB,thistakesLarkin’sstatementtomeanthatpeopleinthe’60sreallydidinventortransformsexinsomefundamentalway heauthorintendsthestatementtoindicate justtheopposite Despitethebeliefsofmanyapoliticalmovement“inthefulllushofitsstar” (paragraph1),theauthorsuggeststhatthereisreallynothingnewunderthesun D:No heauthorneverreferstoleftorright-wingmovements © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 22 A Note: he correct answer will be a question that cannot be answered by information provided in the passage A:Yes WhiletheauthortellsusthatsomeAfricanwomenraisetheirfamiliesonbetween sixtyandeightydollarsamonth(paragraph3),sheneverdivulgestheaverageincomeof Africanfamilies B:No heauthorassertsthatwe“thinkintermsofgoingoutandtellingtheneighborshow tolive”becausewe(meaningEuropeans)belongto“ex-colonizingcountries”(paragraph5) herefore,this“Jellybyphenomenon”afects how we perceive the world and our actions within it herefore, political history (in this case colonialism) afects our perceptions C: No In paragraph the author states that the feminist movements of the ’60s were born in politics, as were the feminist movements that arose from the French and Russian Revolutions he rest of the irstparagraphandthesecondparagraphgoontolistavarietyofcharacteristicsthatallpoliticalmovements,includingfeministmovements,haveincommon D:No hisquestionisansweredinthedescriptionofZimbabweanwomensinging,dancing, andactingouttheircomplaintsandcriticisms(paragraph4) Passage V 23 24 C A:No hetheoryofcomplementaritysaysthatfundamentalentitiesinsomecircumstancesact asparticlesandinothersaswaves,butthatnoexperimentwillshowthemactinginbothways atonce(paragraph4) hisexperimentwouldcontradictthetheory,notproveittobetrue B:No Heisenberg’suncertaintyprinciplesaysthatthemoreweknowaboutanelectron’sparticle properties,thelessweknowaboutitswaveproperties;noexperimentshowsanelectronbehavingasbothatthesametime(paragraph4) hustheanswerchoicewouldundermine,not supporttheuncertaintyprinciple C:Yes heCopenhageninterpretation(paragraph6)isbasedinpartontheprinciplethatit isimpossibletomeasureposition(characteristicofparticles)andmomentum(characteristic ofwaves)simultaneously(paragraphs3and4) Anexperimentthatwasabletodetectboth wouldcallintoquestiontheprinciplesofcomplementarityanduncertainty,andsoundermine the Copenhagen interpretation which is based in part on those principles D:No Anexperimentthatdetectedbothwavesandparticleswouldcallintoquestiontheideas ofuncertaintyandcomplementarity(paragraphs3and4),andsounderminetheCopenhagen interpretation(paragraph6) C A:No BohrandBorntogetherdevelopedtherulesandphilosophyofquantumcookery(paragraph1) heirideaswereentirelyconsistent,accordingtothepassage B:No Bornfocusedonbothparticleandwaveproperties C:Yes heauthorstatesthat,somewhatparadoxically,experimentsinquantumphysicsare rootedinclassicalphysics(paragraph5) D:No Bohrtellsusthatobservationinterfereswiththebehavioroftheatoms,andthat“itis meaninglesstoaskwhatatomsaredoingwhenwearenotlookingatthem”(paragraph5) BornandBohrareincompleteagreementonallpoints,asdescribedbythepassage © The Princeton Review, Inc | 279 MCAT Verbal Workbook 25 26 C A: No his choice is too extreme While the Copenhagen interpretation may be “slippery” (paragraph6),thepassageneverindicatesthatitisnotsusceptibletoproof B:No Ithasfourparts:uncertainty,complementarity,probability,anddisturbanceofthesystem beingobservedbytheobserver(paragraph6) C:Yes