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3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page i International Human Resource Management 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page ii 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page iii second edition International Human Resource Management edited by A n n e - Wi l H a r z i n g J o r i s Va n R u y s s e v e l d t SAGE Publications London l Thousand Oaks l New Delhi 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page iv © Anne-Wil Harzing and Joris van Ruysseveldt, 2004 First published 2004 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers SAGE Publications Ltd Olivers Yard London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42, Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 7619 4039 ISBN 7619 4040 (pbk) Library of Congress Control Number available Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page v Contents Acknowledgements vii Foreword by Nancy J Adler viii Contributor Biographies Abbreviations Introduction PART INTERNATIONALIZATION: CONTEXT, STRATEGY, STRUCTURE AND PROCESSES Internationalization and the international division of labour Anne-Wil Harzing Strategy and structure of multinational companies Anne-Wil Harzing International human resource management: recent developments in theory and empirical research Hugh Scullion and Jaap Paauwe Human resource management in cross-border mergers and acquisitions Günter K Stahl, Vladimir Pucik, Paul Evans and Mark E Mendenhall Part HRM FROM A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE x xvi 33 65 89 115 Cross-national differences in human resources and organization Arndt Sorge 117 Culture in management: the measurement of differences Laurence Romani 141 HRM in Europe Christine Communal and Chris Brewster 167 HRM in East Asia Ying Zhu and Malcolm Warner 195 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM vi Page vi Contents HRM in developing countries Terence Jackson PART MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL STAFF 221 249 10 Composing an international staff Anne-Wil Harzing 251 11 Training and development of international staff Ibraiz Tarique and Paula Caligiuri 283 12 International compensation and performance management Marilyn Fenwick 307 13 Repatriation and knowledge management Mila Lazarova and Paula Caligiuri 333 14 Women’s role in international management Hilary Harris 357 PART 15 16 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS: A COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 387 The transfer of employment practices across borders in multinational companies Tony Edwards 389 Varieties of capitalism, national industrial relations systems and transnational challenges Richard Hyman 411 17 Industrial relations in Europe: a multi-level system in the making? Keith Sisson 433 18 The Eurocompany and European works councils Paul Marginson 457 Author Index 482 Subject Index 490 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page vii Acknowledgements So much has changed since the 1st edition We cannot even begin to encompass the changes which have occurred in our now ‘globalized’ world However, the nature of academic work has also changed considerably since the 1st edition of this book was published in 1995 Internet access and email have transformed our daily working lives Internet access means having information at our fingertips However, it also means an increasing challenge in assessing the relevance of all this information The contributors of this book have done an excellent job in sifting the wheat from the chaff The use of email has made it much easier to communicate with authors While for the 1st edition, much of our editorial work was done via fax or even personal meetings with the chapter authors, the current edition was based on email contact alone (a lot of it!) This has made it possible to involve authors from a far wider range of countries than before Much has stayed the same as well First, our philosophy that the book be developed as a research-based textbook has remained constant The book reflects the characteristics of the transnational MNC in that we think it combines the benefits of knowledge transfer (authors who are experts in their field), integration (a coherent textbook) and local responsiveness (authors from many different countries as well as chapters specific to Asia, Europe and Africa) What never changes is the fact that for such an undertaking many people deserve acknowledgements First of all we would like to thank Arndt Sorge for encouraging us to embark on a 2nd edition If he had not spoken so convincingly about our duty to the field, this 2nd edition may never have materialized Second, we owe a big vote of thanks to our authors Given the scale of the task of coordinating the editing of 18 chapters from around the globe, Anne-Wil would particularly like to acknowledge their wonderful responsiveness to the repeated requests for text revision Their cooperation in working within the deadlines made the job so much easier Anne-Wil’s research assistant, Sheila Gowans, performed her job as proofreader with a perfect blend of commitment and conscientiousness At Sage, Kiren Shoman was the first to believe in the book and convinced the Sage board of the need for a 2nd edition She was later joined by Keith Von Tersch and together they made a perfect team Seth Edwards then ensured that the book moved through the production process smoothly, while Ben Sherwood took care of the all important promotion of the book Anne-Wil Harzing Joris Van Ruysseveldt 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page viii Foreword by Nancy J Adler1 Which is farther, the sun at sunrise or the sun at noon? The first sage argued, ‘At sunrise, of course, the sun is closest when it is largest.’ The second sage vehemently disagreed, ‘No, at noon, of course! The sun is closest when it’s warmest.’ Unable to resolve the dilemma, the two sages turned to Confucius.com for help Feeling the sun’s fading warmth as it lowered itself into a blazing sunset, Confucius remained silent.2 Myth, misinformation, and silence have pervaded the field of international human resource management (HRM) since its inception.3 Understanding the dynamics of people in organizations has always been challenging However, never prior to the twenty-first century has the intensity of globalization interacted so profoundly with organizations and the people who lead them and work in them To understand the challenges of twenty-first century organizational efficacy is to address the myriad of dilemmas facing people who constantly work outside their native country with people from wider and wider ranges of the world’s cultures Can we allow ourselves to continue to be guided by myth, misinformation, and silence? No Do we, as scholars, researchers, and executives, know how to resolve the human dilemmas posed by extremely high levels of global interaction? No, not yet Do we need to know? Yes In International Human Resource Management, the editors have brought together an eminent group of scholars from around the world to report on state-of-the-art international HRM research Unlike Confucius, they have chosen not to remain silent in the face of dilemmas that were heretofore unresolvable They offer research results and recommendations that can and should guide our scholarly and executive appreciation of global diversity and its impact on human system functioning The book includes macro strategic perspectives along with micro individual-level Nancy J Adler is a professor of international management at McGill University, Montreal, Canada Based on an ancient Chinese wisdom story as edited by Nancy J Adler and Lew Yung-Chien while artists in residence at the Banff Centre for the Arts, 2002 For an in-depth discussion of the patterns of myths and errors undermining the field, see A.W.K Harzing’s ‘The Role of Culture in Entry Mode Studies: From Negligence to Myopia?’ in Advances in International Management, Vol 15, 2003, pp 75–127; A.W.K Harzing’s ‘Are Our Referencing Errors Undermining our Scholarship and Credibility? The Case of Expatriate Failure Rates,’ Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 23, February, 2002, pp 127–148; and A.W.K Harzing’s ‘The Persistent Myth of High Expatriate Failure Rates,’ The International Journal of Human Resource Management, May 1995, pp 457–475 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page ix Foreword ix perspectives It encompasses perspectives from Asia, Europe, and the Americas It takes in the point-of-view of management and labour Whereas neither this book nor any book can answer all our questions about people working globally, International Human Resource Management goes a long way in separating myth and misinformation from research-based fact It fills some of the field’s silence with perceptive dialogue It is a book well worth reading 3122-Au-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 485 Author Index Hendry, C 67, 232, 316 Herriot, P 366 Heslin, R 296 Hiltrop, J 322 Hiltrop, J.-M 172–3, 366 Hirschman, A.O 418–19 Hirst, P 425, 460 Hoffmann, A 474–5 Hofmeyr, K 241 Hofstede, G 91, 120–1, 131, 144–50, 151, 154–6, 158, 162, 173, 182, 224–5, 242, 243, 256, 392, 393 Hollingsworth, J.R 420, 426 Hope-Hailey, V 319 Hornung-Davis, R 451 Hui, C.H 243 Human, L 225, 241, 242–3 Humphrey, J 403 Hunt, J 74–5 Hunt, J.W 90, 92 Huselid, M 175 Hutton, W 413–14 Hyman, R 414, 428, 445, 467 Inkpen, A 106 Inkson, K 334, 335, 343, 344, 345–6 Iversen, T 428 Jackson, T 226–8, 229, 231, 233, 236–7, 239, 241 Jacobi, O 175–6 Jaeger, A.M 223, 225, 230, 239 Jamieson, I 173 Jansens, M 320–1 Jarillo, J.C 57, 256 Jemison, D.B 92, 107, 107–8, 108 Jenkins, G 369 Jewson, N 373 Johnsen, M 273 Jones, M.L 225, 229–30, 232, 238–9, 240 Kalleberg, A 122, 134 Kanungo, R.N 223, 225, 239 Kaplan, R 322 Karlshaus, M 262 Katz, H 424, 466 Katz, J 284 Kay, I.T 97 Kealey, D 284, 289, 290, 296 Keenoy, T 175 Keller, B 436, 442–3 Kendall, D 337–8, 341 Kenter, M.E 261 Kerr, C 236 Kessler, I 308, 321 485 Kiggundu, M 229, 230 Kilgore, J.E 266 Kitschelt, H 420, 428 Kleinberg, J 149 Kluckhohn, F.R 156–7, 293–4 Knowles, E 168 Knudsen, H 471 Knungo, R.N 230 Kobrin, S.J 54, 67–8, 74, 349 Kochan, T 66, 67, 74 Kochan, T.A 424 Kogut, B 91 Koike, K 202 Koopman, A 233, 236, 239 Kopp, R 253 Korabik, K 364 Kotter, J.P 107 Kouzes, J.M 107 Kransdorf, A 346 Krug, J 102, 103 Kulhmann, T.M 284 Kumar, B.N 261, 262 Lane, C 23, 123, 124 Lane, H.W 156–61 Lank, E 263 Larsen, H.H 175, 179 Larsson, R 91, 92 Larwood, L 361 Lawrence, J.W 49 Lawrence, P 172, 173, 179, 181, 182 Lazarova, M 284, 285, 287, 290–1, 293, 336, 338, 343–4, 345–6, 350, 367, 368 Lecher, W 473, 474 Lee, J.S 204, 205, 206 Leece, P 324 Legge, K 175, 231–2 Lengnick-Hall, C.A 74 Lengnick-Hall, M.L 74 Lessem, R 233 Levinson, C 473 Levinthal, D.A 293 Levy, O 335, 336 Levy, P.E 325 Lewis, J 416 Lewis, P 317–18 Lewis, S 369 Li, T.C 210 Lincoln, J 122, 134 Lindblom, C.E 48 Linehan, M 78–9, 367 Ljunggren, B 212 Locke, R 172, 467 Lorsch, P.R 49 Love, L.G 236 3122-Au-Index.qxd 486 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 486 International Human Resource Management Lowe, K 317, 366 Lubatkin, M 91 Maccoby, M 403 Maccoby, E.E 363 McDougall, P.P 326 McGovern, P 319 McGreal, I 196, 197, 198, 208 McGregor, 225 Macharzina, K 262 McKeen, C.A 361 Mackerras, C 201 McKersie, R.B 447 McLaine, S 324 McMahan, G.C 175 MacQueen, J 17 Mahoney, J.T 257–8 Mainiero, L.A 366 Malekzadeh, A.R 90, 91 Mallory, G.R 225 March, J.G 144 Marginson, P 74, 75, 401, 445, 450, 451, 458, 464, 467, 471, 474, 476 Marks, M.L 90, 93, 102 Marsden, D.W 414 Marshall, J 362 Marshall, T.H 418 Marschcan, R 67 Martin, A 434, 445–6, 459 Martin, P 461 Martinez, J.I 57, 256 