ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME

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Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian thường bắt đầu trạng từ thời gian như: when, while, after, before, since, until, as soon as, … - Sự phối hợp động từ mệnh đề mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian: Main clause (Mệnh đề chính) Adverbial clause of time (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian) TLĐ + until / when / as soon as + HTĐ Ex: I will wait here until she comes back TLĐ + after + HTHT Ex: He will go home after he has finished his work While / when / as + QKTD, QKĐ Ex: While I was going to school, I met my friend QKĐ + while / when / as + QKTD Ex: It started to rain while the boys were playing football QKTD + while + QKTD Ex: Last night, I was doing my homework while my sister was playing games HTHT + since + QKĐ Ex: I have worked here since I graduated TLHT + by / by the time + HTĐ Ex: He will have left by the time you arrive QKHT + by the time / before + QKĐ Ex: He had left by the time I came After + QKHT, QKĐ Ex: After I had finished my homework, I went to bed Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian Unrated Các mệnh đề sau Until, After, Before, When mệnh đề phụ Chúng phải kèm với mệnh đề câu rõ cấu trúc cú pháp - Có thể đảo trật tự mệnh đề câu với điều kiện mệnh đề when, after, before, until trước phải có dấu phẩy trước mệnh đề VD : I'll stop explaining to you about this until you can master = Until you can master, i'll stop explaining this to you ( Tôi bạn nắm vấn đề ) - Các mệnh đề này, không chia với tương lai - Các liên từ ( trừ Until ) để đầu hàng để bạn dễ thấy -Until : Cho đến 1.Simple past + until + simple past : Khi hành động mệnh đề trước kéo dài hành động mệnh đề sau - I waited here until it was dark ( Tôi lại đến trời tối ) Simple past + past perfect : Nhấn mạnh hành động mệnh đề Until với nghĩa hoàn thành trước hành động - He read the book until no-one had been there ( Anh ta đọc sách tới chẳng ) Có nghĩa người thư viện từ lâu say mê đọc sách Simple future + Until + Present simple/ Present perfect : Dùng với nghĩa làm cho đền hoàn thành việc - I won't go to bed until i have finished my homework ( Tôi ngủ làm xong tập ) = I will go to bed until i finish my homework - We'll stayed here until the rain stops After : Sau After + past perfect, + simple past = Past perfect + before + past perfect : Sau kết thúc việc làm việc ( QK ) - After i had finished the test, i went home ( Khi kiểm tra xong nhà ) = I had finished the test before i went home 2.After + simple past, + simple present : Sự việc khứ kết - After everything happened, we are still good friends ( Sau chuyện xảy ra, người bạn tốt ) After simple past, + simple past : Sự việc khứ kết khứ - After everything happened, we quarelled over dishonesty ( Sau chuyện [ không tốt ], cãi vã tính không trung thực ) 4, After + simple present / present perfect, + simple future : Sau làm việc làm tiếp việc khác ( HT / TL ) - After i come to the station, i'll call you ( Sau đến ga anh gọi cho em Before : Trước Cách chia thì ngược lại với after Before + simple past, + past perfect : Tương tự phần mục II 2.Before + simple present, + simple future / simple present : Trước làm làm - Before i leave, i'll give you a gift ( Trước đi, anh tặng em quà ) - Before i leave, i want to make sure that no-one can know about this ( Trước muốn biết chắn biết chuyện ) When : Khi When + present simple, + simple future / simple present : Khi làm (sẽ ) ( HT / TL ) When you see it yourself, you'll surely believe it ( Khi em thấy tận mắt, em tin ) When + simple past, + past perfect : Diễn tả hành động xảy hoàn tất trước hành động mệnh đề when When i just got out of the classroom, i knew that i had made some mistakes ( Khi bước khỏi phòng, nhận mắc số lỗi ) When + simple past, + simple past : Diễn tả hai hành động xảy gần nhau, hành động vừa dứt hành động khác xảy - When the rock concert given by Erick Clapton ended, we went home ( Khi buổi nhạc rock Ẻick Clapton kết thúc, ) When + past continuous ( clear point of time - thời gian cụ thể ), + simple past : Khi hành động diễn hành động khác xảy đến When we were playing football at 5.30p.m yesterday, there was a terrible explosion ( Vào lúc 5h30 chiều qua, chơi bóng bọn chợi nghe thấy tiếng nổ lớn ) When + simple past, + past continuous : Tương tự phần 4, nghĩ khác chút When we came, he was taking a bath ( Khi bọn đến cậu ta tắm ) When + past perfect, + simple past : Hành động mệnh đề when xảy trước ( kết QK ) When the opportunity had passed, i only knew that there was nothing could be done ( Khi hội không biết chẳng làm ) When simple past, + simple present : Tương tự mục hành động sau When the opportunity passed, i know there's nothing can be done ( Khi hội tuột mất, biết chẳng làm ) Time clause! 