4 8 jose marti patriot and writer

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José Martí Fascinating Facts Patriot and Writer • José Martí’s father was Spanish and his mother was from the Canary Islands • Though famous as a freedom fighter, José Martí was a small, thin man Because of an injury he got when he was imprisoned, he walked with a cane for the rest of his life • José Martí lived in New York for a time While he was there, he started a magazine for children called Edad de Oro, which means “golden age.” Genre Nonfiction Comprehension Skill Sequence Text Features • • • • Captions Time Line Map Sidebars Scott Foresman Social Studies by Ann Rossi José Martí During the 1800s, Cuba was ruled by Spain Many Cubans wanted to be independent José Martí was a Cuban patriot who used his writing to tell the world about Cuba’s desire for freedom In this book you will learn why Martí is remembered as a symbol of Cuban independence Write to It! José Martí fought for freedom in his Patriot and Writer country What are some of the freedoms that you have in the United States? Write one or two paragraphs about these freedoms and how might your life might be different without these freedoms Vocabulary tourist immigrant revolutionary exile Write your paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper liberty patriot Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions by Ann Rossi Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14670-6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 Opener: ©Snark/Art Resource, NY ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery Editorial ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery Offices: Glenview, Illinois • Parsippany, New Jersey • New York, New York ©Getty Images, (Inset) ©Corbis Sales Offices: Needham, Massachusetts • Duluth, Georgia • Glenview, Illinois Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra Coppell, Texas • Ontario, California • Mesa, Arizona ©Historical Picture Archive/Corbis 11 ©SuperStock 14 ©Don Tremain/Alamy Images 15 ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company Martí’s Place in History Each year, millions of people visit Miami, Florida, because of its mild climate and different attractions Visitors have many things to see and During their visits, these tourists spend money on things such as food and entertainment There are many fun and interesting ways to spend time in Miami Tourists may visit Little Havana, a part of Miami where many Cuban immigrants and Cuban Americans live They can explore the neighborhood markets in Little Havana Tourists can eat tasty, traditional Cuban foods at some of the community’s many restaurants Visitors and residents can view the monuments along Memorial Boulevard to learn about the history and culture of Cuba They might stop and look at the memorial honoring José Martí, a poet of the 1800s and a famous Cuban revolutionary This memorial to José Martí is in Miami, Florida Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies It is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) south of Key West, Florida Some people may be unfamiliar with Martí, although he is well known in the Miami area Many people think Martí is the most important Cuban writer of the 1800s Although he is well known for his writing, Martí is perhaps best known for his role in Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain Martí dedicated much of his life to working for Cuban independence Martí’s Youth José Martí was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, Cuba He was the son of Mariano Martí and Leonor Pérez Martí had five younger sisters Although his family was poor, Martí received an excellent education His mother realized how important a good education would be for her son One of Martí’s teachers took a special interest in young Martí’s education Encouraged to write, Martí had published several poems by the age of fifteen José Martí Spanish Rule of Cuba Christopher Columbus, exploring for Spain, landed in Cuba in 1492 In 1511 Spanish soldiers and settlers took control of Cuba Spain did not give up its rule of Cuba until 1898, when the Spanish-American War ended In 1868 the Ten Years’ War began It was Cuba’s first struggle for independence from Spain Martí was one of many Cubans who thought that Cuba should rule itself He soon took action When he was sixteen years old, Martí started a newspaper called La patria libre (The Free Fatherland) that supported Cuba’s right to rule itself This marked the beginning of Martí’s lifelong fight for Cuban independence Martí’s support for Cuban independence brought him to the attention of the Spanish government He was arrested and sentenced to six years of hard labor In 1871 he was sent away to Spain The authorities told him he could never return to Cuba Martí experienced the harshness of Cuban prisons firsthand Sharing his mother’s belief in the importance of a good education, Martí continued to study and learn in Spain He attended the University of Madrid and later the University of Zaragoza In 1874 Martí graduated He received two degrees, one in philosophy and another in law After graduating Martí traveled, first in France, then in Mexico and Guatemala He continued to write In Guatemala Martí also worked as a professor, teaching history and literature While there he married Carmen Zayas Bazán, the daughter of another exiled Cuban In 1878 the Pact of Zanjon signaled the end of Cuba’s Ten Years’ War This treaty called for many changes in Cuba With the end of the war, political exiles were allowed to return to Cuba, and within the year Martí and his wife went back Living in Exile Martí was living in exile in Spain, far from Cuba Martí, however, did not let his great distance from Cuba stop him from fighting for his homeland’s independence Martí’s weapon was his pen He attacked Cuban prisons by writing a pamphlet about the horrors of being a political prisoner He also wrote many other political essays This picture shows how Havana, Cuba, looked during Marti’s lifetime Exiled Again Although the Ten Years’ War had ended, Spain still ruled Cuba Back in Cuba, Martí continued to push for Cuban independence As a result, he was exiled once again in 1879 As before, Martí was sent to Spain Martí remained in Spain only a short time He left Spain for France and later traveled to New York City In 1881 Martí moved to Venezuela, where he hoped to make a home for himself He started a newspaper called Revista Venezolana (Venezuelan Review), but the political points of view in the paper angered the dictator of Venezuela Martí was forced to leave Venezuela and chose to return to the United States From 1881 to 1895, Martí spent most of his time in New York City As always, he continued to write He wrote newspaper articles, poetry, and essays He even