Martinez Lucio, M 404 Marx, K 416 Mason, D 373 Matanmi, S 229 Maurice, M 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 132, 463 Mavin, S 364 Mayer, M 463, 465 Mayne, L 185 Mayrhofer, W 78, 187 Maznevski, M.L 156–61, 162 Mbigi, L 235 Meardi, G 452 Medoff, J.L 419, 420 Meiskins, P 396 Mendenhall, M 99, 269, 269–70, 271, 272, 273, 284, 290–1, 292, 293, 297, 301, 321, 337, 358, 366, 367 Mendez, A 461 Milkovich, C 308, 313, 316, 317, 360 Miller, E 269–70, 284 Miller, E.L 334 Milliman, J 68, 317, 325 Mintzberg, H 44, 48 Mirvis, P.H 90, 91, 93, 102 Mirza, H.R 61 Monks, K 66 Monnet, J 168, 434 Montgomery, J.D 230 Moran, R.T 290, 372 Morgan, G 404 Morishima, M 202 Morley, M 177 Morosini, P 91–2 Morrison, A.J 333 Mueller, F 463, 465, 467 Mulat, T 223 Mulder, M 144 Mulhern, A 66 Muller, M 396, 403 Muller, R 363 Munton, A.G 367–8 Myers, C.A 236 Myloni, B 61 Nahavandi, A 90, 91 Nankervis, A.R 324 Napier, N 283, 319, 340, 341, 358, 370 Nason, S 325 Negandhi, A.R 253, 263 Ngo, H 393 Noe, R 289, 367–8 Noelle, G.F 261 Nohria, N 51, 61, 256 Norburn, D 90 Norlund, I 212, 213 Norton, D 322 O’Brien, E 358 O’Connor, J 310 Oddou, C 269, 284, 285, 347, 358, 366, 367 Oddou, G 267, 271, 272, 273, 290–1 O’Donnell, S 308, 309, 312, 317, 322–3 Ohlin, B 13–14, 16, 20 Ohmae, K 423, 425–6, 457 O’Leary, J 365–6 Olie, R 90 Oliver, N 395–6 Ondrack, D.A 267 Onzack, D 65 Ortiz, L 405, 406 Osland, J.S 159, 284, 335–6 O’Sullivan, M 395, 404 Oviat, B.M 326 Paauwe, J 73–4, 75 Pablo, A.L 107–8 Paddock, J.R 369 Pain, N 460 3122-Au-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 487 Author Index Panitch, L 425 Parsons, T 151 Pausenberger, E 260, 261 Peltonen, T 368–9 Peck, J 417 Pemberton, C 366 Pennings, A 75 Pennings, J.M 91 Perkins, D.H 212 Perkins, S 316 Perlmutter, H.V 59, 60, 61, 252, 312, 391, 473 Perry, E.L 374 Peters, T 45, 362–3 Peterson, R 340, 341 Pettigrew, A 232 Phatak, A.V 253 Phelps, M.I 322 Phillips, J 284, 285, 290–1, 293 Phillips, M.E 149 Pickard, J 335, 339 Pieper, R 175, 179 Pitkethly, R 106–7 Pochet, P 443, 445 Polanyi, K 418 Pontusson, J 428 Poole, M 210 Porter, M.E 19–24, 28, 39, 54, 90, 312, 461–2 Posner, B.Z 107 Powell, G.N 361, 366 Prahalad, C.K 39, 49, 50, 67, 68, 77, 82 Priem, R.L 236 Pringle, J.K 334, 360 Protheroe, D 284, 289, 290, 296 Pucik, V 66, 89, 322 Punnett, B.J 221, 266, 369 Purcell, J 75, 183, 308, 321, 467 Pusch, M 288 Quinn, J.B 48 Quintanilla, J 465 Ragins, B.R 360 Rall, W 54 Ramsay, H 459, 461 Rao, T.V 223, 236 Reader, J 223 Redding, G 195 Reich, R.B 25–7, 423 Reilly, R 323 Reitman, F 361 Reynolds, C 309 Ricardo, D 13, 20, 21 Richardson, R 73–4 Risberg, A 91, 92 Rivest, C 472 Robinson, S.L 319 Rockwood, K 106 Roessel, R von 260, 261 Rogan, R 341 Rogers, R.W 344 Rohmetra, 236, 237 Ronen, S 180 Rosamond, B 425, 434 Rosener, J 358, 362 Rosenkrantz, P 363 Rosenzweig, P.M 61 Rosin, H.Z 361 Roth, K 309 Rothwell, S 362 Rotter, J.B 151 Rousseau, D.M 319 Rüb, S 473 Rubery, J 416 Rubienska, A 320, 325 Rubin, J 374 Ruf, B.M 361 Rugman, A.M 18, 39–40, 49, 459–60 Ruigrok, W 394–5, 425, 462 Ryan, P 186 Sackmann, S.A 149 Sainsbury, D 416 Sako, M 202 Sales, A.L 91 Sanchez, J.I 284 Sanders, W.G 351 Sano, Y 201, 202–3 Sapozhnikov, A 262 Sappinen, J 284 Sato, H 202 Saunders, E 233 Savill, B 90–1 Scarborough, J 199–200 Schein, E.H 99 Schein, V.E 363–4 Schludi, M 425 Schneer, J.A 361 Schneider, S.C 100 Schuler, R.S 67, 253, 283, 309, 319 Schulten, T 443, 445–6, 450, 451 Schwartz, K.M 369 Schwartz, S 224–5 Schweiger, D.M 90, 91, 108–9 Scott, A 425 Scullion, H 65, 66, 67, 68, 75, 75–7, 77, 78–9, 258, 266 Segal-Horn, S 66 Seifer, D 284 487 3122-Au-Index.qxd 488 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 488 International Human Resource Management Sekaran, U 369 Sellier, F 132 Selmer, J 293 Senior, B 179 Shaffer, M.A 236, 271, 273 Shane, S 91 Sharma, S 358, 362 Shelton, M 97 Shenkar, O 180 Shilling, M.S 337 Shils, E.A 151 Shrivastava, P 90 Silvera, D.N 248 Silvestre, J.J 132 Singh, H 91 Singh, V 361–2, 364 Sisson, K 75, 445, 450, 458, 464, 467, 476 Sitkin, S.B 90, 92, 102, 107–8, 108–9 Smapson, A 168 Smith, A 12, 13, 20 Smith, C 396 Smith, M 434 Smith, P.B 154, 224–5 Søndergaard, M 149 Solomon, C 359–60 Sorge, A.M 123, 126, 465 Sörries, B 442–3 Soskice, D 176, 395, 397, 420, 427, 428 Sparrow, P 172–3, 236, 309, 316–17, 366 Spector, B 104, 232 Spector, P.E 284 Spence, J.T 364 Spencer, B 74 Spencer, S 313 Stage, H.D 324 Stahl, G.K 90, 91, 102, 108–9, 334, 346 Stahl, K 284, 297, 301 Stalker, G.M 45 Standing, G 425 Stanley, P 314, 315 Starkey, K 67, 75–7 Steedman, H 186 Steinmann, H 261 Stevens, G.E 361 Stiles, P 319, 321 Still, V 364 Stone, R 358 Stoop, S 472–3 Stopford, J.M 42–3, 45, 46, 47–8 Storey, J 76, 232 Streeck, W 128, 414, 420, 424, 426, 427, 434, 435, 458, 466, 470, 471, 473 Strodtbeck, F.L 156–7, 293–4 Stroh, L.K 66, 74, 76, 78–9, 79, 283, 284, 292, 293, 333–4, 337, 338, 339–40, 373 Sundaram, A.K 51, 106 Sundstrom, E 360 Supiot, A 446–7, 449 Suutari, V 344, 345–6 Swiercz, P 74 Tabrizi, B 100–1, 102 Tahvanainen, M 320 Tan, D 257–8 Tarique, I 99, 284, 285, 290–1, 293 Tayeb, M 232, 390 Taylor, S 60, 73, 283, 319, 335, 358, 370 Teague, P 444 Thelen, K 175–6, 428 Thomas, A.S 336, 338–9 Thompson, G 425, 460 Thompson, H.B 343 Thompson, M 319 Tichy, N 175 Tilghman, T 75 Timms, W 364 Torbiorn, I 284, 293, 358 Tran, T.C 212 Traxler, F 419–20, 435, 445, 446 Tregaskis, O 180–1, 185 Triandis, H.C 149, 229 Trompenaars, A 150–4, 158, 159, 162, 173, 224–5, 393 Truss, C 319 Tsui, A.S 74, 320 Tung, R.L 78, 253, 268, 269–70, 284, 321, 334, 335, 336, 337, 344, 345–6, 358, 367 Tyson, S 232 Ulrich, D 175 Van Oudenhoven, J.P 276 van Tulder, R 394–5, 425, 460, 461, 462 Vance, C 324 Varma, A 373 Varul, M 263, 395, 400 Vaughan, E 232 Verbeke, A 39–40 Vernon, R.G 16–17, 19, 37, 68 Very, P 90, 91, 92 Vinkenburg, C.J 361 Vinnicombe, S 361–2, 364 Voynnet, C 179 Wade, R 426 Wagner, K 186 Walsh, J.P 90 Walsh, J.S 