1.WHEN + S + V1, S + WILL +V2 Ex:When I seeyou tomorrow,I will give it to you Trong trường hợp này,cho ta thấy thêm ý,mệnh đề "when" KHÔNG chia future 2.WHEN + S + V1, S + WILL BE + V-ING Ex:When you readthis letter,I will be visitingFrance 3.WHEN + S + V1, S + WILL + HAVE + P.P(past participle) Ex:When you readthis letter,i will have been in France for year 4.WHEN + S + V2, S + was/were +V-ING Ex:When I came,they were sleeping 5.WHEN + S + V2,S + V2 Ex:When I wound the alarm clock,it wentwrong 6.WHILE + S + WAS/WERE + V-ING,S + WAS/WERE + V-ING Ex:While I was reading books,my mother was cooking Đây trường hợp tiếp diễn chia mệnh đề thời gian 7.BEFORE + S + V2, S + HAD + P.P Ex:Before I wentto the cinema.I had doneall my homework 8.AFTER + S + HAD + P.P, S + V2 Ex:After I had donemy homework,I wentto the cinema 9.S + HAD + HARDLY/NO SOONER + P.P WHEN/THAN + S +V2 Ex:She had hardly/no sooner gonehome when/than it rained Chú ý:hardly when ; no sooner than 10.S + HAVE + P.P + SINCE + S + V2 Ex:Her knowledge has increasedsince she startedcollecting stamps Embedded sentences Ex:I don't know where they are now để biết thêm nhiều mệnh đề trạng từ thời gian tiếng anh mời bạn đến trung tâm anh ngữ newlight với khóa học tiếng anh giao tiếp lớp luyện thi toeic Conjunctions: time from English Grammar Today When, after, before, until, since, while, once, as and as soon as are subordinating conjunctions which can be used to connect an action or an event to a point in time action/event conjunction time She was in a bad car accident when she was young We can’t play after loud music everyone has gone to bed Brush your teeth you go to bed! before I’ll wait with until you the bus comes I’ve been very since busy I started my new job No one left the while cinema the movie was on I’ll call you once I arrive as soon as we get to the beach We always have an ice cream I bumped into as her I came out of the action/event conjunction time bank Many of these time conjunctions can be followed by -ing or -ed forms instead of subject + verb See also: • Non-finite clauses Warning: We don’t use will after conjunctions referring to future time: When people walk into the room, they will feel something special Not: When people will walk into the room … I will call you as soon as I get to the office Not: … as soon as I will get to the office When, once, as soon as We can use when, once, as and as soon as to talk about a specific point in time when something happened or will happen: When we were in Greece, we went to as many islands as possible They always close their curtains once they get home in the evening As soon as we hear any news, we’ll call you Before, after and until We use before and after to talk about the order of events in the past or future With before and after, either the main clause or the subordinate clause can come first: [event 1]She’ll pick you up before [event 2]she comes here After [event 1]she comes here, [event 2]she’ll pick you up Until as a time conjunction means up to a time in the past or future In the case of until, the main clause usually comes first: I’m going to wait until the January sales start to buy a new jacket Until he mentioned his name was Doug, I thought he was called Damien! (less common order) We spell until with one l (Not: untill) While We use while to show that actions or events happen at the same time in the past, present or future: Can you wait in the car while I run into the shop? They were talking while the teacher was explaining the activity Warning: We don’t use during instead of while During is a preposition, not a conjunction, and it must be followed by a noun or a pronoun: I like to have the radio on while I study Not: I like to have the radio on during I study See also: • As • Since • While and whilst • Before • Once • Until • Punctuation (“Conjunctions: time” from English Grammar Today © Cambridge University Press.) PHÂN BIỆT When/ After/ Before/ Until/ Since/ While/ Once/ As/ As soon as Đây nhóm từ nối thời gian dùng để kết nối hành động kiện với mốc thời gian hay thời điểm cụ thể Ví dụ: - She was in a bad car accident when she was young (Sự kiện: tai nạn ô tô, Thời điểm: Khi trẻ) - We cannot play loud music after everyone has gone to bed (Hành động: chơi nhạc to, Thời điểm: Mọi người ngủ) WHEN/ONCE/AS SOON AS: Thời điểm cụ thể Dùng ba từ nối nói thời điểm cụ thể mà hành động hay kiện xảy xảy When we were in Greece, we went to as many islands as posible They always close their curtains once they get home in the evening As soon as we hear the news, we will call you BEFORE/AFTER: Thứ tự kiện Dùng hai từ nối nói thứ tự kiện khứ Hai kiện hoán đổi cho dùng after before - She will pick you up before she comes here - After she comes here, she will pick you up UNTIL: Dùng để ám "cho đến thời điểm cụ thể" khứ tương lai Ví dụ: - I'm going to wait until the summer sales start to buy a new jacket - Until he mentioned his name was Joe, I thought he was called John WHILE Dùng để hành động kiện diễn lúc khứ, tương lai - Can you wait in the car while I run into the shop? - They were talking while the teacher was explaining the activity !!!!! KHÔNG SỬ DỤNG DURING CHO WHILE VÌ THEO SAU DURING PHẢI LÀ DANH TỪ !!!!! KHÔNG DÙNG "WILL" SAU CÁC TỪ NỐI THỜI GIAN (ví dụ không nói when we will walk into the room, ) !!!!! UNTIL CHỈ CÓ MỘT CHỮ "L" *Trong chuyên ngành, từ nối gọi "các liên từ phụ thời gian" Unit 24: Phân biệt Just as, When, While, As soon as, Until Chúng ta hôm học cách sử dụng liên từ WHEN, AS SOON AS, WHILE, JUST AS VÀ UNTIL nhé! Đây liên từ xuất với tần suất "chóng mặt" dạng phần Reading Listening đề thi TOEIC đấy! WHEN - Chúng ta sử dụng when + để nối kết kiện mà chắn xảy tương lai When I get back, I’ll tell you all about my trip I’ll cook dinner when I get home - Chúng ta sử dụng when + khứ để nối kết kiện mà xảy khứ When I saw the pollution in the city, I was very disappointed I screamed when the man grabbed my arm JUST AS - Chúng ta sử dụng just as để nói hành động kiện ngắn mà xảy gần xác thời điểm The bus pulled away from the bus stop just as I arrived! It started to rain just as we left WHILE - Chúng ta sử dụng while để diễn tả hành động kiện dài mà xảy vào thời điểm với cách xác While I was talking on the phone, they were calling for all passengers to board the bus to the beach There were lots of people trying to sell me things while I was waiting for the bus UNTIL - Chúng ta sử dụng until till để đếm số lượng thời gian đến kiện tương lai – thông thường kiện mà quan trọng hồi hộp It’s only months until my summer vacation There are only weeks till the wedding I need to buy a present It’s only minutes until the game starts You’d better hurry up if you want to see it! Chúng ta sử dụng until till để diễn tả khoảng thời gian từ cột mốc đến cột mốc khác I had to wait from 9:00 in the morning till 3:00 in the afternoon for the next bus We have class from 8:00 until 10:00 Ghi till cách ngắn đến nói until Bạn sử dụng chúng thay đổi với nhau, until trang trọng chút AS SOON AS - Chúng ta sử dụng as soon as để diễn tả hành động mà thực tức sau hành động khác khứ I called Mom as soon as I arrived to let her know that I was ok (Tôi đến nơi Tôi gọi điện cho Mẹ lập tức) Chúng ta sử dụng as soon as để diễn tả hành động mà thực tức sau hành động khác tương lai I’ll call you as soon as I get home (Tôi nhà Tôi gọi bạn lập tức.) NẾU CẦN MS HOA TOEIC TƯ VẤN GÌ THÌ ĐỂ LẠI THÔNG TIN Ở FORM ĐK TƯ VẤN SAU NHÉ Cách sử dụng liên từ when, as soon as, while, just as until Thảo luận 'Tiếng anh phổ thông' bắt đầu Thanh Hằng, 24/7/13 PROMOTED CONTENT by Người phụ nữ làm $ 4000 tuần, nhìn thấy bạn làm Giảm 25kg vòng tuần! Bí thật đơn giản Cách làm cho ngực phát triển "như cỏ dại" lứa tuổi Tuyệt! Giảm 20kg Trong Tuần!không Cần ăn Kiêng Hay Tập Luyện! Thanh HằngThành viên thức Cách sử dụng liên từ when, as soon as, while, just as until - Chúng ta sử dụng when + để nối kết kiện mà chắn xảy tương lai When I get back, I’ll tell you all about my trip I’ll cook dinner when I get home Chúng ta sử dụng when + khứ để nối kết kiện mà