ENGLISH PHONETICS Bài giảng dành cho sinh viên đại học cao đẳng

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ENGLISH PHONETICS Bài giảng dành cho sinh viên đại học cao đẳng là bộ tài liệu hay và rất hữu ích cho các bạn sinh viên và quý bạn đọc quan tâm. Đây là tài liệu hay trong Bộ tài liệu sưu tập gồm nhiều Bài tập THCS, THPT, luyện thi THPT Quốc gia, Giáo án, Luận văn, Khoá luận, Tiểu luận…và nhiều Giáo trình Đại học, cao đẳng của nhiều lĩnh vực: Toán, Lý, Hoá, Sinh…. Đây là nguồn tài liệu quý giá đầy đủ và rất cần thiết đối với các bạn sinh viên, học sinh, quý phụ huynh, quý đồng nghiệp và các giáo sinh tham khảo học tập. Xuất phát từ quá trình tìm tòi, trao đổi tài liệu, chúng tôi nhận thấy rằng để có được tài liệu mình cần và đủ là một điều không dễ, tốn nhiều thời gian, vì vậy, với mong muốn giúp bạn, giúp mình tôi tổng hợp và chuyển tải lên để quý vị tham khảo. Qua đây cũng gởi lời cảm ơn đến tác giả các bài viết liên quan đã tạo điều kiện cho chúng tôi có bộ sưu tập này. Trên tinh thần tôn trọng tác giả, chúng tôi vẫn giữ nguyên bản gốc.Trân trọng.ĐỊA CHỈ DANH MỤC TẠI LIỆU CẦN THAM KHẢOhttp:123doc.vntrangcanhan348169nguyenductrung.htmhoặc Đường dẫn: google > 123doc > Nguyễn Đức Trung > Tất cả (chọn mục Thành viên) PHAM VAN DONG UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES ENGLISH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY LECTURES (For English majors) Lecturer: BUI THI THANH THUY Quang Ngai, December 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page number List of figures and tables Chapter 1: Introduction Lesson 1:Introduction: Phonetics and phonology 1.1 Phonetics 1.2 Phonology Lesson 2:English vowels 11 1.3 Monophthong 1.4 Diphthongs 1.5 Triphthongs Lesson 2:English consonants 14 1.6 Place of articulation 1.7 Manner of articulation 1.8 Voicing Questions for discussion What is phonetics? What is phonology? What are the differences between phonetics and a phonology? How many English monophthongs/diphthongs/ triphthongs are there? How many English consonants are there? Chapter The phoneme and the allophone 22 2.1 The phoneme and the allophone 2.2 The distinctive feature 2.3 The minimal pair 2.4 Symbols and transcription Questions for discussion What is a phoneme? What is the distinctive feature? What is the minimal pair? What is narrow transcription? What is broad transcription? Chapter The syllables 28 Lesson 1: The syllables and the structure of the syllable 28 3.1.The syllables 3.2.The structure of the syllable Lesson 2: The syllable in Connected speech 32 3.3 An analysis of phonological structure 3.4 Syllabic consonants 3.5 Open syllables and closed syllables 3.6 Syllabification rules 3.7 Strong and week syllables Questions for discussion + 15 minute Test How many parts are there in an English syllable? What are they? What is a strong syllable? What is a weak syllable? … Chapter Aspects of connected speech 38 4.1 Assimilation 4.2 Elision 4.3 Contraction 4.4 Linking 4.5 Strong forms and weak forms Questions for discussion What is assimilation? How many types of assimilation are there? What is elision? Give examples of different types of elision What is contraction? Give two examples What is weak form? How many types of weak forms are there? Chapter 5: The English stress and intonation 60 5.1 What is word-stress? 5.2 What is sentence-stress? 5.3 Levels of word stress and sentence-stress 5.4 Placement of stress in simple words and complex words 5.5 Types of main sentence-stress 5.6 Rhythm 5.7 Intonation Questions for discussion + 50 minute Test What kind of words are normally stressed in communication? What kind of words are not normally stressed in communication? What is rhythm? What are the differences between syllable-timed rhythm and stress-timed rhythm? How yo understand the term intonation ? What are the forms and meanings of the five basic tones (Falling, Rising, Falling-Rising, Rising-Falling, and Level) in English? * The way in which this material is designed for students using the course under the direction of the lecturer is as follows: - All the students in the class read a chapter of this material - The students then have a class