367 3122-Au-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 489 Author Index Walton, R.E 447 Warner, M 126, 205–6, 209, 210, 216 Watanabe, S 202, 203 Waterman, R.H 45 Webb, J 374 Weber, M 121 Weber, Y 91 Wedderburn, W 452 Welch, D.E 67, 266, 283, 309, 319, 321, 326, 327 Welge, M 51, 261, 263 Wells, L.T 42–3, 45, 46, 47–8 Wendon, B 436 Wentling, R.M 358 Wheeler, K.G 361 White, B 364, 366 Whiteley, A 199–200, 208 Whitley, R 129–31, 457–8, 463, 464 Whittington, R 463, 465 Wiesma, U 369 Wilkinson, B 395–6 Williamson, O.E 18 Wills, S 358 Winkler, J 74 Wolf, J 262, 264 Wood, W 360 Wright, P.M 175 Wyer, R.S 373–4 Yau, O 199–200 Yong, M 290 Yuan, L.Q 209–10 Zeira, Y 358 Zhu, C 325 Zhu, Y 204, 205–6, 207, 209, 210, 212, 213, 214–15 489 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 490 Subject Index Page numbers in italics refer to boxes, figures and tables absolute/relative comparative cost advantage 12–13, 15, 19 absorption acquisitions 95 acculturation 91, 92 see also expatriates; repatriation achievement vs ascription 151 acquis communautaire, EU 436–9 acquisitions see mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity orientations 157, 160 actor–systems relations 126–7, 133–4 adaptive orientation 60, 61 advocacy role 81 affective vs neutral dimensions 151 Africa 240, 241, 242–3 indigenous value systems 234–5 agency theory 309 Amsterdam Treaty (1997) 435–6, 437–8, 442, 466 androgynous managers 364 Anglo-American capitalist model 413–14, 417, 418, 423, 424, 428 and national systems 426 Anglo-American management style 231, 232–3, 234, 236, 237 appraisal see under performance management area division structure 42–4, 46 ascription vs achievement 151 Asia 401–2 ‘Asian Tiger’ economies 397 US women expatriates 369–70, 371 see also developing countries; East Asia assets and resources distribution 80 assignments see global assignments Austria 169, 422 authoritarianism 229, 230 autonomy and freedom 174, 175 political 427 professional 124, 125 balance sheet approach 308, 314–15 ‘balanced scorecard’ performance measure 324 ‘bear’ role 265 behaviour 149 best of both (M&A) 96 ‘best practice’ 92 repatriation 339–42 bicultural interpreter role 81 Bing Fa (Chinese war strategies) 199, 200 ‘boundaryless’ careers 344, 345–6 ‘bumble-bee’ role 265–6 bureaucracy, developing countries 229 bureaucratic formalized control 55, 56, 57 business systems national and Euro-company 462–6 typology 129–31 capital resources 21 capital vs labour (H–O theorem) 12–13, 16 capitalism 412–17 analytical distinctions 417–21 contradictory trends 427–8 East Asia model(s) 200–8 European social model(s) 421–7 ‘pure’ 412–13 varieties of 413–17 see also globalisation career issues ‘boundaryless’ careers 344, 345–6 career differentiation 125–6 ‘plateaued-career free agents’ 275, 276 repatriation 340, 345–6, 350–1 women 360–1, 364–6 CCT see cross-cultural training centralization, EU industrial relations 444–6 centralized HR companies 75–6 centralized hub structure 47–8, 56–7 ‘centres of excellence’ 28, 48 children’s education 314 China 208–11 Chinese Culture Connection (CCC) study 144, 147–8 philosophical tradition 196–200, 208, 211–12 women expatriates 370, 371–2 ‘coffee-machine system’, expatriate selection 270–1 collective bargaining 419–20, 422, 442–3, 446–7 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 491 Subject Index collectivism Chinese philosophy 199–200 Japan 202–4 Vietnam 215 vs individualism 145–6, 148, 158, 417–18 see also teamwork colonial legacy see post-colonial countries commitment 240, 361–2 communication effective (M&A) 101–2, 103 with expatriates 339–40 ‘spider’ role 265–6 communitarianism vs individualism 151, 158 compartmentalized business systems 130 compensation 308–17, 327–8 Japan 203 and performance management 321–2 role of national culture 316–17 staff transfers 313–16 Taiwan 205, 206, 207 variables influencing strategy 310–13 virtual assignments 326–7 competitive advantage MNCs 28–30, 36–41 national comparative and 19–24, 28 competitive strategies 39–41 complementarity of opposites 133–4 complexity, national vs multinational firms 34–5 compulsory systems, industrial relations 449 computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine-tools 126–7 Confucianism 197, 199, 200, 204, 208, 211–12 contingency approach 308 contracts long-term 213 ‘psychological contract’ 319, 365 repatriation 339 short-term 184, 185 and status 417–18, 421–2, 423 technical assignments 348 control mechanisms 55–6 convergence 424–5, 465–6 vs diversity 427–8 coordinated federation 47 coordinated industrial district business systems 130 coordination/control motive of transfers 260, 263, 264, 265 corporate HR function 74–7 cosmopolitanism 27 491 costs absolute/relative comparative advantage 12–13, 15, 19 of expatriate failure 274 ‘country effect’, EWCs 471–2 country-of-origin effect 394–6 country-specific advantages (CSAs) see location advantages cross-cultural management, developing countries 224–5 cross-cultural training (CCT) 284–5 electronic 297–9 host/third country nationals (HCNs/TCNs) 300 links with other practices 299–300 and performance management 321 phases 285–96 see also training and development crossvergence, developing countries 234–7, 238 cultural appropriateness 240–1 cultural assessment (due diligence M&A phase) 98–100, 108 cultural change (M&A) 103–4 cultural differences 143 M&A 90–2, 98 within Europe 183–7 women expatriates 369–72 cultural dimensions and cultural issues 162 developing countries 231–3 and management 148–50, 161–3 models 144–61 cultural distance hypothesis 91, 92 staff transfers 264 cultural paradox 159 cultural toughness 269 culturalism 118, 120–1 employment practices transfer 392–3 and institutionalism 119–20, 131–6 see also societal analysis culture 142, 68–9, 155–6 and compensation 316–17 see also cross-cultural training (CCT); multiculturalism culture novelty 292 