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Brief Contents Rhetoric  Chapter 1  Writing: A First Look  Chapter 2  Strategies for Successful and Critical Reading  21 Chapter 3  Planning and Drafting Your Paper: Exploration  37 Chapter 4  Revising and Editing Your Paper: Courageous Transformations 59 Chapter 5  Paragraphs 84 Chapter 6  Effective Sentences  106 Chapter 7  Achieving Effective Style and Tone Through Word Choice 119 Chapter 8  Narration: Relating Events 143 Chapter 9  Description: Presenting Impressions 161 Chapter 11  Illustration: Making Yourself Clear  193 Chapter 12  Classification: Grouping into Categories  206 Chapter 13  Comparison: Showing Relationships 222 Chapter 14  Cause and Effect: Explaining Why  236 Chapter 15  Definition: Establishing Boundaries 251 Chapter 16  Argument: Convincing Others 268 Chapter 17  The Essay Examination 309 Chapter 18  Writing About Literature, Movies, and Television Shows 317 Reader  339 Chapter 10  Process Analysis: Explaining How  177 i This page intentionally left blank MyWritingLab™ Online Course (access code required) for Strategies for Successful Writing, Eleventh Edition, by James A Reinking and Robert von der Osten MyWritingLab is an online practice, tutorial, and assessment program that provides engaging experiences for teaching and learning MyWritingLab includes most of the writing assignments from your accompanying textbook Now, students can complete and submit assignments, and teachers can then track and respond to submissions easily—right in MyWritingLab—making the response process easier for the instructor and more engaging for the student In the Writing Assignments, students can use instructor-created peer review rubrics to evaluate and comment on other students’ writing When giving feedback on student writing, instructors can add links to activities that address issues and strategies needed for review Instructors may link to multimedia resources in Pearson Writer, which include curated content from Purdue OWL Paper review by specialized tutors through SmartThinking is available, as is plagiarism detection through TurnItIn Respond to Student Writing with Targeted Feedback and Remediation MyWritingLab unites instructor comments and feedback with targeted remediation via rich multimedia activities, allowing students to learn from and through their own writing Writing Help for Varying Skill Levels For students who enter the course at widely varying skill levels, MyWritingLab provides unique, targeted remediation through personalized and adaptive instruction, freeing up more class time for actual writing The results of the pre-assessment inform each student’s Learning Path, a personalized pathway for students to work on requisite skills through multimodal activities In doing so, students feel supported and ready to succeed in class NEW! Learning Tools for Student Engagement Learning Catalytics Generate class discussion, guide lectures, and promote peer-to-peer learning real-time analytics using Learning Catalytics—an interactive student response tool that uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more sophisticated tasks and thinking MediaShare MediaShare allows students to post multimodal assignments easily—whether they are audio, video, or visual compositions—for peer review and instructor feedback In both face-to-face and online course settings, MediaShare saves instructors valuable time and enriches the student learning experience by enabling contextual feedback to be provided quickly and easily Direct Access to MyLab Users can link from any Learning Management System (LMS) to Pearson’s MyWritingLab Access MyLab assignments, rosters, and resources, and synchronize MyLab grades with the LMS gradebook New direct, single sign-on provides access to all the personalized learning MyLab resources that make studying more efficient and effective Visit www.mywritinglab.com for more information This page intentionally left blank Strategies for Successful Writing A Rhetoric and Reader This page intentionally left blank Concise Eleventh Edition Strategies for Successful Writing A Rhetoric and Reader James A Reinking Robert von der Osten Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Vice President and Editor-in-Chief: Joseph Opiela Program Manager: Anne Shure Development Editor: Steven Rigolosi Product Marketing Manager: Ali Arnold Field Marketing Manager: Mark Robinson Digital Editor: Tracy Cunningham Media Producer: Marisa Massaro Content Specialist: Laura Olson Project Manager: Shannon Kobran Project Coordination, Text Design, and Electronic   Page Makeup: Lumina Datamatics, Inc Design Lead: Heather Scott Cover Designer: Studio Montage Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Roy L Pickering, Jr Printer/Binder: R R Donnelley/Crawfordsville Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on pages 455–458, which constitute an extension of this copyright page PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and MYWRITINGLAB are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc or its affiliates in the United States and/or other countries Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Reinking, James A   Strategies for successful writing : a rhetoric and reader : concise edition / James A Reinking, Robert Von Der Osten.—Eleventh Edition   pages cm   Includes bibliographical references and index   ISBN 978-0-13-411951-9—ISBN 0-13-411951-7   1.  English language—Rhetoric—Handbooks, manuals, etc.  2.  English language—Grammar—Handbooks, manuals, etc 3.  Report writing—Handbooks, manuals, etc.  4.  College readers.  I.  Von der Osten, Robert.  II.  Title   PE1408.R426 2016b  808’.042—dc23 2015035528 Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions Department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—DOC—19 18 17 16 www.pearsonhighered.com Student Edition ISBN-13: 978-0-13-411951-9 Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-13-411951-7 A la Carte ISBN-13: 978-0-13-412027-0 A la Carte ISBN-10: 0-13-412027-2 Contents Preface xvii Writing a Summary  32 To the Student  xxv Writing a Critique  34 Rhetoric 1 Chapter 3  Planning and Drafting Your Paper: Exploration  37 Chapter 1  Understanding the Assignment  38 Writing: A First Look  Zeroing in on a Topic  39 The Purposes of Writing  Gathering Information  45 “Turn Down Your iPod Volume (or Go Deaf)” by Marianne Halavage 4 Thinking Critically about Your Topic  47 The Audience for Your Writing  The Qualities of Good Writing  Writing and Critical Thinking  10 Writing in a Multimedia World  12 Writing and Ethics  16 Chapter 2  Organizing the Information  48 Developing a Thesis Statement  51 Writing the First Draft  54 Chapter 4  Revising and Editing Your Paper: Courageous Transformations 59 Strategies for Successful and Critical Reading  21 Preparing to Revise  60 Orienting Your Reading  21 Thinking Critically about Your Draft  63 Strategies for Reading and Rereading  22 Strengthening Paragraphs and Sentences  69 Mastering Reading Problems  25 Reading to Critique: Reading Critically  26 Writing the Introduction, Conclusion, and Title  72 Reading as a Writer  28 Peer Evaluation of Drafts  73 “The Appeal of the Androgynous Man” by Amy Gross 30 Considering the Whole Essay  60 Collaborative Writing  80 Maintaining and Reviewing a Portfolio  81 ix 454 Reader Write to your school paper about whether or not it is appropriate for teachers