wrote a magazine for children! Martí wrote about his love of freedom, justice, and education Many of his essays helped countries to understand one another better While in New York, Martí worked as a journalist for several Latin American newspapers One newspaper was La nación (The Nation) from Buenos Aires, Argentina Martí wrote articles about life and important events in the United States In 1886 Martí wrote an article about the dedication of the Statue of Liberty, which took place on October 28 of that year The Statue of Liberty was a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States Martí described the parades, the crowds, the speeches, and the statue itself He explained how France had been important in the War of Independence, when the Thirteen Colonies fought Britain and became the United States of America The Statue of Liberty The real name of the Statue of Liberty is Liberty Enlightening the World The statue represents liberty, or freedom, an important idea in France and the United States Liberty Enlightening the World, also called the Statue of Liberty, was dedicated in New York on October 28, 1886 French sculptor Fréderic Auguste Bartholdi designed the statue, and the people of France donated money to build it Bartholdi began building the statue in Paris in 1875 After its completion, it was taken apart and shipped in 214 crates to the United States, where it was later reassembled Martí’s words and descriptions helped his readers picture the sights and sounds of the celebration His writing helped others to understand the importance of liberty Martí shared his hopes of freedom for his own people Martí’s articles made him famous throughout Latin America During his years in the United States, Martí had not forgotten his own homeland He spent much of his time planning how to achieve independence for Cuba He traveled to Florida and other places, gathering support among exiled Cubans In 1892 Martí helped to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party In the years that followed, Martí collected supplies and planned an invasion of Cuba to free the country from Spanish rule Cuban independence remained Martí’s goal 10 11 A Last Return At last Martí felt it was time to return to Cuba to fight for the island’s independence The independence movement had taken root Cubans of all classes were ready and willing to fight for their freedom In early 1895 Martí left New York and sailed for Cuba Accompanying him were other Cuban patriots, or people who love, support, and defend their country By April, Martí had arrived in Cuba The Life and Times of José Martí Little more than a month after his return to Cuba, Martí was killed in battle Martí had dedicated almost his whole life to gaining freedom for Cuba Although he did not live to see a free Cuba, Martí inspired others to fight for Cuba’s independence In 1898 the United States declared war on Spain after an American battleship exploded The battleship had been sent to Havana to protect American citizens in Cuba The United States blamed Spain for the explosion Shortly after the United States declared war, Spain surrendered and agreed to give up its right to rule Cuba At last Cuba had become independent! 1874 Martí graduates from university 1871 1878 Martí is exiled to Spain The Ten Years’ War ends The Pact of Zanjon allows political exiles to return to Cuba Martí and his wife arrive in Cuba 1853 José Martí is born in Havana, Cuba, on January 28 1850 1855 1868 The Ten Years’ War begins 1860 1865 1869 12 1881 Martí moves to Venezuela and then settles in the United States 1870 Martí publishes his first newspaper, La patria libre 1895 Martí leaves New York A new war for Cuban independence begins May 19: Martí is killed in battle 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1879 1892 Martí is exiled again Martí helps form the Cuban Revolutionary Party 13 Honoring Martí Many people remember Martí as a patriot They remember Martí as a supporter of liberty and as a man who gave his life for that ideal Martí’s poems and other writings continue to educate others, including political leaders A statue dedicated to José Martí stands in Havana, Cuba Students represent their schools in the José Martí Parade in Miami, Florida Martí’s memory has been preserved in many ways His picture appears on the Cuban peso Statues have been built in his memory in cities such as Havana, Cuba, and Miami, Florida Even schoolchildren honor Martí! In late January the José Martí parade takes place in the Miami area The parade celebrates the birth of José Martí Students and teachers march in the parade Some sing or recite poems Others ride floats they helped decorate Although Martí died more than one hundred years ago, his dedication to independence continues to inspire others 14 15 During the 1800s, Cuba was ruled by Spain Many Cubans wanted to be independent José Martí was a Cuban patriot who used his writing to tell the world about Cuba’s desire for freedom In this book you Glossary will learn why Martí is remembered a symbol of exile being forced to live awayasfrom Cuban independence one’s country Write to It! José Martí fought for freedom in his country What are some of the freedoms that you have in the United States? Write one or two paragraphs about these freedoms and how might your life might be different without these freedoms immigrant a person who leaves one country to live in another Vocabulary liberty freedom from the control of tourist another country; independence immigrant patriot a person who loves and supports revolutionary his or her country exile who is trying revolutionary a person Write your paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper to bring about aliberty major change in government patriot tourist a person who travels for enjoyment Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14670-6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 16 Opener: ©Snark/Art Resource, NY ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery ©Getty Images, (Inset) ©Corbis Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra ©Historical Picture Archive/Corbis 11 ©SuperStock 14 ©Don Tremain/Alamy Images 15 ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company ... fought for freedom in his Patriot and Writer country What are some of the freedoms that you have in the United States? Write one or two paragraphs about these freedoms and how might your life might... mild climate and different attractions Visitors have many things to see and During their visits, these tourists spend money on things such as food and entertainment There are many fun and interesting... as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-3 2 8-1 467 0-6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America
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