heauthorclaimsthatitmaybeusedtosolveproblemsevenwithoutanunderstanding ofitsbasicprinciples(paragraph6) D:No heauthordescribesitas“slippery,”andasbeingmanythingstomanypeople(paragraph6) D A:No hepassagestatesthatbothqualitiescannotbemeasuredatonce(paragraph3),notthat entitiescannotexpressbothatonce B:No Positionisapropertyofparticles,andmomentumcharacterizeswaves(paragraph4) Furthermore,whilethepassagestatesthatbothcannotbemeasuredsimultaneously,wedon’t knowthatentitiescannotexpressbothatonce C:No Positionisaparticleproperty,whilemomentumisawaveproperty(paragraph4) D:Yes AllpartsofthischoiceareconsistentwiththedescriptionofHeisenberg’sprinciplein thethirdandfourthparagraphs 27 B Note: he correct answer will be inconsistent with the Copenhagen interpretation A:No hediscoveryofaparticlethatexpressedmorethanonebehaviorwouldbeconsistent withtheideaofcomplementarity(paragraph2),whichisoneofthefourtenetsoftheinterpretation (paragraph 6) B:Yes heprincipleofcomplementaritybasesitselfontheideathatfundamentalentitiesexpressbothwave-likeandparticle-likebehaviors(paragraph2) hediscoveryofasubatomic particlewithnowave-likebehaviorwouldcastdoubtontheprinciple,andsoalsoonthe Copenhageninterpretation(paragraph6) C:No hisisconsistentwiththeideathatthesystemunderobservationisdisturbedbythe observer(paragraph5) D:No Bornstatesthat,giventheproblemofobservation,allwecandoiscalculatetheprobabilityofaparticularresult(paragraph5) AparticlethatbehavedconsistentlywithsuchcalculationswouldaddsupporttotheCopenhageninterpretation 28 A A:Yes hisisstatedbytheauthorinparagraph5 B:No Accordingtothepassage,thereisnosuchthingasabsolutetruthinquantumphysics (paragraph3) C:No hischoiceistooextreme Whilequantumphysicistsattempttocalculatetheprobability ofparticularresults(paragraph5),theauthordoesnotsuggestthattheyarealwayssuccessful D:No heauthorreferstoquantumcookeryas“practicalquantumphysicssincethe1920s” (irstsentence) hiswordingindicatesthatsomeaspectsofquantumphysicspredatedthe 1920s;thoseaspectscouldwellincludesomeformofexperimentation Similarwordingwith thesameimplicationappearsinthebeginningofparagraph3 280 | © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 29 D A: No he uncertainty principle states that we cannot measure wave and particle functions simultaneously(paragraph3) However,wecanmeasureoneortheother,suggestingthatusable resultsarecertainlyattainable B:No Chemicalphysicsisnevermentioned C:No Quantumphysicistsmustrelyonprobabilisticinterpretations,giventheproblemofobservational interference (paragraph 5) D:Yes heauthorwritesthatcompetentscientistscangetusefulresultswithoutany“great needforthoughtaboutthefundamentals”(paragraph6) Passage VI 30 31 32 A A:Yes Inparagraph2theauthorexplainsthattheinluenceofcontentexertedbyantiquityon theMiddleAgescontinuedintotheRenaissance B:No Useof,andimportanceplacedon,formchangedsigniicantlyintheRenaissanceperiod (paragraph2) C:No Accordingtoparagraph2,theformofexpressionchangedintheRenaissance;nosimilaritiesinotheraspectsofexpressionarementioned D:No “Lyricalpoetry,”asfarasweknowfromthepassage,isnotthesamethingas“lyrics,” whicharenevermentionedbytheauthor heonlyreferencetosongcomesinthementionof troubadoursinparagraph4 However,thepassagenevermentionsasimilarityinthelyricsof thesongsofthetroubadoursinthesetwoperiods D A:No heauthormentionsbothDante’sVita nuovaandPetrarch’ssonnetsasexamplesofthe newprimacyofformintheRenaissance(paragraph3) Nocontrastbetweenthetwoisgiven