to express their personal opinions on controversial issues such as politics or religion in class Research the constitutional protection on free speech Develop an argument on where you think free speech needs to be protected or limited For example, should someone be able to be arrested for posting blogs defending or even ­encouraging eco-terrorism? Credits Photo Credits Cover/common art: Bekulnis/Shutterstock; p 143: Rubberball/Corbis; p 161: Rubberball/Corbis; p 177: Paul McKinnon/ Alamy; p 193: Ariel ­Skelley/Corbis; p 206: Elena Schweitzer/Shutterstock; p 222: © Fly Fernandez/Corbis; p 236: Eleanor/ Corbis; p 251: The International ­Astronomical Union; p 268: Jeffrey Markowitz/Sygma/Corbis; p 283: Image Source/Getty; p 364: Aurin/Shutterstock Text Credits Chapter pp 4–5: Halavage, Marianne: “Turn Down Your iPod Volume (Or Go Deaf).” Used by permission of the author Chapter pp 32–33, 33, 34–35: Gross, Amy: “The Appeal of the Androgynous Man,” Mademoiselle, 1976 Reprinted with permission of the author Chapter p 87: Davies, Paul C.W.: Excerpt from What We Believe But Cannot Prove, Edited by John Brockman Copyright © 2006 by John Brockman Introduction copyright © 2006 by Ian McEwan Reprinted by ­permission of HarperCollins Publishers p 87: Davies, Paul C.W.: Excerpt from What We Believe But Cannot Prove: Today’s Leading Thinkers on Science in the Age of Certainty Reprinted with permission of Brockman, Inc p 87: Gimlett, John: Theatre of Fish: Travels Through Newfoundland and Labrador, ©1996 Random House p 87: Fadiman, Anne: Ex Libris: Confessions of a Common Reader, ©2000, Farrar, Straus & Giroux p 88: Tratey, M.D., John J.: A User’s Guide to the Brain, ©2002, Random House p 88: Lovesey, John: “A Myth Is As Good As a Mile,” Sports Illustrated, February 15, 1965 p 89: Otis, Laura: Literature and Science in the Nineteenth Century, © 2009, Oxford University Press p 92: Turk, Jon: Cold Oceans: Adventures in Kayaks, Rowboat, and Dogsled, ©1998, HarperCollins p 93: Strayer, David L., Frank A Drews, and Dennis J Crouch: A Comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver, Human Factors, Summer 2006 p 96: Machlowitz, Mary: “Workaholism: What’s Wrong with Being ­Married to Your Work?” Working Woman, May 1978 Reprinted with permission of the author pp 96–97: Becker, Carl: Freedom and Responsibility in the American Way of Life, ©1955, Random House p 97: Jordan, Eileen Herbert: “My Affair with the One-Armed Bandit,” Modern Maturity, July/August 1995 p 98: Parker, Jo Goodwin: “What Is Poverty?” from George Henderson, America’s Other Children: Public Schools Outside Suburbia, ©1971, University of Oklahoma Press p 99: “Controlling Phobias Through Behavior Modification,” USA Today, August 1978 p 100: Billington, Ray Allen: “The Frontier Disappears,” Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier, © 2001, University of New Mexico Press p 100: Engel, Marian: “Women Also Have Dark Hearts,” New York Times Book Review, November 24, 1974 p 100: Perry, Nancy: “Saving the Schools: How Business Can Help,” Fortune, December 1987 pp 100–101: Rowe Karlyn, Kathleen: Unruly Girls Unrepentant Mothers: Redefining Feminism on Screen, ©2011 University of Texas Press p 101: Callahan, Maureen: “Lady Gaga Gives 50 Percent of Her Earnings to Her Father,” New York Post, November 20, 2011 p 101: Bettelheim, Bruno: “Joey: A Mechanical Boy,” Scientific American, March 1959 p 102: Jordan, Jr., Vernon E.: The New Negativism, September 15, 1978 p 103: Fixx, James: “What Running Can’t Do for You,” The Complete Book of Running, ©1977, Random House p 103: Booth, Stephanie: “A Slew of Suspects,” Psychology Today, November 1, 2011 p 103: Hobsbawm, Eric: On History, ©1988, The New Press p 104: Page, Max; Sigrid Miller Pollin: “Proposal for a Landscape of Learning,” Serpents in the Garden: Liaisons with Culture & Sex, edited by Alexander Cockburn; Jeffrey St Clair, ©2004, AK Press p 104: Lemke, J L.: “Metamedia Literacy: Transforming Meanings and Media,” Handbook of Literacy and Technology: Transformations in a Post-Typographic World, D Reinking, L Labbo, M McKenna, & R Kiefer (Eds.), ©1998, Erlbaum 455 456 Credits Chapter p 109: Waggoner, John: “Is Today’s Economic Crisis Another Great Depression,” USA Today, November 4, 2008 p 109: Deems Taylor: “The Monster,” Of Men and Music, ©1937, Simon and Schuster p 109: Kingsolver, Barbara: High Tide in Tucson: Essays from Now or Never, ©2003, HarperCollins p 113: Carson, Rachel: Excerpt from Silent Spring Copyright © 1962 by Rachel Carson, renewed 1990 by Roger Christie p 115: King, Jr., Martin Luther: “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence.” September 1, 1958 Chapter pp 120–121: Didion, Joan: “On Self Respect,” Slouching Toward Bethlehem, ©1990, Farrar, Straus & Giroux p 121: Manchester, William: A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance: Portrait of an Age, ©1993, Little Brown p 123: By permission From Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate ® Dictionary, 11th Edition ©2015 by Merriam-Webster, Inc (www.Merriam-Webster.com) p 126: By permission From Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate® Dictionary, 11th Edition ©2015 by Merriam-Webster, Inc (www.Merriam-Webster.com) p 126: Middleton, Thomas H.: “The Magic Power of Words,” Saturday Review, December 11, 1976 p 128: Levitin, Daniel J.: This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession, ©2007, Penguin p 129: “Neurotransmitters,” Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, Elsevier Science p 129: Russel, Bertrand: The ABC of Relativity, ©1925, Harper & Bros pp 129–130: Denes, Magda: In Necessity and Sorrow: Life and Death in an Abortion Hospital, ©1976, Basic Books p 130: Wolfe, Tom: The Pump House Gang, ©1968, Farrar Straus and Giroux p 132: Jackson, Bruce: “Who Goes to Prison: Caste and Careerism in Crime,” Atlantic Monthly, January 1966 p 132: Mannes, Marya: “Wasteland,” More in Anger: Some Opinions, Uncesored and Unteleprompted of Marya Mannes, ©1958, Lippincott p 132: Allen, RT: “The Porcupine,” Maclean’s Magazine, August 15, 1952 p 133: Claiborne, Robert: “Future Schlock,” The National p 133: St Clair, Jeffrey: “Seduced by a Legend,” Serpents in the Garden: Liaisons with Culture & Sex, edited by Alexander Cockburn; Jeffrey St Clair, ©2004, AK Press pp 134–135: Kearns Goodwin, Doris: Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream: The Most Revealing Portrait of a President and Presidential Power Ever Written, ©1991, St Martins Press p 136: Irving, Washington: “The Spectre Bridegroom,” The Sketch Book, ©1875, J.B Lippincott & Co p 138: Brown, Claude: Manchild in the Promised Land, ©2011, Touchstone Chapter p 145: Fairlie, Harry: “A Victim Fights Back,” Washington Post, April 30, 1978 p 145: Hersey, John: Hiroshima, ©1989, Random House, Inc p 145: London, Jack: The Sea Wolf, 1904 p 146: Thoreau, Henry David: A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers, 1849 p 147: Kingsolver, Barbara: High Tide in Tucson: Essays from Now or Never, ©2003, HarperCollins pp 153–156: Coggin, Brittany: “Joy Through Tears.” Used by permission of the author Chapter p 163: Dick-Read, Robert: Sanamu: Adventures in Search of African Art, ©1964, Penguin Group pp 163–164: Twain, Mark: Autobiography, ©1917, Harper pp 164–165: Conrad, Joseph: Lord Jim, ©1920, Doubleday p 165: Kluger, Marilyn: “A Time of Plenty,” Gourmet Magazine pp 165–166: Becker, Jasper: The Chinese: An insider’s look at the issues which affect and shape China today, ©2000, Oxford University Press Chapter 10 p 180: Miller, Don Ethan: “A State of Grace: Understanding the Martial Arts,” Atlantic Monthly, March 1981 p 180: Thomas, Lewis: The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher, ©1995, Penguin Group p 187: Frank, Adam: “Winds of Change,” Discover Magazine, June 1, 1994 pp 187–189: Hill, Hannah: “Basic Songwriting Techniques.” Reprinted with permission of Hannah Hill Chapter 12 pp 214–218: Glass, Kyra: “Types of Video Games for Children.” Chapter 13 pp 226–227: del Rey, Lester: The Mysterious Sky, ©1964, Chilton Publishing Co p 227: Hill, Nancy K.: “Scaling the Heights: The Teacher as a Mountaineer,” Chronicle of Higher Education, June 16, 1980 pp 231–232: Lee, Sunho: “Differences between Korean and English.” Reprinted with permission of Sunho Lee Chapter 14 p 239: Sjoberg, Gideon, “The Origin and Evolution of Cities,” Scientific American, September 1965 Chapter 15 pp 261–263: Hornbrook, Heather: “Vigilante Justice.” Reprinted by permission of the author Chapter 16 p 272: Davis, Kelly: “Health and High Voltage,” Sierra Club Bulletin, July/August 1978 p 273: Samuelson, Robert: “Getting Serious,” Newsweek, August 17, 1995 pp 280–281: Huxley, Thomas: “A Liberal Education and Where To Find It,” 1868 pp 300–304: Lemanski, Scott: “Bottled Trouble Water.” Reprinted with permission of the author Chapter 18 p 321: Tan, Amy: The Joy Luck Club, ©2006, Penguin Group p 322: Welty, Eudora: “A Visit of Charity,” The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty, ©1982, Harcourt Brace Credits p 324: Poe, Edgar Allan: “The Cask of Amontillado,” Godey’s Lady’s Book, November 1846 p 327: Yglesias, Rafael: Fearless, ©1993, Penguin Books p 327: Dorris, Michael: A Yellow Raft in Water, ©1987, Henry Holt & Co p 329: Ibsen, Henrik: Ghosts, 1881 pp 336–338: Mueller, Erin: “The Refrigerator: A Symbol Between Worlds in ‘Aunt Parnetta’s Electric Blisters’.” Reprinted with permission of Erin Mueller Reader pp 340–341: Thom, James A.: “The Perfect Picture,” Reader’s Digest, August 1976 Reprinted with permission from Reader’s Digest Copyright © 1976 by The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc pp 342–346: Glancy, Diane: “Aunt Parnetta’s Electric Blisters” from Trigger Dance by Diane Glancy, Fiction Collective Two, 1990 pp 350–351: Young, John V.: “When the Full Moon Shines Its Magic” New York Times, March 16, 1969 Copyright © 1969 The New York Times Co Reprinted by permission pp 347–348: Greenburg, Dan: “Sound and Fury.” Reprinted with permission of the author pp 352–354: Burnett, Kessler: “Seaside Safari” from Virginia Living June 2009 Copyright © 2009 Used with permission pp 355–362: Santos, John Phillips: “Back to the Future,” Texas Monthly, Vol 38, No 11, 2010 Reprinted with permission from the November 2010 issue of Texas Monthly pp 364–366: Morley, Dana C.: “Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Mother Earth Will Wrap You in Warmth” from Perfect Home HVAC Design Used with permission pp 367–369: Wald, Beth: “Let’s Get Vertical,” Listen: Journal of Better Living, June 1989 Reprinted by permission of the author pp 370–372: Christensen, Tanner: “What is the creative process?” article and accompanying “The Creative Process” graphic”, Creativesomething.net Copyright © October 9, 2013 http://creativesomething.net/post/ 63552677581/what-is-the-creative-process pp 374–378: From NOVA, Accidental Discoveries, (http:// www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/accidentaldiscoveries html) © 1996–2015 WGBH Educational Foundation pp 379–381: Newman, Judith: “If You’re Happy and You Know It, Must I Know Too?” (plus the one image), The New York Times, October 21 © 2011 The New York Times All rights reserved Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited pp 382–384: Ada-Steiner, Catherine: “The Revolution in the Living Room” from The Big Disconnect by Catherine Steiner-Adair and Teresa H Barker Copyright © 2013 by Catherine Steiner-Adair Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers pp 386–391: McCarthy, Bernice: “A Tale of Four Learners,” Educational Leadership, 54, pp 46–51 Reprinted with permission of the author Ms McCarthy has also written About Teaching, 2000; 4MAT4 Algebra 2009; 4MAT4 Geometry 2009; 4MAT4 Biology 2009; The Learning Cycle, The 21st Century and Millennial Learners, 2012; 4MAT Pure and Simple: Learning About Learning, 2014, All About Learning, Inc 457 pp 392–394: Campus Explorer: “Different Types of Distance Learning: Explore the Four General Categories for Online Learning.” Copyright © 2014 Used with permission http:// www.campusexplorer.com/college-advice-tips/7021E31E/ Different-Types-of-Distance-Learning/ pp 395–396: Vrabie, Alina: “The Types of Procrastinators.” “This post originally appeared on the Sandglaz blog: http://blog.sandglaz.com/5-types-of-procrstinators Sandglaz (http:www.sandglaz.com) provides a project management software for teams It’s the simplest way to plan and collaborate.” pp 398–400: Catton, Bruce: “Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts” from The American Story, edited by Earl Schenck Miers, 1956 Copyright U.S Capitol Historical Society All rights reserved Reprinted with permission pp 401–402: Lee, Chris: “Invasion of the Bodybuilders,” Newsweek, June © 2011 Newsweek, LLC All rights reserved Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited pp 403–406: Graham, Jane: “Are video games now more sophisticated than cinema?” The Guardian, June 2, 2011 Reprinted with permission of The Guardian pp 408–411: Johnson, Kevin: “For Cops, Citizen Videos Bring Increased Scrutiny,” USA Today, October 15, 2010 From USA Today, October 15 © 2010 Gannett-USAToday All rights reserved Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited pp 413–414: Knapp, Caroline: “Why We Keep Stuff: If You Want to Understand People, Take a Look at What They Hang On To,” The Merry Recluse Copyright © 2004 by Caroline Knapp Reprinted by permission of Counterpoint pp 415–422: Dobbs, David: “Beautiful Brains,” National Geographic, Oct 2011 Reprinted by permission of National Geographic Creative pp 424–426: Zwelling, March: “The Blended Economy,” The Futurist, Edition 36(1), © Jan/Feb 2002 Reprinted with permission of the World Future Society pp 426–428: Bercaw, Marti: “Krumping,” Social.com Reprinted by permission of the author pp 428–433: Sill, Judith: “The Power of No,” Psychology Today, Nov/Dec 2013 Reprinted with permission from Psychology Today Magazine, Copyright © 2013 Sussex Publishers, LLC pp 436–438: Moore, Patrick: “Going Nuclear,” Washington Post online, Sunday, April 16, 2006 Used by permission of Patrick Moore pp 439–443: Rowell, Alexis: “Ten Reasons Why New Nuclear Was a Mistake Even Before Fukushima,” Transition Culture, March 15, 2011 Also available at www.cuttingthecarbon co.uk/resources/why-nuclear-is-not-the-answer Reprinted by permission of Alexis Rowell pp 444–445: Wilson, Christine Wynnyk: “Why Keystone Pipeline is Bad for Texas,” Dallas News, September 27, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Used by permission of the author Used by permission of the author http://www.dallasnews com/opinion/latest-columns/20110927-chris-wilson-whykeystone-pipeline-is-a-bad-idea-for-texas.ece pp 446–448: Knittel, Christopher: “Why Keystone Pipeline Should Face Reality,” Bloomberg.com, March 