xảy khứ When I saw the pollution in the city, I was very disappointed I screamed when the man grabbed my arm - Chúng ta sử dụng just as để nói hành động kiện ngắn mà xảy gần xác thời điểm The bus pulled away from the bus stop just as I arrived! It started to rain just as we left - Chúng ta sử dụng while để diễn tả hành động kiện dài mà xảy vào thời điểm với cách xác While I was talking on the phone, they were calling for all passengers to board the bus to the beach There were lots of people trying to sell me things while I was waiting for the bus - Chúng ta sử dụng until till để đếm số lượng thời gian đến kiện tương lai – thông thường kiện mà quan trọng hồi hộp It’s only months until my summer vacation There are only weeks till the wedding I need to buy a present It’s only minutes until the game starts You’d better hurry up if you want to see it! Chúng ta sử dụng until till để diễn tả khoảng thời gian từ cột mốc đến cột mốc khác I had to wait from 9:00 in the morning till 3:00 in the afternoon for the next bus We have class from 8:00 until 10:00 Ghi till cách ngắn đến nói until Bạn sử dụng chúng thay đổi với nhau, until trang trọng chút - Chúng ta sử dụng as soon as để diễn tả hành động mà thực tức sau hành động khác khứ I called Mom as soon as I arrived to let her know that I was ok (Tôi đến nơi Tôi gọi điện cho Mẹ lập tức) Chúng ta sử dụng as soon as để diễn tả hành động mà thực tức sau hành động khác tương lai I’ll call you as soon as I get home (Tôi nhà Tôi gọi bạn lập tức.) Học tiếng Anh Online ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME(Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian) - Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian thường bắt đầu trạng từ thời gian như: when, while, after, before, since, until, as soon as, … - Sự phối hợp động từ mệnh đề mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian: Main clause Adverbial clause of time (Mệnh đề chính) (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian) Present tenses Present tenses Past tenses Past tenses Future tenses Present tenses TLĐ + until / when / as soon as + HTĐ Ex: I will wait here until she comes back TLĐ + after + HTHT Ex: He will go home after he has finished his work While / when / as + QKTD, QKĐ Ex: While I was going to school, I met my friend QKĐ + while / when / as + QKTD Ex: It started to rain while the boys were playing football QKTD + while + QKTD Ex: Last night, I was doing my homework while my sister was playing games HTHT + since + QKĐ Ex: I have worked here since I graduated TLHT + by / by the time + HTĐ Ex: He will have left by the time you arrive QKHT + by the time / before + QKĐ Ex: He had left by the time I came After + QKHT, QKĐ Ex: After I had finished my homework, I went to bed Cách dùng Until, After, Before When Until: + Simple past + until + simple past: Khi hành động mệnh đề tr ước kéo dài hành động mệnh đề sau + Simple past + past perfect: Nh ấn m ạnh hành động mệnh đề Until với nghĩa hoàn thành tr ước hành động After: + After + past perfect, + simple past = Past perfect + before + past perfect: Sau làm xong việc làm việc khác khứ + After + simple past, + simple present: S ự việc kh ứ kết ( ) Until: Cho đến Simple past + until + simple past: Khi hành động mệnh đề trước kéo dài hành động mệnh đề sau Ví dụ: I waited here until it was dark Tôi lại đến trời tối Simple past + past perfect: Nhấn mạnh hành động mệnh đề Until với nghĩa hoàn thành trước hành động Ví dụ: He read the book until no-one had been there Anh ta đọc sách tới chẳng  Có nghĩa người thư viện từ lâu say mê đọc sách Simple future + Until + Present simple/Present perfect: Dùng với nghĩa làm cho đền hoàn thành việc Ví dụ: I won't go to bed until I have finished my homework = I will go to bed until I finish my homework Tôi ngủ làm xong tập We'll stayed here until the rain stops Chúng tạnh mưa After: Sau After + past perfect, + simple past = Past perfect + before + past perfect: Sau làm xong việc làm việc khác khứ Ví dụ: After I had finished the test, I went home = I had finished the test before I went home Khi kiểm tra xong nhà After + simple past, + simple present: Sự việc khứ kết Ví dụ: After everything happened, we are still good friends Sau chuyện xảy ra, người bạn tốt After simple past, + simple past: Sự việc khứ kết