Daoism 198, 208 decentralization, EU industrial relations 444–6 decentralized federation 46 decentralized HR companies 76 degree of interaction, with host nationals 292 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 492 492 I n t e r n a t i o n a l H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t demand conditions 21–2 developing countries colonial legacy 225–31 crossvergence and hybridization 234–7, 238, 240 HRM and national culture 231–3 HRM-related issues 223–5 management approaches 238–43 developing–developed (Western) world paradigm 223, 225, 231, 236 developmental assignments 287, 349 dialectic approach, actor–system relations 134, 136 didactic approach, training 291 differentiation/integration phase 68 diffuseness vs specificity 151–2 distribution of assets and resources 80 distributive bargaining 447–9 diversity 425–7 management styles 372–3 vs convergence 427–8 division of labour 12, 15 international trends 24–7 societal analysis 137 domestic phase (I) 69, 70, 72 domestic rivalry 22 domestic vs multinational companies (MNCs) 34–6 dominance effects, employment practices transfer 396–400 downtime, repatriation 341 dual allegiance 275, 276 ‘dual convergence’ 428 East Asia capitalist market economies 200–8 socialist market economies 208–15 tradition philosophy 196–200, 208, 211–12 Eastern European countries 181 eclectic theory 17–19, 39, 41 Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 433, 434, 435, 439–41, 444, 445, 446, 459 economies of scale 14–15, 17, 19, 29 economies of scope 29–30 education expatriate children 314 highly skilled employees 26 and recruitment, Japan 202 systems, France vs Germany 135–6 unskilled labour force 25 see also cross-cultural training (CCT); training and development effective communication (M&A) 101–2, 103 electronic CCT (e-CCT) 297–8 evaluation 298–9 emerging countries see developing countries employment practices transfer case studies 398–400, 404–6 culturalist approach 392–3 four influences framework 394–406 political approach 393–4 rational approach 391–2 empowerment, concept of 239–40 EMU see Economic and Monetary Union entry level barriers, women 360 environment orientation 158, 160 environmental adaptation 268–9 ethno-centric (home country) orientation 59, 60, 252, 312–13, 473 Euro-company 444, 458, 475–6 and globalization 459–62 and national business systems 462–6 Europe (EU) 136–7, 401 21st century enlargement 171–2 country specificities 183–7 differences within 179–87 geo-politics 168–9 HRM model 169–71, 179 vs US model 173–9 international trade 10 regional clusters 180–3 social model(s) of capitalism 421–7 see also industrial relations, EU European Commission 435, 436, 438–9, 440–1, 442, 459 European MNC employees 253, 255, 256 European Monetary Fund (EMF) 443 European Trade Union Congress (ETUC) 443 European Works Councils (EWCs) 451–2, 458–9, 466, 468–75, 476–7 agreements 471–2 directives 469 geographical scope/sectoral diffusion 469–70 practice 472–5 executive assignments 287, 349–50 exit and voice 418–20, 421–2, 423 expatriate assignments see global assignments expatriates adjustment goal of CCT 290, 295–6 adjustment model 271–3 benefits from assignments 335–6 communication with 339–40 definition 252 failure 273–5 mentoring programs 340 recruitment and selection 268–71 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 493 Subject Index expatriates cont see also parent country nationals (PCNs); staff; third country nationals (TCNs); women expectancy theory 318 experiential approach to training 291 expertise/knowledge transfer 47, 80–1, 259, 260, 335 exportive HRM orientation 60, 61 external economies of scale 15 external locus of control 230 factor conditions 20–1 failure, expatriates 273–5 family children’s education 314 Chinese philosophy 199–200 spousal adjustment 272, 274 staff selection 269 vs work roles, women 367–9 family ownership 46, 181, 464 femininity vs masculinity 146–7, 148 financial capital 424 financial counselling, repatriation 341 Firestone 98 firm strategy 22 firm structure 22 firm-specific advantages (FSAs) 39–41 flexibility industrial relations 449 MNCs 36–7, 38 working practices 184–5 foreign direct investment (FDI) 10–11, 12, 16 foreign service premiums 314 formal vs informal selection systems 374–5 fragmented business systems 129–30 France cultural change 103–4 management style 174, 181 organisational structures 123–4, 125, 126–7, 128, 130, 131 vs Germany 132, 135–7 see also Europe (EU) free agents 275, 276 freedom see autonomy frontline implementer role 81 functional assignments 287, 348–9 gender ‘gender-blindness’ 74 management styles 372–3 regime 416–17 stereotypes 363–4 see also women 493 General Electric (GE) 93, 103–4 General Motors, Spain 404–6 geo-political features, Europe 168–9 geocentric (world) orientation 59, 60, 61, 252, 312–13, 473 geographic dispersion 34 complexity 34–5 potential benefits 35–6 Germany 20, 119–20, 134, 169 capitalist model 413, 414, 417, 418, 422, 426–7, 428 collective bargaining 446–7 country-of-origin effect 395 HRM model 181–3 institutional convergence 424 organizational structures 123–4, 125, 126–7, 128, 131 ‘social market economy’ 421 societal effect 23 staff transfers studies 259–60 vs France 132, 135–7 see also Europe (EU) ‘glass ceiling/wall’ 359–60 global assignments analysis, cross-cultural training (CCT) 288–9 benefits 335–6 types 287, 346–50 global business management roles 80 ‘global commodity chains’ 401–2 global companies 52, 54, 55, 56–7, 59 global efficiency 36, 37–8 global leadership competencies 335 global management development 77–9 global matrix structure 44 global organization model 47–8 global phase (IV) 69, 71, 72 global strategy 37–8, 41, 52, 53 globalization 136–8, 457–8 and Euro-company 459–62 and European social model(s) 423–7 goal(s) achievement appraisal 320–1 cross-cultural training (CCT) 289–90, 295–6 repatriation 345–6 