21, 2013 Reprinted with permission 458 Credits pp 449–450: Zimmerman, Jonathan: “When Teachers Talk Out of School,” The New York Times, June © 2011 The New York Times All rights reserved Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited pp 452–453: Pettigrew, Todd: “Protecting Free Speech for Teachers in a Social Media World,” August 22, 2011 appearing in Maclean’s Copyright © 2011 Used by permission of the author http:// www.macleans.ca/education/uniandcollege/protectingfree-speech-for-teachers-in-a-social-media-world/ Index A Abstract terms, 252–53, 254, 258, 266 Abstract words, 120–21 Accept/except, 120 “Accidental Discoveries” (Krock), 374–78 Action, role of, in narration, 145–46 Active voice, 115, 116 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Twain), 127 Alternating pattern in organizing comparison, 226 Altman, Robert, 320, 325 Ambiguity, 137, 332 The American Economic Review, 446–47 American Heritage, 398 The American Heritage Dictionary, 124 Analogy in argument, 280–81 in comparison, 226–27 faulty, 287 thinking critically about, 227–28 Anecdotes in introduction, 98, 100 Angelou, Maya, Antigone, 323 Appeal to the crowd, 288 emotional, 281–82 rational, 271–75 The Appeal of the Androgynous Man (Gross), 28, 30–32, 33, 34–35 “Are Video Games Now More Sophisticated than Cinema?” (Graham), 403–6 Arguing off the point, 287–88 Argument ad hominem, 288 Argumentation concept of critical thinking, 11 Arguments, 268–308 analogy in, 280–81 critical synthesis with sources, 306–7 critically evaluating the sources, 306–7 planning and drafting the synthesis, 307 prewriting for synthesis, 306 purposes for synthesis, 306 defined, 269 dialogue, effective technique, 293 for different purposes, 294–95 directing, to readers, 295 discussion questions, 305 drafting, 295–99 emotional appeal in, 281–82 ethical appeal in, 283–84 ethical issues in, 290–91 exploratory, 285 extra-high-voltage electric transmission line, 272 framing, 270–71 making with visuals, 283 organization and, 92 pattern for, 299 planning, 294–95 prewriting the, 291 primary source information in, 272–73 purpose of, 269–70 rational appeal in, 271–75 established truths in, 271 evaluation of evidence in, 274–75 opinions of authorities, 271 personal experience in, 274 primary source information, 272–73 statistical findings, 273 statistical findings in, 273 reasoning strategies, 275–81 analogy in argument, 280–81 analogy in argument in, 280–81 deduction in, 277–78 induction in, 275–77 reductio ad absurdum (to reduce to absurdity), 279–80 syllogisms, 278–79 research, on topic, 291–92 revising, 299–300 right to carry handguns, 292–93 Rogerian, 284–85 short, with visuals, 283 student essay of, 300–304 suggestions for writing, 305–6 thesis statement for, 296 thinking critically about, 289–90 writing, 291–306, 308 drafting the argument, 295–99 exploring your topic, 291–94 focusing your question, 291 planning an argument, 294–95 prewriting, 291 revising the argument, 299–300 Assignments objective description short, 27–28 reading carefully, 26–27 understanding, in writing process, 38 writing, 8–9 Attitude, importance of, in revision, 60 Audience development of profile, effect of, on writing, 6–7 identifying, 44 for writing, 5–9 “Aunt Parnetta’s Electric Blisters” (Glancy), 342–46 Authorities, opinions of, in arguments, 272 B “Back to the Future” (Santos), 355–62 Backup copy, importance of keeping, 62 Balanced sentences, 115 “Beautiful Brains” (Dobbs), 415–22 Becker, Jasper, 165 Begging question, 287 The Belfast Telegraph, 403 Beowulf, 325 Bercaw, Marti, 426–28 Bettelheim, Bruno, 101 Biased opinions, 272, 273 The Big Disconnect: Protecting Childhood and Family Relationships in the Digital Age (Steiner-Adair), 382 Bistro, 255 Blade Runner, 332 “The Blended Economy” (Zwelling), 424–26 Block pattern in organizing comparison, 225 459 460 Index Blogger, 14 Blogs, 14–15 Bloomberg News, 447 Body of writing, 10 Bottled Troubled Water (Scott Lemanski), 300–304 Brainbean, 370 Brainstorming, 43–44, 45–46, 90, 95, 150–51 branching as extension of, 46 compare results of, 44 in developing outline, 51 in gathering information, 45–46 in writing first draft, 55 Branching technique, 46 Breaking Bad, 323 Burnett, Kessler, 352–54 C “Campus Explorer” web site, 392 Canadian Press, 424 Card stacking, 286 Case(s), 56–57 final draft, cell phone use, 76–79 marked up rough draft, cell phone use, 63–66 rough draft, cell phone use, 56–57 second draft, cell phone use, 66–69 Categorical syllogism, 278 Categories developing, 210 number of, 210 selecting, 208–10 Catton, Bruce, 398–400 Causal analysis patterns in, 237–39 planning and drafting of, 243–45 reasoning errors in, 240–41 revising, 245 writing, 242–45 Causal chain, 238, 245 Causation, 237 mistaking chronology for, 240 Cause and effect, 48, 236–50, 320, 324 accident, 238–39 in causal analysis, 237–41 causal chain, 238, 245 concept of critical thinking, 11 critically evaluating the sources, 249 in developing definitions, 259 discussion questions, 247 ethical issues in causation, 242 immediate cause, 238 multimedia writing, 248 multiple cause-multiple effect essay, 239 organization and, 92 planning and drafting, 243–45 plot and, 320 prewriting, essay, 242–43 prewriting for synthesis, 248–49 purpose of, 237 purposes for synthesis, 248 revising, 245 stepping up to synthesis, 248–49 student essay of, 245–47 suggestions for writing, 247–48 thesis statement for, 243 thinking critically about, 241 writing, 247–48, 250 Causes confusing, with effects, 240–41 ignoring multiple, 240 “Celebrate Michael Jackson’s Life and Music at University City Walk!”, 426 Characters, 322–24 as antagonist, 323 factors, 322–23 as narrator, 322 as protagonist, 323 setting, in revealing personality of, 320 writing about, 323–24 cause and effect, 324 comparison, 324 illustration, 324 introduction, 324 plot, 324 Cheever, John, 322 Chesapeake Life Magazine, 352 Christensen, Tanner, 370–72 Chronology, mistaking, for causation, 240 Circular argument, 287 Circular definition, 254 Clarity, showing, and connectors, 96 Classification, 206–21 concept of critical thinking, 11 consequences of, 211 critically evaluating the sources, 220 in developing categories, 210 in developing definitions, 259 discussion questions, 218 ethical issues in, 211–12 multimedia writing, 219 number of categories, 210 organization and, 92 planning and drafting, 212–13, 220 prewriting for, 219–20 principle of, 208–9 purpose of, 207–8 purposes for synthesis, 219 revising, 213–14 rewriting for, 212 in selecting categories, 208–10 student essay for, 214–18 suggestions for writing, 218–19 thesis statement, 212 thinking critically about, 211 useful writing tool, 208 writing a, 212–19, 221 Classified ads, 207 Clauses dependent, 108 independent, 108 Clichés, 138–39 Climax, 318 Cognoscenti, 447 Coherent writing, 94–96 Collaborative writing, 80–81 electronic media, use of, 81 social media, use of, 81 Colloquial language, 138 Communities, Councils & a Low Carbon Future (Rowell), 439 Comparison, 222–35 alternating pattern, 226 block pattern, 225 concept of critical thinking, 11 and contrast, 48 critically evaluating the sources, 234 developing, 224–25 in developing definitions, 259 discussion questions, 232 ethical issues in, 228 multimedia writing, 233 organization and, 92, 93 organizing, 225–26 planning and drafting, 229–30, 234 plot and, 320 prewriting, 229, 234 purpose of, 223 purposes