with the lecturer This provides an opportunity to discuss the material in the chapter, and for the lecturer to check if difficult points have been understood There are also some proper activities designed for students to follow - The students then goes on to the next chapter - All students need to a 15minute test after finishing Chapter and a 50 minute test at the end of the course LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Page number Figure 1: The Human Hearing System Figure 2: The Speech Organs Figure 3: The Vowel Chart 11 Table 1: Place of Articulation 15 Table 2: Manner of Articulation 16 Table 3: The International Phonetic Alphabet 18 Table 4: English Syllable Structure 32 Table 5: Positional Occurrence of NAE Consonants 33 Chapter INTRODUCTION Time allotted: weeks Contents Lesson 1: Introduction: Phonetics and phonology Lesson 2: Vowels Lesson 3: Consonants Lesson 1: Introduction: Phonetics and Phonology Aims: The aim of this lesson is to help students think about language systems and students understand that there is a close link between phonetics and phonology A list of technical terms is also introduced at the end of this lesson Activity 1: Basic notions Read the following basic notions that you need to know about, but then you can develop your understanding if you want with other references Phonetics deals with the sounds of speech: the way we make them, the way we classify them, and the way we perceive them Phonology also deals with the sounds of speech, but in a rather different way While phonetics deals with the individual sounds of any language and the details of their formation, phonology deals with the ways in which the sounds in any given language are related to each other and interact with each other If we can use an anology from music, phonetics tells you what it means to play an A, and why A on a flute is different from A on a cello, but phonology tells you how that A can be used to produce harmonies and tunes Morphology is about the structure of words, how words such as dislike are made up of smaller meaningful elements, such as dis- and like Syntax is about the ways in which words can be put together to make up larger units, such as sentences Semantics deals with meaning of an utterance Pragmatics deals with the way in which we use language to achieve our goals, in ways which might not be obvious from the words we use To take a simple example, It’s cold in here might really mean ‘Will you please close the window?’ but is phrased as a statement which does not require any response (From Laurie Bauer, 2012) The place of phonology in the interacting hierarchy of levels in linguistics: Pragmatics Semantics Syntax Morphology Phonology Phonetics Activity 2: Spoken language δet’s continue with a piece of spoken language: Why don’t these alternatives work as well as the original – “All right, have it your way - You heard a seal bark!” ? (from The Seal in the Bedroom by J.Thurber) Students should work in pairs or in small groups.The first one has been done for you a You heard a seal berk (This does not work because it is pronounced wrongly.) b You heard a seal moo c You heard bark a seal d You heard a seal barking e Would you like to hear a seal bark? f Dear Albert, You heard a seal bark, Yours truly, Beryl g A marine pinniped mammal going bow-wow was audible unto three Activity 3: Language systems Each of the alternatives above (a-g) represents “Incompetence” in one of the following systems Can you match them? The first one has been done for you - Vocabulary: knowledge of what words mean and how they are used (b) - Syntax: knowledge of how words are ordered and sentences constructed - Appropriacy and style: knowledge of what language is appropriate according to one is speaking to, about what and by what means - Phonology: knowledge of how to pronounce individual sounds, words and chunks of speech - Grammar and morphology: knowledge of how words and phrases are marked for tense, person, case, etc - Discourse competence: knowledge of different types of texts and their conventions - Pragmatic competence: knowledge of what forms are appropriate in order to realise one’s communicative purpose (or function) Activity 4: Get to know the human hearing System Figure 1: The human hearing system Activity 5: Get to know the speech organs (sound producing systems) Figure 2: The speech organs Articulator Alveolar ridge Hard palate Oral Cavity Tip/Apex Tip/Apex Blade/Lamina Nasal Cavity Velum Uvula Back/Dorsum Pharynx Epiglottis Glottis Larynx Questions for discussion What is phonetics? What is phonology? ‘There it is.’ / e It iz/ ‘Put it there.’ /’put It ‘ e / Weak form: / / (before consonants) ‘There should be a rule.’ / ∫ d bi ’ru:l/ / r/ (before vowels) ‘There is’ / r ’iz/ In final position: the pronunciation may be / / or / e / ‘There isn’t any, is there?’ / r ’iznt eni ’iz e / The remaining weak form words are all auxiliary verbs, which are always used in conjuction with (or at least implying) another (full) verb It is important to remember that in their negative form (i.e combined with ‘not’) they never have the weak pronunciation, and some (e.g ‘don’t’, ‘can’t’) have different vowels from their nonnegative strong forms + ‘can’, ‘could’ Weak form: /K n/, /k d/ ‘They can wait.’ /’ ei k n ‘weit/ ‘He could it.’ /’hi: k d ‘du: it/ In final position: /kæn/, /k d/ ‘I think we can.’ /ai i k wi kæn/ ‘εost of them could.’ /’m τ v m k d/ +’have’, ‘has’, ‘had’ Weak forms: / v, z, d / (with initial /h/ in initial position) ‘Which have you seen?’ /wIt∫ v ju ‘si:n/ ‘Which has been best?’ /wIt∫ z been ’best/ 56 ‘εost had gone home.’ /’m τ d ‘g n h m/ In final position: /hæv, hæz, hæd/ ‘Yes, we have’ /jes wi hæv/ ‘I think she has’ /’ai ’ I k ∫I hæz/ ‘I thought we had.’ /’ai ’ : wI hæd/ + ‘shall’, ‘should’ Weak forms: ∫ l, ∫l or ∫ d ‘We shall need to hurry.’ /wI ∫l ‘ni:d t h ri/ ‘I should forget it.’ /’ai ∫ d f ’get It/ In final position: ∫æl, ∫ d ‘I think we shall’ /’ai I k wI ∫æl/ ‘So you should’ /’s ju ∫ d/ + ‘must’ This word is sometimes used with the sense of forming a conclusion or deduction, e.g ‘She left at o’clock, so she must have arrived by now’; when ‘must’ is used in this way, it is rather less likely to occur in its weak form than when it is being used in its more familiar sense of ‘obligation’ Weak forms: /m s/ (before consonants) ‘You must try harder.’ /ju m s ’trai ’ha:d / /m st/ (before vowels) ‘He must eat more.’ /hi m st ’i:t ’m :/ In final position: /m st/ ‘She certainly must.’ /∫I ’s :tnli ’m st/ 57 + ‘do’, ‘does’ Weak forms: ‘do’ /d / (before consonants) ‘Why they like it?’ /wai d ei ‘laik it/ /du/ (before vowels) ‘Why all the cars stop?’ /’wai du :l ’ka:z ’st p/ ‘does’ /d z/ ‘When does it arrive?’ /wen d z it ’raiv/ In final position: /du:, d z/ ‘We don’t smoke, but some people do’ /wi: d ‘I think John does’ /ai I k ’d nt sm k b t s m ‘pi:pl du:/ n d z/ + ‘am’, ‘are’, ‘was’, ‘were’ Weak forms: / m/ ‘Why am I here?’ /wai m ‘hi / / / (before consonants) ‘Here are the plates’ /‘hi ‘pleits/ / r/ (before vowels) ‘The coats are in there’ / ‘k ts r in e / /w z/ ‘He was here a minute ago’ /hi w z hi / ’g minit g / / /w / (before consonants) ‘The papers were late’ / ‘peip z w ‘leit/ 58 /w r/ (before vowels) ‘The questions were easy’ / ‘kwest∫ nz w r i:zi/ In final position: /æm, a:, w z, w :/ ‘She’s not as old as I am.’ /∫Iz ’n t z ’ ‘I know the Smiths are’ /ai ’n ‘The last record was.’ / ld z ’ai æm/ ‘smi s a:/ ‘la:st ’rek :d w z/ ‘They weren’t as cold as we were.’ / ei ’w3:nt z k’ ld z ‘wi: w3:/ *Terminology -strong form and weak form: d ng phát âm m nh y u mà m t t có th xu t hi n m t l i nói N u m t t đ bi t ho c đ ây hai s d ng c phát âm m t cách riêng c nh n m nh (ví d ‘He can pay us’ strong form s /ken/ ‘can’) N u m t t không đ d t ‘can’ s đ c nh n m nh t s xu t hi n d ng y u (c ng t ví c phát âm /k’n/) Questions for discussion What is rhythm? What is assimilation? How many types of assimilation are there? Give two examples of each type of assimilation What is elision? Give examples of different types of elision What is linking? What is weak form? How many types of weak forms are there? What are they? Give examples to illustrate What is a thought group? Circle the thought groups in this limerick: A mouse in her room woke Miss Dowd She was frightened