setting theory 318–19 going-native 276 government subsidies 27 group-based activities see collectivism; teamwork ‘growth and internationalization’ phase 68 GTE 342–3 hardship and compensation 314 harmony-oriented societies 158 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 494 494 I n t e r n a t i o n a l H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t HCNs see host country nationals headquarters and local managers 256–9, 262 and subsidiaries 266–7, 309 heart-at-home orientation 275, 276 Heckscher–Ohlin (H–O) theorem 13–14, 16 hierarchy see power distance high potential assignments 287, 349 ‘high tech’ phase 68 highly coordinated business systems 130 ‘hired-gun free agents’ 275, 276 holding companies 465 home base 28 home country allegiance 275, 276 ethnocentric orientation 59, 60, 252, 312–13, 473 selection systems, women 373–4 staff transfer motives 263 home leave and compensation 314 host country allegiance 275, 276 attitudes to women 369–72 characteristics 258 compensation 315 effects, employment practices transfer 402–6 polycentric orientation 59, 60, 252, 312–13, 473 staff transfer motives 263–4 host country nationals (HCNs) 253, 254 cross-cultural training (CCT) 300 management boards 395 vs parent country nationals (PCNs) 256–9 human capital audit 100–2, 108 human nature orientation 158, 160 humanistic systems 226–8, 231, 232, 233, 234 Africa 234–5 Indian 236–7 vs instrumentalism 237, 240–1 hybridization developing countries 234–7, 238, 240 industrial relations 444 IBM 144–8, 392, 401 impatriation 252, 266–7 India 236–7 individualism vs collectivism 145–6, 148, 158, 417–18 vs communitarianism 151, 158 individual(s) benefits from assignments 335–6 cross-cultural training (CCT) needs 288 performance criteria 323–4 repatriation 336–8, 345–6 ‘industrial citizenship’ 418 industrial relations 22, 421–2, 423–4, 427–8 collective bargaining 419–20, 422, 442–3, 446–7 EU 435–52 centralization and decentralization 444–6 changing patterns of regulation 446–7, 448 common minimum standards 436–9 compulsory to flexible systems 449 Euro-company dimension 444 future prospects 449–52 labour law 437–8 social policy 438–9, 440–1, 442–3, 466–8 unstable balance 451–2 wages/employment/’open co-ordination’ 439–42 see also European Works Councils (EWCs) see also trade unionism informal selection systems 270–1, 374–5 information technology (IT) industry 346 inner vs outer directedness 154, 155, 158 in-person services 26, 27 input vs output market differences 28–9 ‘insider’ vs ‘outsider’ systems 463–4 institutional differences, Europe 183–7 institutional differentiation 136–7 ‘institutional interlock’ 426, 427 institutionalism 118, 121–2 and culturalism 119–20, 131–6 organizational structure and HRM 123–31 see also societal analysis instructional content/methods, CCT 290–2 instrumentalism 231–3 Anglo-American management style 231, 232–3, 234, 236, 237 vs humanism 237, 240–1 integrated culturalist/institutionalist approach 119–20, 131–6 integrated network structure 48 integration concept (M&A) 92–7 integration influences 400–2 integration manager (M&A) 104–6 integration/differentiation phase 68 integration–responsiveness framework 49–51 integrative bargaining 447–9 integrative framework 71–4, 77 integrative orientation 60–1 intercontinental level interactions 223, 224 interdependence 53–4, 133–4 inter-ethnic level interactions 224 internal economies of scale 15 internalization advantages 18–19 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 495 Subject Index international compensation see compensation international division structure 42–4 international organizational model 46–7 international phase (II) 69, 70, 72 international states of mind 59 international strategy 37 international trade 10–15 internationalization phases 68–71 interpersonal relationships interaction and support 367, 368 other’s orientation dimension 269, 367 relational abilities 268 supervisor–subordinate relationships 373 interpretations, as core of culture 155–6 Italy 20, 130 Japan 14, 47–8, 98, 122, 134 capitalist model 417, 426–7 competitive advantage 23–4 employment practices transfer 391–2, 395–6, 397, 402–3 HRM model 200–4 in China 210–11 institutional convergence 424 national comparative and competitive advantage 23–4 organizational structure 124–5, 127, 130 women expatriates in 370, 371 job novelty 292 job specialization 125 ‘job-hopping’ 346 knowledge and expertise transfer 47, 80–1, 259, 260, 335 resources 21 shared 29–30 Korea 20, 130 labour force, unskilled Western 25, 26–7 labour law, EU 437–8 labour resources 21 labour vs capital (H–O theorem) 12–13, 16 labour–management relations 22 see also industrial relations; trade unionism land resources 21 language fluency 272, 273 large-sized enterprises (LEs), Taiwan 206–7 leader–member exchange (LMX) model 373 leadership 126 competencies 335 women 362–4 lean production 403 495 learning effect 29, 472 liberal market economies 420–1 liberalisation of trade 423–4 licensing 18–19 local production 55 local R&D 55 local responsiveness 54–5 local and senior managers 256–9, 262 localized approach to compensation 315–16 location advantages 18, 39, 40, 41 locus of control 230 locus of human value 233 long- vs short-term orientation 147–8, 154, 159 long-term contracts 213 long-term goals, cross-cultural training (CCT) 290, 295–6 M&A see mergers and acquisitions Maastricht Treaty 437, 438–9, 466 machine tool industry 126–7, 136–7 management behaviour, women 362–4 management development 259, 261–2, 263–5, 267–8 management shortage 77–9 management team selection 100–1 ‘masculine’ personality/behaviour 264, 363 masculinity vs femininity 146–7, 148 mastery-oriented societies 158 ‘maturity’ phase 68 ‘Mediterranean’ capitalist model 423 mental programming 121–2, 148–9 mentoring programs 340 ‘merger of equals’ 96 ‘merger syndrome’ 102 mergers and acquisitions (M&A) 89–90, 107–9 