of synthesis, 233 revising, 230–31 selecting items for, 223–24 student esay of, 231–32 successful, 224 suggestions for writing, 233 thesis statement for, 229 thinking critically about, 227–28 using analogy, 226–27 valid, 224 writing, 228–31, 233, 235 Computers revision with, 62 Computer virus, 258 Conclusions, 101–4 cautions about writing, 102 drawing, and connectors, 95 hope/recommendation in, 104 irony in, 103 personal challenge in, 103 question in, 102–3 quotations in, 103 statement, arresting, in, 103 summary in, 102 thesis restatement in, 102 types of, 102–4 writing, 10, 72 Concrete words, 120–21 Condign, 253 Conflict in narration, 146 Conjunctions coordinating, 108 Index subordinate, 108 Connectors adding ideas and, 95 conceding point and, 96 drawing conclusions and, 95 indicating time and, 96 pointing out examples and, 96 showing clarity and, 95 showing contrast and, 95 showing emphasis and, 96 showing results or effects and, 95 showing similarity and, 95 Connotations, 130–31 cultural, 131 Conrad, Joseph, 165 Contractions, 128 Contrast parallelism to show, 127–28 showing, and connectors, 95 Conventional symbols, 328 Conversation, fragments in, 109 Coordinating conjunctions, 108 Corporate responsibility, 252 Crane, Stephen, 321 “Creative Something,” 370 Creative works ambiguity, 332 character, 322–24 elements of, 318 ethical issues in, 333 irony, 332 juxtaposition, 332 memes, 331–32 plot, 318–20 point of view, 325–27 setting, 320–22 symbols, 328–29 theme, 329–31 Critical thinking argumentation, 11 cause and effect, 11 classification, 11 comparison, 11 concepts, 11 definition, 11 description, 11 illustration, 11 narratives, 11 process, 11 and writing, 10–12 Critique features of, 34 reading to, 26–28 writing a, 34–35 CSI, 325 Cuban zombie movies, 328 Cultural connotations, 131 Cutting, 319 D Dance Dance Revolution, 210 Data integrity, 255 Deadwood, 136 Debt crisis, in Greece, 243 Deduction in arguments, 277–78 Definitions, 251–67 See also Extended definitions circular, 254 concept of critical thinking, 11 critically evaluating the sources, 265 discussion questions, 256, 264 essential, 253–54 limitations of, 254 ethical issues in, 257–58 extended, 255–56 introduction in, 99 omission of main category, 255 organization and, 92 overly broad, 254 overly narrow, 254 planning and drafting the synthesis, 265–66 prewriting for synthesis, 265 purpose of, 252–53 purposes for synthesis, 265 student essay of, 261–63 suggestions for writing, 264 synonyms, 253 thesis statements for, 259 thinking critically about, 257 types of, 253–54 writing, 264, 267 Demonstrative adjectives, 97–98 Denotation of word, 130–31 Dependent clauses, 108 Descriptions arrangement of details in, 167 concept of critical thinking, 11 critical synthesis with sources, 174–75 in developing definitions, 259 dominant impression in, 164–65 effective, 162 ethical issues in, 168 need for topic sentence in, 88 purpose of, 162 sample student, 171–73 selection of details, 166–67 sensory impressions in, 163–64 thesis statements for, 53 thinking critically about, 168 vantage point in, 165–66 writing, 168–73, 176 Desk-sized dictionaries, 124 Details arrangement of, in description, 167 selection of, in description, 166–67 Details in introduction, 100–101 Dialogue, effective technique for arguments, 293 Dialogue in narration, 148–49 guidelines, 149 Diction, 119 defined, 126 eliminating flawed, 136–41 461 formal-informal level, 128–29 formal level, 127–28 informal level, 128 levels of, 126–30 technical level, 129 Dictionaries, 119, 122–25 desk-sized, 124 developing clear, 119–26 idioms in, 122–23 irregular forms in, 122, 124 online, 122 supplementary information in, 122, 124 unabridged, 124 usage labels in, 122, 124 Differences between Korean and English (Sunho Lee), 231–32 “Different Types of Distance Learning: The Four General Categories for Online Programs,” 392–94 Direct quotation, giving credit for, 47 Disagreement, 269–70 See also Arguments Discourse communities, 7–8 Doctorow, E L., 332 Doctor Who, 327 The Dome of Heaven, 342 Dominant impressions in description, 164–65 Domino theory, 238 Donkey Konga, 210 Drafting, the argument, 295–99 Drafts peer evaluation of, 73–75 proofreading your, 79–80 Drag racing, 259 The Dreams of a Broken Field (Glancy), 342 Drug pusher, 253 E Edited American English, 127 Effects See also Cause and effect confusing causes with, 240–41 showing, and connectors, 95 Either/or fallacy, 287 Electronic media, collaborative writing using, 81 Elements of creative works, 318 E-mail, 12–13 formal, 13 Emotional appeal, 281–82 Emphasis, showing, and connectors, 96 End or denouement, 318 The Energy Journal, 447 English edited American, 127 nonstandard, 127 Entertainment writing, purpose for, 462 Index Essay examination, 309–16 planning the answer, 310–11 preparing to write, 310–11 requirement for, 310 studying for, 309 types of test questions, 310 writing, 311–15, 316 Essay(s) abstracts for professional, 23 consideration of whole, in revising, 60–63 to critique, 25 restating main topics, 25 synthesis in writing, 28 Essential definitions, 253–54 limitations of, 254 pitfalls in preparing, 254–55 Established truths in arguments, 271 Ethical appeal, 283–84 Ethical writing principles, 16–17 See also Ethics clarity, 17 complete text, 17 no harm to reader intention, 17 truthfulness, 16–17 Ethics See also Ethical writing principles in arguments, 290–91 in causation, 242 in classification, 211–12 in comparisons, 228 in definitions, 257–58 in illustrations, 197 in narration, 150 in process analysis, 182 and writing, 16–19 ethical writing principles, 16–17 plagiarism, 17–19 in writing about literature, 333 description, 168 Etymology, 123 Euphemisms, 137 Evaluation of evidence in arguments, 274–75 Examination See also Essay examination preparing to write, 310–11 studying for, 309 writing answer, 311–15, 316 Examples in illustrations number of, 195 organizing, 196–97 selecting appropriate, 195 pointing out, and connectors, 96 Except/accept, 120 Excess Baggage: Getting Out of Your Own Way (Sills), 429 Expletive construction, 111–12 Explication, 334–35 Exploratory argument, 285 Exploratory essays, 285 Expostulation, 253 Extended definitions, 255–56 planning and drafting, 258–60 prewriting, 258 revising, 260–61 thesis statements for, 259 writing, 258–61 F FACT (acronym) in revision, 61–63 Facts asking questions about, 24 Fallacies appeal to the crowd, 288 arguing off the point, 287–88 argument ad hominem, 288 begging the question, 287 card stacking, 286 circular argument, 287 defined, 285 either/or fallacy, 287 ethical issues in arguments, 290–91 of evidence, 286 faulty analogy, 287 ferreting out, 285–89 appeal to the crowd, 288 arguing off the point, 287–88 argument ad hominem, 288 begging the question, 287 card stacking, 286 circular argument, 287 either/or fallacy, 287 faulty analogy, 287 guilt by association, 288–89 hasty generalization, 286 non sequitur, 286 post hoc, ergo propter hoc, 286 stereotyping, 286 guilt by association, 288–89 hasty generalization, 286 of logical order, 286–88 non sequitur, 286 post hoc, ergo propter hoc, 286 stereotyping, 286 that are faulty forms of emotional appeal, 288–89 Fallacies of evidence, 286 Familiar subject, narrowing, 44 A Farewell to Arms (Hemingway), 328 Faulty analogy, 287 “Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offences,” 135 Figurative language irony, 136 metaphor, 133–34 overstatement, 