and screamed very loud 59 Then a happy thought hit her To scare off the critter She sat up in bed and meowed *Terminology - rhythm:nh p u, ti t t u - assimilation: s đ ng hóa âm Khi m t âm nói thay đ i tr nên gi ng v i âm đ ng tr c hay theo sau hi n t ng đ - progressive assimilation: hi n t c g i đ ng hóa ng đ ng hóa âm v tr c đ ng hóa âm v sau - regressive assimilation: hi n t tr ng đ ng hóa âm v sau đ ng hóa âm v c - reciprocal assimilation (mutual assimilation) - Aspects of connected speech - elision: s nu t âm - contraction: s t nh l c - arhythmically: giai u - intrusion: hi n t ng s d ng âm /w/, /j/ /r/ đ đ c n i gi a nguyên âm nh m giúp cho vi c phát âm đ c d dàng h n 60 Chapter 5: ENGLISH STRESS, RHYTHM AND INTONATION Time allotted: periods Contents English stress Rhythm Intonation Aim: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to recognise, understand and use English stress, rhythm and intonation naturally 5.1 Activity 1: Read about stress in English According to Jones, stress is the force of breath with which a sound or a syllable is pronounced [13, p.110] Stress is considered to be the pronunciation of a syllable or a word with more force than the surrounding syllables or words From the perceptual point of view, all stressed syllables have one characteristic in common That is prominence Stressed syllables are recognized as more prominent than unstressed syllables The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress or prosodic stress Word-stress is the prominence given to certain syllables in a word by the use of greater breath force The prominence can be produced by one or all of the following four factors: - loudness - length - pitch - quality One syllable has primary or heavy stress This is the most important syllable in the word because listeners use the stressed syllable to identify words The vowel in the stressed syllable is longer than vowels in other syllables The stressed vowel may also be louder or pronounced on a higher pitch Examples: ’traffic, a’dapt… 61 Some words have secondary stress in addition to primary stress They are pronounced on a lower pitch than vowels with primary stress and may also be shorter in length Example: ’pass,port Secondary stress occurs: - on the second noun of a compound: ’rail,road - two syllables back from primary stress in some words: ,corpo’ration - on some suffixes: -ize, -ate (as a verb ending) a’polo,gize Generally, these four factors work together in combination, though syllables may sometimes be made prominent by means of only one or two of them Words in a sentence are either content words or function words Content words have clear meanings and are usually stressed Function words have grammatical meanings and are unstressed English is a stress-timed language Students can practise reading the following sentences and use suitable stress Exercise : CATS EAT MICE CATS are EATing MICE All of the CATS are EATing MICE All of the CATS are EATing all of the MICE Exercise 2: In pairs, pronounce the following words carefully so that your friend can say whether they are nouns or verbs Noun Verb 1.’conduct con’duct 2.’rebel re’bel 3.’object ob’ject 62 4.’progress pro’gress 5.’suspect sus’pect 6.’protest pro’test 7.’produce pro’duce 8.’permit per’mit 5.1.1 Levels of stress Three levels of stress may be identified: - tonic strong (or primary) indicated by the sign ( ’ ) put before the stressed syllable - non-tonic strong (or secondary) indicated by ( , ) - unstressed For example: representation /reprizentei∫n/ 5.1.2 Placement of stress in simple words and complex words Word-stress is the stress placed on a given syllable in a word The position of word stress in a word may depend on certain rules applicable in the language or dialect in question English is not one of those languages where word-stress can be decided simply in relation to the syllables of the words, as can be done in French (where the last syllable is usually stressed),Polish (where the syllable before the last-the penultimate syllable-is stressed)or czech (where the first syllable is stressed) Many writers have said that stress is difficult to predict and the best