concept of integration 92–7 cultural differences 90–2, 98 IHRM implications 97–107 mobility barriers 79 monochrony 152 motivation developing countries 240 women 361–2 multi-divisional forms 465 multiculturalism 34 complexity 34–5 dynamics 241–4 potential benefits 35–6 multidomestic companies 52, 54, 55, 56, 57–8, 59 multidomestic organizational model 45–6 multidomestic strategy 37, 41, 52, 53, 64n 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 496 496 I n t e r n a t i o n a l H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t multinational companies (MNCs) competitive advantages 28–30, 36–41 foreign direct investment (FDI) 10–11 HRM in 58–61 reason for 15–19 strategy 36–8, 42–8, 49, 67–74 structure 41–51 typology 45–51 empirical test 51–8 vs domestic firms 34–6 multinational flexibility 36–7, 38 multinational phase (III) 69, 70–1, 72 multiple stakeholder interests 239–40 national comparative and competitive advantage 19–24, 28 national defender role 81 national vs Euro-company 462–6 national vs multinational companies (MNC) 34–6 networks control 56 EWC 473, 474 integrated structure 48 neutral vs affective dimensions 151 new world order 25–7 Nokia 95, 105 non-identical reproduction 135–6 non-location vs location-bound advantages 39–41 ‘Nordic’ capitalist model 417, 423 norms 149 Northern European capitalist model 417 Novartis 93, 96 ‘open co-ordination’ method 439–42 open vs closed selection systems 374–5 opportunities and risks 36–7 organization theory see culturalism; institutionalism organization(s) benefits from expatriate assignments 336 cross-cultural training (CCT) needs 288 design and subsidiary role 52, 53 development motives 259, 260, 261–2 performance criteria 322–3 processes, women 372–5 repatriation 338–9, 343–7 other’s orientation dimension 269, 367 see also interpersonal relationships outer vs inner directedness 154, 155, 158 output control 55–6, 57 output vs input market differences 28–9 ‘outsider’ vs ‘insider’ systems 463–4 ownership business systems typology 129–31 EU 181 family 46, 181, 464 MNCs 18, 39–40, 41 property regime 413–14, 415 see also state-owned enterprises (SOEs) parent country nationals (PCNs) 252–6 compensation 314, 315 vs host country nationals (HCNs) 256–9 see also expatriates part-time work 184, 185 particularism vs universalism 151, 153 path dependency 425–7 perceptual dimension 269, 367 performance management 317–25, 328 and compensation 321–2 and cross-cultural training (CCT) 321 goal achievement appraisal 320–1 links to MNC strategy 319–20 links to repatriation 350–1 performance appraisal 324–5 performance criteria 322–4 setting individual goals 320 virtual assignments 327 personal centralized control 55, 56–7 personality traits 268, 366–7 philosophical tradition, Chinese 196–200, 208, 211–12 physical resources 21 ‘plateaued-career free agents’ 275, 276 PLC see product life cycle political approach, employment practices transfer 393–4 political autonomy 427 polycentric (host country) orientation 59, 60, 252, 312–13, 473 polychrony 152 Porter’s diamond 20, 21 position filling 259, 261–2, 263, 264 positive economic nationalism 27 post-colonial countries 223–4 management systems 225–31 post-instrumental management 226–8, 230–1 power distance 144, 146, 148, 158 power imbalances 241–4 primary vs secondary production processes 123–5 private enterprise culture 175 product division structure 42–4, 47–8 product life cycle (PLC) 16–17, 19, 37, 41 international 47, 68 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 497 Subject Index production lean 403 local 55 primary vs secondary processes 123–5 regime 414–15 routine services 25–6, 27 segmentation/standardization 401–2 ‘social systems of production’ 426 professional autonomy 124, 125 professional categories 25–7 property regime 413–14, 415 protectionism 27, 45 ‘psychological contract’ 319, 365 quality control circles (QCC) 202, 210–11 R&D see research and development rational approach, employment practices transfer 391–2 reciprocal interdependence 133 recruitment 268–71 Japan 202 Taiwan 204, 207 see also selection regiocentric approach 252 regional approach to compensation 315–16 regional trade agreements 10 related industries 22 relational abilities 268 see also interpersonal relationships relationship orientation 158, 160 relative/absolute comparative cost advantage 12–13, 15, 19 relocation and compensation 314 repatriation 344–51 ‘best practice’ 339–42 case study 342–3 challenges 336–9 contract 339 global assignment types 346–50 individual career goals 345–6 organizational support 343–7 and selection/performance management 350–1 research and development (R&D) local 55 phase 68 resource-based theory 308–9 resources and assets distribution 80 capital 21 retention of talent (M&A) 102–3 ‘reverse culture shock’ 337 reverse merger 95–6 497 ‘Rhineland’/’Germanic’ capitalism 413, 414, 417, 418, 422, 426–7, 428 risks and opportunities 36–7 role conflict 271, 273, 275 routine production services 25–6, 27 Schein Descriptive Index (SDI) 363–4 sector dimension/effect, EU industrial relations 442–3, 472 segmentation of operations 401–2 selection 268–71 criteria 268–9 management team 100–1 open vs closed systems 374–5 practice 269–71 and repatriation 350–1 see also recruitment self-orientation dimension 269, 366–7 senior and local managers 256–9, 262 sequencing of training sessions, CCT 292–4 sequential vs synchronic time 152, 154 sex role stereotypes 363–4 shared external relations 29 shared knowledge 29–30 short- vs long-term orientation 147–8, 154, 159 short-term assignments 325–7 short-term contracts 184, 185 short-term goals, CCT 289–90, 295 short-term property regime 414, 415 small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Taiwan 206 SMART performance goals 320 social interaction/support, women 367, 368 see also interpersonal relationships ‘social pacts’ 445–6, 449 social policy, EU 