khứ Ví dụ: After everything happened, we quarelled over dishonesty Sau chuyện [không tốt], cãi vã tính không trung thực After + simple present/present perfect, + simple future: Sau làm việc làm tiếp việc khác tương lai Ví dụ: After I come to the station, I'll call you Sau đến ga anh gọi cho em Before: Trước Cách chia thì ngược lại với After Before + simple past, + past perfect: Trước làm việc khứ làm việc khác trước khứ Ví dụ: Before I could think of a reply she walked away Trước nghĩ câu trả lời cô bỏ Before + simple present, + simple future/simple present: Trước làm làm Ví dụ: Before I leave, I'll give you a gift Trước đi, anh tặng em quà Before I leave, I want to make sure that no-one can know about this Trước muốn biết chắn biết chuyện When: Khi When + present simple, + simple future/simple present: Khi làm (sẽ ) Ví dụ: When you see it yourself, you'll surely believe it Khi em thấy tận mắt em tin When + simple past, + past perfect: Diễn tả hành động xảy hoàn tất trước hành động mệnh đề when Ví dụ: When I just got out of the classroom, I knew that I had made some mistakes Khi bước khỏi phòng, nhận mắc số lỗi When + simple past, + simple past: Diễn tả hai hành động xảy gần nhau, hành động vừa dứt hành động khác xảy Ví dụ: When the rock concert given by Erick Clapton ended, we went home Khi buổi nhạc rock Ẻick Clapton kết thúc, When + past continuous (clear point of time - thời gian cụ thể), + simple past: Khi hành động diễn hành động khác xảy đến Ví dụ: When we were playing football at 5.30p.m yesterday, there was a terrible explosion Vào lúc 5h30 chiều qua, chơi bóng bọn chợi nghe thấy tiếng nổ lớn When + simple past, + past continuous: Khi hành động xảy cắt ngang hành động khác diễn khứ Ví dụ: When we came, he was taking a bath Khi bọn đến cậu ta tắm When + past perfect, + simple past: Hành động mệnh đề when xảy khứ kết khứ Ví dụ: When the opportunity had passed, I only knew that there was nothing could be done Khi hội không biết chẳng làm When simple past, + simple present: Hành động mệnh đề when xảy khứ kết When the opportunity passed, I know there's nothing can be done Khi hội tuột mất, biết chẳng làm 16.3 Time clauses with after, before, until, since, etc Time clauses with after, before, until, since, etc Mệnh đề thời gian với after, before, until, since… Chúng ta sử dụng “after” (sau khi) mệnh đề phó từ mệnh đề của câu mô tả sự kiện nào đó xảy trễ Chúng ta sử dụng “before” (trước khi) mệnh đề phó từ mệnh đề của câu mô tả sự kiện xảy vào thời điểm trước đó Chúng ta thường sử dụng “after” với đơn hoặc thì hoàn thành (không dùng “will”) cho hành động đã được hoàn thành Example: After they left, we cleaned up and went to bed What will you after you graduate? Before he leaves, I'll ask him about the money They had eaten breakfast before we got up I'll help you after I write/have written my report (không dùng: after I will write my report) Chúng ta sử dụng “until” (cho đến khi) để tập trung vào điểm kết thúc kết việc Chúng ta sử dụng “since” (kể từ khi) để nói điểm khởi đầu cho sự kiện một mệnh đề khác của câu xảy sau đó được xem là Example: We'll wait until you're ready Heat the wax until it melts (không dùng: Heat it before it melts.) How long is it since you've been there? I've lived here since I was ten Chúng ta sử dụng thì hoàn thành khứ đơn (không dùng: đơn) sau “since”(không dùng: since I'm ten) Chúng ta sử dụng “once” (một khi) để đưa mệnh đề mô tả sự khởi đầu cho tình hay hành động khác Chúng ta thường sử dụng “once” giống “after” với đơn hay thì hoàn thành mệnh đề mô tả việc xem đã được hoàn thành Example: Once you've seen Alice, you won't forget her Everyone likes it here once they get used to it Khi muốn diễn tả sự kiện xảy nhanh sau sự kiện khác, sử dụng “as soon as” “immediately” để giới thiệu mệnh đề diễn hành động Các cụm từ “the instant/minute/moment/second (that)” cũng dùng cũng theo cách này Example: I came as soon as I heard the news Immediately I saw him, I recognized his face There are some students who rush out of the room the minute (that) class ends After, Before, When(temporal prepositions/conjunctions/adjuncts) Relate the timing of two activities Time-Related Activities: present and future PRESENT A connective preposition such as before, after, when, or while may add a clause with a second activity