approach is to stress placement as a property of the individual word According to Peter Roach [23, p.88], in order to decide on stress placement, it is necessary to make use of some or all of the following information: - Whether the word is morphological simple, or whether it is complex as a result of containing one or more affixes or of being compound words; - The grammatical category to which the word belongs; 63 - The number of syllables in the word; - The phonological structure of those syllables 5.1.3 Placement of stress within two-syllable words 5.1.3.1 Verbs The basic rule is that if the second syllable of the verb contains a long vowel or a diphthong, or if it ends with more than one consonant, that second syllable is stressed e.g.a’ttract, a’ssist, a’pply If the final syllable contains a short vowel and one (or no) final consonant, the first syllable is stressed e.g.’enter, ’envy,’open A final syllable is also unstressed if it contains / / (e.g.’follow, ’borrow) εost two syllable verbs that seem to be exceptions to the above might be interpreted as being morphologically complex (e.g.per’mit), or we could simply list all such verbs as exceptions 5.1.3.2 Adjectives Two-syllable simple adjectives are stressed according to the same rule e.g.’hollow a’live ’lovely co’rrect There are some exceptions, for examples: ’perfect,’honest 5.1.3.3 Nouns Nouns require a different rule: If the second syllable contains a short vowel the stress will usually come on the first syllable Otherwise, it will be on the second syllable 5.2 Activity 2: Read about Rhythm and the exercise below The literal meaning of rhythm is ‘a strong regular repeated pattern of sounds or movements’ (New Oxford Advance δearners’ Dictionary 7th edition, 2005) 64 We must notice that the stressed words tend to be nouns, verbs and adjectives, i.e words that carry the burden of the meaning, as opposed to grammatical words, like articles and auxiliaries These are accommodated into the rhythm by some form of reduction According to Peter Roach (2002), English has stress-timed rhythm which implies that stressed syllables will tend to occur at relatively regular intervals whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not; this would not be the case in ‘mechanical speech’ An example is given below In this sentence, the stressed syllables are given numbers: syllable and are not separated by any unstressed syllables, and are separated by one unstressed syllable, and by two and and by three ’walk ’down the ’path to the ’end of the ca’nal The stress-timed rhythm theory states that the times from each stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same, irrespective of the number of intervening unstressed syllables The theory also claims that while some languages (e.g Russian and Arabic) have stress-timed rhythm similar to that of English, others (such as French, Telugu and Yoruba) have a different rhythmical structure called syllable-timesd rhythm; in these language, all syllables, whether stressed or unstressed, tend to occur at regular timeinterals and the time between stressed syllables will be shorter or longer in proportion to the number of unstressed syllables Some writers have developed theories of English rhythm in which a unit rhythm, the foot, is used; the foot begin with a stressed syllable and includes all following unstressed syllables up to (but not including) the following stressed syllable The example sentence given above would be divided into feet as follows ’walk ’down the ’path to the ’end of the ca ’nal - The text below is designed to practice English rhythm The text has simple and short utterances in a natural context It is a type of activity known as a ‘jazz chant’ 65 Are you ready Are you ready? Not quite Just a minute (The teacher (or all of the students) can beat or clap the rhythm Students can then practise in pairs.) - Rhythm and thought Groups What is a thought group ? A thought group is a short phrase centered around a main idea The main idea is the one word in a thought group that is emphasized clearly All the other words in a thought group are de-emphasized and spoken much faster and strung