435–6, 466–8 ‘joint texts’ 440–1, 442–3 process 438–9 ‘social systems of production’ 426 socialist market economies, East Asia 208–15 socialization and network control 56 processes 120–1 training as 267 societal analysis 119, 131–8 see also culturalism; institutionalism societal choice approach 464–5 societal effect theory 23 SOEs see state-owned enterprises soft side of the organization 44–5 South Africa 239, 241, 242, 243 South East Asia see Asia; developing countries; East Asia 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 498 498 I n t e r n a t i o n a l H u m a n R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t Southern European capitalist model 417 Southern European countries 181 space orientation 159 Spain, General Motors 404–6 specificity vs diffuseness 151–2 speed of M&A 106–7 ‘spider’ role 265–6 spousal adjustment 272, 274 staff employee alienation 229 policies 252–9 transfer archetypes 275–6 transfer motives 259–68 see also expatriates; individual(s); host country nationals (HCNs); parent country nationals (PCNs); third country nationals (TCNs); women stand-alone acquisitions 93–5 standardization of operations 402 state involvement 175–6, 181 state organized business systems 130 state-owned enterprises (SOEs) China 210 Europe 464–5 Taiwan 206–7 Vietnam 212, 213–14 statistics international staff 253–6 internationalization trends 10–11 status and contract 417–18, 421–2, 423 ‘statutory model effect’, EWCs 471 strategic assignments 287, 349–50 strategic HRM (SHRM) 73–4 strategy MNCs 36–8, 42–8, 49, 67–74 national differentiation 29 national firm 22 post-merger outcomes 92–7 structural interrelationships 125–6 structuration theory 122 structure MNCs 41–51 national firm 22, 123–31 subsidiaries 52, 53–5, 56–7, 255, 256–9 characteristics 262–5 and headquarters 266–7, 309 management roles 81 supervisor–subordinate relationships, women 373 support expatriate adjustment 271–3 repatriation 343–7 women 367, 368 supporting industries 22 Swedco 398–400 Sweden 20, 169 cultural interpretations 155–6, 163 EU 169–71 Switzerland 20, 171, 172 symbolic–analytical services 26 synergy effects see economies of scope tactical assignments 287, 348–9 Taiwan 204–7 talent retention (M&A) 102–3 tax assistance, repatriation 341 teamwork 267 see also collectivism; management team selection technical assignments 287, 347–8 technical competence 268 technological innovation 126–8 technology 48 CNC machine-tools 126–7 electronic CCT 297–9 industry expansion, Taiwan 204–6 IT industry 346 temporary contracts 184, 185 terminology 39 third country nationals (TCNs) 252, 253, 254, 256 compensation 314, 315 cross-cultural training (CCT) 300 see also expatriates time orientation 152, 154, 158–9, 160 top-level corporate management 81–2 total quality management (TQM) 202, 210–11 trade unionism Europe 176–8, 186–7 Japan 203–4 Taiwan 205, 206, 207 US perspectives 176–8, 419–20 Vietnam 214 see also industrial relations traditional philosophy, Chinese 196–200, 208, 211–12 training Europe 186 intercultural management and awareness 242 Japan 202 repatriation seminars 340–1 as socialization 267 Taiwan 205, 207 see also cross-cultural training (CCT) transaction cost theory see eclectic theory transformation (M&A) 96–7 transition HR companies 76–7 transition management (M&A) 104–7 3122-Sub-Index.qxd 10/29/03 2:32 PM Page 499 Subject Index transition manager roles 79–82 transition team (M&A) 104–6 transnational companies 52, 54, 55, 56–7, 58, 59 transnational organizational model 48 transnational strategy 38, 41, 52, 53 transnationality index 395 uncertainty avoidance 144–5, 148, 156–7 United Kingdom (UK) 20 organizational structure 123–4, 125–6, 130 vs Japan 124–5 women 361, 363, 364 see also Europe (EU); entries beginning Anglo-American United States (US) 20, 122 employment practices transfer 396, 397, 398, 404–6 HRM model 172–3 vs Europe 173–9 international organizational model 46–7 ‘job-hopping’ 346 perspectives on trade unionism 176–8, 419–20 Silicon Valley, California 15 vs Taiwan 161 women 363–4, 366, 369–70, 371 see also entries beginning Anglo-American ‘universal problems’ 150, 156 universalism vs particularism 151, 153 unskilled Western labour force 25, 26–7 value value value value changes 121 orientation 157–9, 160 rationality 121 systems 148–9, 234–5 499 values 149, 156 compensation system 311–12 see also culture Vietnam 211–15 virtual international assignments 325–7 voice and exit 418–20, 421–2, 423 wages, EU 439–41 welfare regime 415–16, 425, 427 Western labour force, unskilled 25, 26–7 Western perspectives see developing– developed world paradigm; entries beginning Anglo-American women advantages for 376–8 approaches to increasing diversity 372–3 barriers 360–1 career systems 360–1, 364–6 family characteristics 367–9 home country selection systems 373–4 host nationals’ attitudes 369–72 managerial/leadership behaviour 362–4 motivation 361–2, 366 organizational processes 372–5 personality traits 366–7 supervisor–subordinate relationships 373 world (geocentric) orientation 59, 60, 61, 252, 312–13, 473 World Investment Report (2001) 395 worldwide functional management 80–1 worldwide learning 37, 50–1 worldwide product structure 44 Yin and Yang 198, 200 zero-sum nationalism 27 ... Advantages Host Country National Headquarters Human Resources Human Resource Development Human Resource Management International Human Resource Management Industrial Relations Joint Ventures... include strategic human resource management, international human resource management, and developing human capital His research has been presented at the Annual Academy of Management Meetings... of Organizational Behavior, Human Resources Planning Journal, and International Journal of Human Resource Management and is an Associate Editor for Human Resource Management Journal Christine
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