135 personification, 134–35 similes, 133–34 understatement, 135 First draft See also Planning and drafting sentences in, 107 suggestions for, 55 writing, 54–56 First impressions in introduction, 99 First-person narration, 146, 325, 326 pronouns in, 146 First reading, 22–23 Fisher, Diann, 245–47 Fitzgerald, F Scott, 324 Flashbacks, 318–19 Flexible notes, 48–50 Forbes, 234 “For Cops, Citizen Videos Bring Increased Scrutiny Are Incidents Caught on Tape Hindering Officers?” (Johnson), 408–11 Foreshadowing, 318 Formal-informal level, diction, 128–29 Formal level, diction, 127–28 Forsythe, Ann Marie, 272 Fortune, 234 Fortune 500 companies, 234 Fragment, 109–10 Frankenstein (Shelley), 331 Freewriting, 43 See also Planning and drafting; Writing compare results of, 44 in writing first draft, 55 Funk and Wagnall’s Standard College Dictionary, 124 G Gambling addicts, 257 Gardner, John, 325 Geeks, 211 General writing purposes, See also Writing Geographical facts, 271 Ghosts (Ibsen), 329 Ghost Towns of the Santa Cruz Mountains (Young), 350 “Girls’ Guide to the Eastern Shore,” 352 Glancy, Diane, 320, 342–46 Glory Road (Catton), 398 Gobbledygook, 137 “Going Nuclear” (Moore), 436–38 Graham, Jane, 403–6 The Grand Canyon (Young), 350 “Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts” (Catton), 398–400 Graphic novels, 16 Graphics, and text, 16 The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald), 324 Greenburg, Dan, 28, 347–48 Greenpeace, 436 Greenspirit Strategies, 436 Grendel, 325 Gross, Amy, 28, 30–32, 33, 34–35 “Ground-Source-Heat-Pumps: Mother Earth Will Wrap You in Warmth,” 364–66 The Guardian, 403 Guilt by association, 288–89 Guitar Hero, 210 Index H Halavage, Marianne, 4–5 Hasty generalization, 286 Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 330 Head Start programs, 275 Hemingway, Ernest, 319, 328 Henry, O., 332 Hill, Nancy K., 227 Historical fact, 271 Hope/recommendation, conclusions in, 104 Hornbrook, Heather, 261–63 Hot Type and Pony Wire (Young), 350 “How I Contemplated the World from the Detroit House of Correction and Began My Life Over Again” (Oates), 319 How to Avoid Love and Marriage (Greenburg), 347 How to Be a Jewish Mother (Greenburg), 347 How-to-do-it paper, 179 How to Make Yourself Miserable (Greenburg), 347 Hunger Games, 328 Hyperbole, 135 I Ibsen, Henrik, 329 Ideas adding, and connectors, 95 asking questions about, 24 restating, 24 Idioms, 122–23 “If You’re Happy and You Know It, Must I Know, Too?” (Newman), 379–81 Illustrations, 48, 193–205 classroom writing, benefits of, 194 concept of critical thinking, 11 critical synthesis with sources, 203–4 in developing definitions, 259 drafting, 199 ethical issues in, 197 job-related writing, benefits of, 194 number of examples, 195 organization and, 92 organizing examples, 196–97 plot and, 320 prewriting, 198 revising, 199–200 selecting appropriate examples, 195 student essay of, 200–202 thesis statement for, 199 thinking critically about, 197 writing, 197–200 Impressions dominant, 164–65 sensory, 163–64 Independent clauses, 108 word order in, 110–12 Induction in arguments, 275–77 Infinitive phrases, 108 Informal level, diction, 128 Information gathering, 45–47 organizing, 48–51 primary source, in arguments, 272–73 Information superhighway, 252 Informative writing, purpose for, Intellectuals, 259 Interrupted order, sentences with, 113 In the Flesh, 328 Introduction, 98–101 anecdotes in, 98, 100 definition in, 99 details in, 100–101 first impressions in, 99 length of, 99 plot and, 319 provocative question in, 101 quotations in, 100 in setting tone, 99 statement, arresting in, 100 thesis statement, 99 writing, 72 “Invasion of the Bodybuilders” (Lee), 28, 401–2 Inverted order, 111 Irony, 136, 332 conclusions in, 103 writing about, 332 Irrational prejudice, 284 Irregular form, 122, 124 J “The Jabbawockeez: America’s 1st Best Dance Crew,” 426 Jacob’s Room (Woolf), 318 Jargon, 129 Jawbreaker words, 71 Jewish Times of Baltimore, 352 Johnson, Kevin, 408–11 Journal entries, 39 Journal keeping, 25, 28, 40–41 The Joy Luck Club (Tan), 321 Juxtaposition, 332 K Karaoke Revolution, 210 Kennedy, John F., 127–28 Key events in narration, 147–48 Keynote, 15 “Keystone Pipeline Foes Should Face Reality” (Knittel), 446–48 Key words, 310 demonstrative, 97–98 repeating, 96–97 Kitchen blender, 254 Kluger, Marilyn, 165 463 Knapp, Caroline, 413–14 Knittel, Christopher R., 446–48 Krock, Lexi, 374–78 “Krumping” (Bercaw), 426–28 L Language skills, poor, 237 Larry King Live (television program), 347 Late Night with David Letterman (television program), 347 Lee, Chris, 28, 401–2 Left-winger, 252 Length of introduction, 99 “Let’s Get Vertical!” (Wald), 367–69 Letters in outlines, 50 Limited omniscience, 325 Lissome, 253 Literary analysis, 335 Literature elements of, 318 student essay on, 336–38 writing about, 333 ethical issues in, 333 Loose sentences, 112 Los Angeles Times, 355, 401 Lost, 318 M Mademoiselle, 379 Major premise, 278 The Matrix, 329 McCarthy, Bernice, 386–91 Media, 45 Melville, Herman, 329 Memento, 320 Memes, 331–32 Memories, reliance on, as topic, 39–40 Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 124 The Merry Recluse: A Life in Essay (Knapp), 413 Metaphors, 133–34 mixed, 139 Michigan: A Bicentennial History (Catton), 398 Minor premise, 278 Modern Guide to Synonyms and Related Words, 125 Modifiers, 112–14 Mood, setting in creating, 320, 321 Moore, Patrick, 436–38 Morley, Dana, 364 Motive, 325 Movies writing about, 333 Mr Lincoln’s Army (Catton), 398 Mrs Dalloway (Woolf), 327 Multiple cause-multiple effect essay, 239 Multiple causes, ignoring, 240 The Munsters?, 317 Murdoch Mysteries, 332 464 Index N Narration, 143–60 conflict in, 146 critical synthesis with sources, 158–59 defined, 144 in developing definitions, 258–59 dialogue in, 148–49 ethical issues in, 150 first-person, 146, 325, 326 key events in, 147–48 point of view in, 146–47 purpose of, 144–45 role of action in, 145–46 student, 153–56 thesis statements for, 53 thinking critically about, 149 third-person, 147, 326 topic sentences in, 88 uses of, 144 writing, 150–56, 160 Narratives concept of critical thinking, 11 Nashville, 325 National Geographic, 379, 415 National Organization for Women, 208 Negation in developing definitions, 259 Nerds, 211 Newman, Judith, 379–81 Newsweek, 401 The New York Times, 273, 350, 355, 374, 415 Nolan, Christopher, 320 Nonfiction, fragments in, 109 Nonperformers, process papers for, 179–80, 185–87 planning and drafting, 186–87 prewriting, 185 Non sequitur, 286 Nonstandard English, 127 Notes, flexible, 48–50 Noun-pronoun combination, 180 Nouns mixing pronouns with their, 97–98 modifying, 108 Nova ScienceNow, 374 Nuclear Energy Institute, 436 O Oates, Joyce Carol, 319 Objective tone, 131 Omniscience, 325 Online dictionaries, 122 “The Open Boat” (Crane), 321 Opinions of authorities in arguments, 272 Order, 319 Order-of-climax arrangement, 249 Organization arguments and, 92 cause and effect and, 92 classification and, 92 comparison and, 92 definition and, 92 effective, 9–10 illustration and, 92 process analysis and, 92, 93 space sequence (description) and, 92–93 time sequence (narration) and, 92 Orientation of reading, 21–22 Outline brainstorm in developing, 51 creating, 50–51 Roman numerals in, 50 sentence, 50–51 topic, 50–51 Overly broad definition, 254 Overly narrow definition, 254 Overstatement, 135 Oxford English Dictionary, 119, 124 P Panther in