together if we group words into thought groups, there will be better flows in our reading, especially in songs and poems In addition, we can develop our awareness of the natural rhythm in English We should learn to pause naturally by grouping words into thoughts according to grammatical units such as noun, verb, adjective… For example: He agreed He agreed to it He said he agreed to it In this example, the verb ‘agreed’ is the main idea and it is pronounced more clearly than the other words The other words in this example are said faster before and after the main idea Exercise: Circle the thought groups in this limerick: A mouse in her room woke Miss Dowd She was frightened and screamed very loud Then a happy thought hit her To scare off the critter She sat up in bed and meowed 5.3 Activity 3: Read about intonation, then practise exercises below What is intonation? 66 Intonation is about how we say things, rather than what we say Without intonation, it is impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words When you listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the melody you hear is the intonation Intonation patterns: - Yes/No questions: rising - Wh-questions: falling intonation - Choice questions with ‘or’: rising-falling - Statements: falling - Question-Tag: checking understand: rising - Asking for confirmation of something the speaker believe is true: falling - Lists: rising, rising, rising, falling Exercise: Practise saying the sentences below Do you have to work this weekend? I don’t know if I or not But it seems that I always have to work – morning, noon, and night Are you hungry? What you want to eat? What can I get you? I have some news What? I said I have some news Do you want to know now or later? Questions for discussion What kind of words are normally stressed in communication? 67 What kind of words are not normally stressed in communication? What is rhythm? What are the differences between syllable-timed rhythm and stresstimed rhythm? How yo understand the term intonation ? What are the forms and meanings of basic tones in English? Terminology - rhyme:nh p - stress-timed rhythm: nh p u c a l i nói v i âm ti t có tr ng âm xu t hi n vào nh ng quãng th i gian t ng đ i b ng - syllable-timed rhythm: nh p u c a l i nói v i âm ti t có tr ng âm hay tr ng âm xu t hi n vào nh ng quãng th i gian t ng đ i b ng 68 REFERENCES I English authors [1] A.Baker (1997),Pronunciation Tasks, Cambridge University Press [2] Bowen, J.D.(1978), Patterns of English Pronunciation, University of California, Los Angeles [3] Crystal, D (1997), English as a Global Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [4] Gimson, A.C (1964), Phonetics change and the RP vowel system, in D Abercromebie et al (1964), p.p 131-6 [5] Hyman, L (1975), Phonology: Theory and Analysis, New York:Holt, Rinehart and Winston [6] International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [7] O’Connor, J.D (1991), Phonetics, London: Penguin [8] Roach, P.J.(2000), English Phonetics and Phonology, CUP II Vietnamese authors [1] Nguyen Thanh Binh & Tran Van Phuoc (2016), An Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology, Hue: Hue University Press [2] Ngu Thien Hung (2004), English Phonetics Course, Danang: Danang Foreign Language University [3] Le Thi An My.(2011), Assimilation Experienced by Quang Ngai Students in Pham Van Dong University – Problems and Solutions, Danang: Danang University Press DUY T Tr ng khoa Gi ng viên Tr ng b môn 69 70 ... to our cook / / I'd choose blue I'd choose blue shoes I'd choose blue shoes to take to school I'd choose blue shoes to take to school to use I'd choose blue shoes to take to school to use if I... discussion What is phonetics? What is phonology? What are the differences between phonetics and a phonology? How many English monophthongs/diphthongs/ triphthongs are there? How many English consonants... Introduction Lesson 1:Introduction: Phonetics and phonology 1.1 Phonetics 1.2 Phonology Lesson 2 :English vowels 11 1.3 Monophthong 1.4 Diphthongs 1.5 Triphthongs Lesson 2 :English consonants 14 1.6 Place
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