B:No heauthordescribestheirsimilaritynotincontent,butintheir“feelingforform”(paragraph3) C:No heauthorreferstoDantetoillustratetheprimacyofformin“practicallyeveryintellectualield”(beginningofparagraph3),nottodemonstrateDante’sownintellectualcapacity D:Yes Lyricalpoetry,includingVita nuova,wasthemostpowerfulembodimentofthisnew “willtoform.”hepassagecallsthisfeelingforandtransformationofforma“trulyliberatingandredeemingforce”(secondhalfofparagraph3) D A:No Dante’sVita nuovarepresentstheRenaissancefeelingforform(paragraph3),butthe authordoesn’tdirectlyconnectittohumanism B:No Petrarch’ssonnetsarementionedinthesamebreathasDante’sVita nuovainparagraph3; neitherisdirectlytiedtohumanisticteachings C:No BorinskidiscussestheissueofformandcontentintheMiddleAgesandtheRenaissance (paragraph2);theauthordoesnotindicatethatBorinskihimselfwasinluencedby,orwasa productof,humanism D:Yes Valla’sworkiscitedasanexampleofthenewRenaissancefeelingforlanguage(or form),whichaccordingtothepassagewas“cultivatedinhumanistcircles”(paragraph5) © The Princeton Review, Inc | 281 MCAT Verbal Workbook 33 C A: No hrough the author’s discussion of da Vinci, we see that art in the Renaissance attempted tobetterrelecttheultimatetruthofnature(paragraph7),nottodivorceitselffromreality B:No hepassagepresentsliteratureandartaspowerfulexamplesoftheprimacyofforminthe Renaissance C:Yes Inparagraph6,theauthormentionstheinluenceofchangesinartisticsensibilityon Renaissance science D:No hereisnomentionofeschewingorrejectingtraditionaleducation Furthermore,thereis nodirectconnectionmadeinthepassagebetweenpurityoflanguageandthought(paragraph 5),andthe“purepursuitofabstractbeauty”citedinthequestion 34 B Note: he correct answer will be a statement that does NOT pertain to the Renaissance conception of form A:No Inparagraph2,theauthordescribeshowtraditionalcontentwasexpressedinanewform duringtheearlypartoftheRenaissanceera B:Yes heprimacyofformcouldbedemonstratedinpracticallyeveryintellectualield(beginningofparagraph3),noteveryield C:No hepassagedescribestheefect of form on both poetry (paragraph 3) and painting (paragraphs and 2) D: No he author describes lyrical poetry as “the most potent vehicle of the new will to form” (irsthalfofparagraph3) Passage VII 35 B A:No hepainting’stitlewastheinspirationforthename“Impressionism,”notthesourceof theactualmovement;theschoolorstyleofpaintingalreadyexisted B:Yes henameofthepaintingbecamethenameoftheschoolofpainting(paragraph5) C:No hereisnomentionofwinningorlosinginthiscontext D:No Ifwesubstitute“collective”for“eponym,”thesentencebecomesnonsensical 36 D Note: he correct answer will be inconsistent with the passage A:No heseventhparagraphdescribesMonet’screationofthe“series”asawayofportraying a“successionofelusivemoments.”WeknowfromthepreviousparagraphthatMonethimself sometimesonlypaintedforifteenminutesadayonacanvas However,ifsomeotherImpressionistshadadiferent approach, it would have no direct impact on the author’s argument about Monet’s series B: No his is consistent with the author’s description of the series as a way of reconciling the “laborious painter and the instant impression of the eye (paragraph 7) C: No he sixth paragraph states that he sometimes only painted for ifteenminutesatatimeon aparticularcanvas hestatementthatheneverinishedapaintinginunderifteenminutes hasnoefect on the author’s description of Monet’s series in paragraph seven D:Yes