the Sky (Thom), 340 Paragraphs, 84–105 adequately developed, 90–91 characteristics of effective, 84–98 details in, 90–91 length of, 90–91 sharpening sentences and words, 70–72 with special functions, 98–104 strengthening, 69–70 topic sentences in, 86–89 transitional, 98, 101 underdeveloped, 90 unity in, 85–86 Parallelism, 98, 114–15 to show contrast, 127–28 Participle phrases, 108 Passive voice, 115–16 Patterns in causal analysis, 237–39 Pause, 149 Peer evaluation of drafts, 73–75 peers’ drafts, responding to, 73–74 peers’ responses, acting on, 75 Perfect home hvac design.com, 364 “The Perfect Picture” (Thom), 340–41 Performers, process papers for, 179, 182–85 planning and drafting, 183–84 prewriting, 182 thesis statement, 183 Periodic sentences, 113 Permissiveness, 240 Personal anecdote in introduction, 100 Personal challenge, conclusions in, 103 Personal experience in arguments, 274 as topic choice, 39–40 Personification, 134–35 Persuasive writing purpose for, tone in, 131–32 Pettigrew, Todd, 452–53 Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation (Santos), 355 Plagiarism, 17–19 avoiding, 18, 47 importance, 18 Planning and drafting, 37–58 See also Freewriting argument, 294–95 cause and effect assay, 243–45 in classification, 212–13, 220 in comparisons, 229–30, 234 description, 170–71 flowchart, 58 illustrations in, 199 narrative, 151–52 Plot, 318–20 climax, 318 conflicts, 318 defined, 318 end or denouement, 318 factors, 318–19 introduction, 318 questions about, 319 techniques for developing, 318–19 cutting, 319 flashbacks, 318–19 foreshadowing, 318 order, 319 writing about, 319–20 cause and effect, 320 comparison, 320 illustration, 320 introduction, 319 overall plot, 319 Point, conceding, and connectors, 96 Point of view, 325–27 factors, 325 in narration, 146–47 title in identifying, 23 writing about, 325–27 Polysyllabic words, 128 Portfolio defined, 81 maintaining and reviewing, 81–82 Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, 286 Poverty, 257 “The Power of No” (Sills), 428–33 PowerPoint, 15 Predicate, 108 Premise major, 278 minor, 278 Prepositional phrases, 108 Presentations, 15–16 principles for creating, 15–16 Prewriting the argument, 291 cause-and-effect essay, 242–43 comparison, 229 the description, 169 extended definition, 258 Index Prezi, 15 Primary source information in arguments, 272–73 Process concept of critical thinking, 11 describing, 48 in developing definitions, 259 thinking critically about, 181 Process analysis, 176–92 critical synthesis with sources, 190–91 in electronic communications, 181 ethical issues in, 182 historical, 178 kinds of, 179–80 natural, 178 nontechnical, 178 organization and, 92, 93 purpose of, 178 revising, 187 scientific, 178 student essay of, 187–89 technical, 178 writing, 182–87 Product stewardship, 252 Professional essays, abstracts for, 23 Prompts, 370 Pronouns, 97–98, 180 in first-person narration, 146 mixing with their nouns, 97–98 relative, 108 sexist language, 139–40 in third-person narration, 147 Pronunciation, 123 Proofreading, 37 drafts, 79–80 Prose reader-based, 61 writer-based, 61 “Protecting Free Speech for Teachers in a Social Media World” (Pettigrew), 452–53 Proud flesh, 252 Provocative question in introduction, 101 Psychiatrist, 254 Psychology Today, 429 Purposes arguments for different, 294–95 identifying, 44 Q Questions asking, 42–43 about facts, 24 about ideas, 24 about reasons, 24 conclusions in, 102–3 focusing your, in writing argument, 291 introduction in, 101 Quotations in conclusions, 103 direct, 47 handling, 333 in introduction, 100 R Ragtime (Doctorow), 332 The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 124 Rapport, establishing, with audience, Rational appeal in arguments, 271–75 established truth in, 271 evaluation of evidence in, 274–75 opinions of authorities, 272 personal experience in, 274 primary source information in, 272–73 statistical findings in, 273 Readability, paragraph length and, 91 Reader-based prose, 61 Readers directing arguments to, 295 Reading of assignments, 26–27 to critique, 26–28 first, 22–23 mastering problem, 25–26 orienting your, 21–22 second, 23–25 strategies for, 22–25 successful, 36 as a writer, 28–29 Reasoning errors in causal analysis, 240–41 confusing causes with effects, 240–41 ignoring multiple causes, 240 mistaking chronology for causation, 240 Reasoning strategies, 275–81 analogy in argument in, 280–81 deduction in argument, 277–78 induction in argument, 275–77 syllogisms, 278–79 avoiding misuse of, 279 syllogistic argument at work, 278–79 Reasons, asking questions about, 24 The Red Heart (Thom), 340 Reductio ad absurdum (to reduce absurdity), 279–80 Reef Madness: Charles Darwin, Alexander Agazzi, and the Meaning of Coral (Dobbs), 415 The Refrigerator: A Symbol Between Worlds in “Aunt Parnetta’s Electric Blisters” (Erin Mueller), 336–38 Relative pronouns, 108 Rephrased material, giving credit for, 47 Rereading strategies for, 22–25 465 Restating the ideas, 24 Results, showing, and connectors, 95 Reviews, 333–34 Revising and editing, 59–83 causal analysis, 245 classification, 213–14 in comparisons, 230–31 with computers, 62 conclusions, 72 considering whole essay, 60–63 defined, 59 description, 171 extended definition, 260–61 FACT (acronym) in, 61–63 illustrations, 199–200 importance of attitude in, 60 introductions, 72 narrative, 152–53 peer evaluation of drafts, 73–75 preparing for, 60 process analysis, 187 selecting title, 72–73 strengthening paragraphs and sentences, 69–72 Revising argument, 299–300 “The Revolution in the Living Room” (Steiner-Adair), 382–84 Rey, Lester del, 227 Rhetorical questions, 132 Rhythm, 132 Rogerian arguments, 284–85 Rogers, Carl, 284 Roget’s International Thesaurus, 125 Roman numerals in outline, 50 Rough copy, 59 Rowell, Alexis, 439–43 S The San Antonio Express- News, 355 Santos, John Phillips, 355–62 Scientific American, 415 Scientific fact, 271 Scientific writing, passive voice in, 116 The Scotsman, 403 “Seaside Safari” (Burnett), 352–54 Second reading, 23–25 Secretary of Labor, 208 Self-expression, Sensory impressions in description, 163–64 Sentence fragment, 149 Sentence outline, 50–51 Sentences, 106–18 balanced, 115 with interrupted order, 113 loose, 112 periodic, 113 sharpening, 70–72 single, beyond, 117 strategies for effective, 106–18 varying length of, 108 466 Index Settings, 320–22 factors, 320–21 writing about, 321–22 comparison, 322 illustration, 322 introduction, 321 process, 322 Sexist language, 139–40 guidelines to avoid, 139–40 Shakespeare, William, 322 Shelley, Mary, 317, 331 Short arguments, with visuals, 283 “Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” (Hemingway), 319 Sills, Judith, 428–33 Similarity, showing, and connectors, 95 Similes, 133–34 Simple sentences, 108 Skimming, 23 Slang, 138, 149 Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory (Zimmerman), 449 Social media collaborative writing using, 81 gathering information and, 45 “Sound and Furry” (Greenburg), 28, 347–48 Space sequence (description) organization and, 92–93 Special functions, paragraphs with, 98–104 Specialized words, 129 Specific writing purposes, 4–5 See also Writing Spell check, 37 Statement, arresting conclusions in, 103 introduction in, 100 State Parks of Arizona (Young), 350 State Parks of New Mexico (Young), 350 State Parks of Utah (Young), 350 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 273 Statistical findings, in