4 3 13 really, really cold (science)

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Really, Really Cold! by Carol Ann Greenhalgh H O UG H T O N MIF F L IN Really, Really Cold! by Carol Ann Greenhalgh ILLUSTRATION CREDIT: Susan Carlson, Steve McEntee PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS: Cover © GORDON WILTSIE/National Geographic Image Collection; © LOOK Die Bildagentur der Fotografen GmbH/Alamy; © Frank Krahmer/Getty Images; © Peter Arnold, Inc./Alamy; © Kim Westerskov/ Getty Images; © Bryan & Cherry Alexander Photography/Alamy; 10 © Galen Rowell/CORBIS; 11 © GORDON WILTSIE/ National Geographic Image Collection; 14 © LOOK Die Bildagentur der Fotografen GmbH/Alamy Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company All rights reserved No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law With the exception of nonprofit transcription into Braille, Houghton Mifflin is not authorized to grant permission for further uses of this work Permission must be obtained from the individual copyright owner as identified herein Address requests for permission to make copies of Houghton Mifflin material to School Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Company, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116 Printed in China ISBN-13: 978-0-547-02315-1 ISBN-10: 0-547-02315-4 RRD 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 Table of Contents About Antarctica Climate People Weather What to Wear 10 Dangers 12 Conclusion 14 Antarctica is the coldest and windiest place on Earth It’s beyond cold here Some days the snow blows so hard that you can’t see the ground in front of you If you take your gloves off for a few minutes, your fingers will freeze This is Antarctica It is the land of the South Pole About Antarctica This land is a brilliant white In the summer, the sun shines all day and all night As far as you can see, there’s nothing but snow and ice In the central area, you will find mountains and even active volcanoes with their display of blue smoke There is very little life but some moss, algae, and insects Yet on the coast there are plenty of seals, penguins, and fish There is land under the ice Antarctica is a continent When the wind blows hard, you can’t see anything but flying snow Climate Climate is the weather at a certain place Antarctica has three main climate areas One climate area is the Antarctic Peninsula It gets more overhead sunshine than the central regions A peninsula is surrounded by water on three sides Summer temperatures there are often above freezing It is a little colder on the coast The temperature in coastal regions is not too cold in the summer But in winter, the sea around the coast freezes This causes temperatures to drop very low, to as low as –58°F Indian Ocean South Atlantic Ocean ANTARCTICA Cold: Antarctic Peninsula Colder: Coast Coldest: Central mountain region South Pacific Ocean This map shows the three climate areas of Antarctica The sea in coastal regions freezes over during the winter The coldest part of Antarctica is the central part, where the mountains are The mountains are far away from the sea They rise up as high as 16,000 feet The average annual temperature in the central area is around –58°F People Scientists from many countries live in Antarctica They use complicated instruments to study the weather and the stars The wind and cold keep these scientists indoors much of the time They don’t want to be stranded by a storm Many of these scientists arrive in Antarctica on airplanes that have skis for landing on snow and ice Large aircraft carrying scientists and supplies use skis instead of wheels to land in Antarctica Weather Antarctica is the windiest continent on Earth Blizzards are common Instead of falling from the sky during these blizzards, the snow on the ground is blown around by very strong winds The scientists huddle inside their cabins during blizzards The winds can last for days or weeks Anyone going away from camp must take special supplies What to Wear People who go to Antarctica wear Extreme Cold Weather (ECW) clothes They must always be alert and watchful of the weather, and they must have all their ECW gear with them The weather can change very quickly hat and face cover sunglasses or goggles windproof parka with hood thick, windproof gloves or mittens insulated boots windproof outer pants These are the clothes people wear every day in Antarctica 10 ECW clothes don’t have to be waterproof, but they must be windproof No parts of the body can peek through The wind chill can cause bare skin to freeze There is nothing graceful about walking around with all those clothes on! In fact, the thick layers of clothing make people clumsy They have visions of falling over on the hard ice and ending up with a fractured arm or leg! Moving around outdoors isn’t easy in Antarctica! 11 Dangers The harsh climate of Antarctica poses many dangers for humans • Hypothermia occurs when the body gets too cold The blood stops flowing to the fingers and toes and the person experiences a feeling of weariness • The bright sun reflecting off the white snow can cause both sunburn and snow blindness • Dehydration, or lack of water, happens easily because the air is so dry • People can lose fingers, toes, or even a nose when frostbite occurs 12 Vent markers Vent holes Sleeping level Arch-shaped door Cooking level A snow shelter is a good place to stay warm To survive in Antarctica, people should learn certain safety standards They learn what to wear, how to eat properly and drink enough water, and how to build snow shelters They also need to learn how not to be lonely because there won’t be many people around! 13 Conclusion Antarctica is a special place It can be dangerous, but it is also beautiful Many of the people who spend time there have concluded that Antarctica is one of the most interesting places they have ever visited Thousands of penguins spend the summer in Antarctica 14 Responding Word Builder Synonyms are words that mean the same or nearly the same thing For example, fractured means the same thing as broken Think of some other words that share the same meaning Copy and complete the chart below TARGET VOCABULARY fast cold leave speedy chilly go ? ? ? Write About It Text to Self You have just read about what it is like to live and work in a cold, cold place Write a paragraph in which you explain whether or not you would like to visit Antarctica Use details to support your opinion Include one word from the Word Builder 15 TARGET VOCABULARY alert concluded display fractured graceful huddle standards stranded vision weariness Summarize Briefly tell the important parts of the text in your own words TARGET STRATEGY Which vocabulary word rhymes with something to splash in after it rains? 16 Level: O DRA: 38 Science Strategy: Summarize Word Count: 781 4.3.13 Build Vocabulary HOUGHTON MIFFLIN Online Leveled Books ISBN-13: 978-0-547-02315-1 ISBN-10: 0-547-02315-4 1032216 .. .Really, Really Cold! by Carol Ann Greenhalgh ILLUSTRATION CREDIT: Susan Carlson, Steve McEntee PHOTOGRAPHY... something to splash in after it rains? 16 Level: O DRA: 38 Science Strategy: Summarize Word Count: 781 4.3.13 Build Vocabulary HOUGHTON MIFFLIN Online Leveled Books ISBN-13: 978-0-547-02315-1 ISBN-10:
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