heauthorclaimsthattheserieswereawayofcapturingthe“instantimpressionofthe eye”(paragraph7) IfMonetworkedalmostexclusivelyfrommemory,itwouldcastdoubt onthispoint 282 | © The Princeton Review, Inc Solutions to Test 37 38 C A: No he passage states that Monet sometimes painted multiple pictures of the same scene even inhisearlyyears(paragraph7) B:No heauthormentionsinparagraph7thatMonetsometimespaintedmorethanoneversion ofasceneearlyinhiscareer heserieswereextensivecollectionsofscenesofthesamesubject underagreatvarietyofconditions hediscoverymentionedinthequestionwouldhaveno impactontheauthor’sclaimthattheserieswasanewepicform C:Yes hiswouldprovidespeciicevidencesupportingtheauthor’sstatementinthemiddleof theseventhparagraph D:No hisdiscoverywouldbeentirelyconsistentwiththeauthor’sconception(paragraph7), andnoconlictingconceptionsarementioned A A:Yes heauthorwritesthatthe“unpredictablesun,clouds,rain,andfogtransformthesky atitssearelectionsfrommomenttomoment”(paragraph2) hisdescriptionmirrorsthe author’sdiscussionofthekeyaspectsofMonet’slaterwork,includinghisdesiretocapture theworldofthe“evanescentmoment”inchangingstatesofwater(paragraph5) B:No Monetappreciatedtheweatherandattemptedtocaptureit(paragraphs5and7);hedislikedschoolandwishedtoescapeit(paragraph2) C:No heauthordoesnotsuggestthatMonetchoseharborscenesassubjectslaterinlifebecause of his exposure to the Normandy weather as a child D:No Monetmayhaveappreciatedtheweather,buttheauthordoesnotsuggestthattheopinionsofthosewhoexperienceitas“painful”shouldberejected 39 D Note: he correct answer will be the choice that least supports and is least relevant to the statement in the question A:No Ablurredphotoofanobjectinmotioncapturesaleetingmomentintime hiscorrespondstoMonet’squesttoportrayamomentaryperceptionorvisualsensation B:No hephotographcapturesasplit-secondintime,justasMonetwishedtocapturetheevanescentmoment C:No heblurredphotoiscreatedbyasplit-secondimpressionoflightonilm;Monet attemptedtocaptureamomentaryimpressionoflightoncanvas D:Yes Monet’sseriesareinspiredbyhisdesiretoportrayasuccessionofmomentsthrough timeratherthanasingleleetingimpressionoflight hischoiceleastsupportstheclaim thatphotographyafectedMonet’swork 40 A A: Yes Monet was driven to capture the momentary impressions of light as experienced by the eyeasbesthecouldonthestaticsurfaceofthecanvas(paragraph7) B:No heauthorgivesnoevidencethatMonetfeltexcludedorisolatedinanyway C:No Hesawschoolasaprisontobeescaped;however,hewishedtocapture,notescapefrom hisvisualexperiences hisisatooliteralreadingoftheword“prisoner”inthequestion D:No Nosuchimpatienceisdescribed © The Princeton Review, Inc | 283 NOTES 800-2Review | PrincetonReview.com Hyperlearning MCAT® Verbal Workbook MCAT® Verbal Workbook The Princeton Review is not afiliated with Princeton University © 2010 The Princeton Review, Inc All rights reserved PRP # 11–270 2011 ... 1999, 1998, 1997 by Princeton Review, Inc All rights reserved 2011 Edition his manual is for the exclusive use of Princeton Review course students, and is not legal for resale PrincetonReview.com... Production by Judene Wright, M.S., M.A.Ed National Content Director, MCAT Program, he Princeton Review he Princeton Review would also like to thank all the writers and editors of previous editions...Hyperlearning MCAT Verbal Workbook 2011 Edition ® Jennifer Wooddell Senior Editor and Question Writer Alix Claps, M.A Edited
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