arguments, 273 Statistical sampling inventory, 252 Steiner-Adair, Catherine, 382–84 Stereotyping, 286 A Stillness at Appomattox (Catton), 398 Stoker, Bram, 332 Straw man tactics, 298 Student essay of arguments, 300–304 of cause and effect, 245–47 for classification, 214–18 of comparison, 231–32 of definition, 261–63 on literature, 336–38 Style, sense of, Subcategories, 209, 219–20 See also Categories Subhuman, 257 Subject, 108 narrowing, 44 selection, asking questions, 42–43 sorting out, 41–42 Subordinate conjunctions, 108 Successful comparison, 224 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 256 Summary conclusions in, 102 defined, 33 good, 33 preparing, 33 writing a, 32–33 Sunho Lee, 231–32 Supplementary information, 122, 124 Swiger, Kim Burson, 169–70 Syllabication, 123 Syllogisms, 278–79 avoiding misuse of, 279 categorical, 278 syllogistic argument at work, 278–79 Symbiotic relationship, 129 Symbols, 328–29 conventional, 328 factors, 328 of goodness and innocence, 331 settings as, 321 writing about, 328–29 Synonyms, 123, 253 Synthesis defined, 158 description and, 174–75 illustrations and, 203–4 narration and, 158–59 process analysis and, 190–91 in writing essay, 28 T “A Tale of Four Learners” (McCarthy), 386–91 Tan, Amy, 320–21 Technical level, diction, 129 Television writing about, 333 “Ten Reasons Why New Nuclear Was a Mistake—Even Before Fukushima” (Rowell), 439–43 Test questions, types of, 310 Text messaging, 13–14 Theme, 329–31 factors, 329–30 writing about, 330–31 conclusion, 331 impact, 331 introduction, 331 revelation, 331 symbols of goodness and innocence, 331 Thesauruses, 119, 125–26 Thesis statements, 23, 212 accurate forecast, provides, 52 for arguments, 296 for cause and effect analysis, 243 changing, 53–54 for comparison, 229 in conclusions, 102 for definitions, 259 development, 51–54 for extended definitions, 259 for illustration, 199 in introduction, 99 need for precise, 52 omission of, 53 requirements of, 52–53 strategies in developing, 51–52 in tailoring scope to length of paper, 52 Thinking, fresh, Third-person narration, 147, 326 pronouns in, 147 Thom, James Alexander, 340 Time, indicating, and connectors, 96 Time sequence (narration) organization and, 92 Titles in identifying topic and viewpoint, 23 selecting, 72–73 The Today Show (television program), 347 Tone, 130–33 introduction in setting, 99 objective, 131 in persuasive writing, 131–32 Topic critical thinking about, 47–48 deciding on, in writing about literature, 333 exploring your, in writing argument, 291–94 zeroing in, 39–45 considering your media, 45 identifying your audience and purpose, 44 strategies, 39–44 Topic outline, 50–51 Topic sentences, 23 defined, 86 need for in descriptive writing, 88 in narrative writing, 88 placement of, 87–88 title in identifying, 23 Toronto Telegram, 424 Touche Ross Accounting, 272 Transitional paragraphs, 98, 101 Transitions, 95 Truths, established, 271 Twain, Mark, 127, 135, 163–64 Twitter, 14 Types of Video Games for Children (Kyra Glass), 214–18 Index U Unabridged dictionaries, 124 Uncut, 403 Understatement, 135 United Steelworkers of America, 424 Unity in paragraphs, 85–86 Untouchables, 211 Upstairs, Downstairs, 322 Usage labels, 122, 124 USA Today, 408 V Vacuum cleaner, 254 Valid comparison, 224 Vanity Fair, 379 Vantage point, 165–66 Vector Research and Development, Inc., 424 Verb, voice of, 115–17 Vermin, 257 Vigilante Justice (Heather Hornbrook), 261–63 Virtual reality, 252 Visuals, making arguments with, 283 Vogue, 379 Voice active, 115, 116 passive, 115–16 Vrabie, Alina, 395–96 W Waiting for the Morning Train (Catton), 398 Wald, Beth, 367–69 The Wall Street Journal, 234, 379 Washington Post, 436 Web page writing, 15 ideas for, 15 Webster’s New Dictionary of Synonyms, 125 Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, 124 Webster’s Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary, 131, 138 Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 124 “What Is the Creative Process?” (Christensen), 370–72 “What Kind of Procrastinator Are You?” (Vrabie), 395–96 “When Teachers Talk Out of School” (Zimmerman), 449–50 “When the Full Moon Shines Its Magic over Monument Valley” (Young), 350–51 White, E B., 175 “Why Keystone Pipeline Is a Bad Idea for Texas” (Wilson), 444–46 Why students drop out of college (Diann Fisher), 245–47 “Why We Keep Stuff: If You Want to Understand People, Take a Look at What They Hang on To” (Knapp), 413–14 Wilson, Chris, 444–46 Wired, 415 Woolf, Virginia, 318, 327 Wordiness, 136–37 Word order in independent clause, 110–12 varying, in sentence, 108 Word-Press, 14 Words abstract, 120–21 choice of, 132 concrete, 120–21 confusing vivid, specific, 71 connotation of, 130–31 dealing with unfamiliar, 24 denotation of, 130–31 general/specific, 121–22 jawbreaker, 71 polysyllabic, 128 use of precise, 71–72 Writer-based prose, 61 Writers reading as, 28–29 types of, 38 Writing about literature, 333 ethical issues in, 333 about movies, 333 about plot, 319–20 about television, 333 advantages of, assignment, 8–9 audience for, 5–9 coherent, 94–96 collaborative, 80–81 and critical thinking, 10–12 a critique, 34–35 for discourse communities, 7–8 467 effect of audience on, 6–7 and ethics, 16–19 explication, 334–35 vs face to face conversation, first draft, 54–56 as flexible process, 37 literary analysis, 335 in a multimedia world, 12–16 blogs, 14–15 e-mail, 12–13 presentations, 15–16 text messaging, 13–14 Twitter, 14 use of graphics, 16 Web page writing, 15 purposes of, 3–5 general, specific, 4–5 qualities of good, 9–10 fresh thinking, organization, effective, 9–10 sense of style, reasons for, reviews, 333–34 stages of, 37 a summary, 32–33 types of, Writing process, 333 creating outline, 50–51 critical thinking about topic, 47–48 developing thesis statement, 51–54 first draft, 54–56 gathering information, 45–47 organizing information, 48–51 understanding assignment, 38 Y You Make Me Feel Like an Unnatural Woman: Diary of New Old Mother (Newman), 379 Young, John V., 350–51 “Young Goodman Brown” (Hawthorne), 330–31 Z The Zack Files (Greenburg), 347 Zimmerman, Jonathan, 449–50 Zinc production, in United States, 238 Zwelling, Marc, 424–26 470 Chapter   Editing Symbols Symbol ab agr pa Problem improper abbreviation faulty agreement of pronoun and antecedent Symbol no Problem new paragraph not needed period needed // or para nonparallelism agr sv faulty agreement of subject and verb ? or ques missing or misused question mark V´ or apos missing or misused apostrophe "/" or quot missing or misused quotation marks ref unclear reference of pronoun to antecedent ro run-on sentence awk awkward phrasing bib faulty bibliographic form cap capital letter needed case cl ^, or com cs comp dm or ellip frag ital lc // or lev wrong case cliché missing or misused comma ; or sem sp missing or misused semicolon spelling error comma splice shift p shift in person faulty comparison shift t shift in tense dangling modifier sq missing or misused ellipsis sentence fragment missing or misused italics lowercase (small) letter needed wrong level of usage log faulty logic t or tense trans vb wdy ww squinting modifier wrong tense poor transition wrong verb form wordiness wrong word delete (omit) mm misplaced modifier ^ material omitted num use numerals ? nsu nonstandard usage new ­paragraph needed meaning unclear or word illegible
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