occurs earlier than, later than or at the same time as the activity in the main clause If the verb in the main clause is present tense, the verb in the clause following the connective preposition is also present tense MAIN CLAUSE CONNECTIVE PREP + CLAUSE V (PRESENT HABITUAL) V (PRESENT) We watch a movie after he arrives We make popcorn before he arrives (later than) habit (earlier than) We make popcorn while he drives here (ongoingsame time activities) We sit down when he arrives We sit there as long as we want (for all the (at that moment) time) We go out to dinner as soon as the movie ends (immediately following) We go out to dinner when the movie ends (immediately following) We go out to dinner once the movie ends (immediately We don't eat until everyone receives food (imm following) ediately following) We pay our bill as the dinner ends (in the last moments of the first activity.) We have had¹ fun by the time the evening ends (in the time before) (routinely) We have a good time whenever we get together (always We have a good time anytime we get together (always) FUTURE ) A connective preposition may also add a clause with a future tense verb expression such as will or (be) going to However, the verb in the clause following the connective preposition does not change tense It remains in present tense form MAIN CLAUSE CONNECTIVE PREP + CLAUSE V (FUTURE SCHEDULED ACTIVITY) V (PRESENT) We will watch a movie after he arrives *(will arrive) (later than) We are going to make popcorn before he arrives We will be making popcorn while he is driving here We will sit down when he arrives (earlie r than) (ongoingsame time activities) (at that moment) We can/ will sit here as long as we want (for all the time) We will go out to dinner as soon as the movie ends (immediately following) We will go out to dinner when the movie ends (immediately following) We will go out to dinner once the movie ends (immediately following) We won't start eating until everyone receives fo od (immediately following) We will pay our bill as dinner ends (in the last moments of the first activity.) We will have had a good by the time the time evening ends (in the time before) ( See future perfect.) *not used / ~questionable usage ¹ present perfect or future perfect; See By the time and Will / Will have before, after, when, while, and so on are called connective prepositions, adverbial prepositions, temporal adjuncts and more see Grammar Notes conjunction— is a term reserved for the addition (and) of two element See Conjunction, exclusion, disjunction Also see When vs While, After / Before –ing and Time-Relative Events (present tense) Past Mixed Time Frames Contrasting earlier and later past events Past Tense Time Frames FOCUS ON THE OCCURRENCE The timing of two related past activities is expressed with past tense verbs in both the main clause and the clause that complements (completes, follows) the preposition—after, before, when, while, etc PAST PAST MAIN CLAUSE CONNECTIVE PREP + CLAUSE We watched a movie (2nd) after he arrived (1st) We made popcorn (1st) before he arrived We made popcorn (1st) We were making popcorn (1st) We were making popcorn (1st) when he arrived (2nd) when he arrived (2nd We made popcorn (1st) until he arrived We have had fun by the time the evening ends (in the time before) (routine) (2nd) interruption) while he was arriving (same time) (for all that time before his arrival) FOCUS ON THE EARLIER-LATER TIMING A contrast in the timing of the two events may be expressed with a past tense verb in the main clause and a past perfect verb in the clause that complements after, before, when, while, etc Past perfect is optionally used to emphasize the difference in timing PAST PAST PERFECT MAIN CLAUSE CONNECTIVE PREP + CLAUSE We watched a movie (2nd) after he had arrived (1st) We had made popcorn (1st) before he arrived (2nd) We had just made popcorn (1st) when he arrived (2nd) We had been making popcorn until he arrived (2nd) We will have had a good by the time the time (1st) evening ends (2nd) "in the time before" (future perfect) Also see present and future time-related events | Past Perfect tense See Grammar Notes for details of grammar terms Punctuation Placing after and before at the beginning of a clause Clause Position INITIAL POSITION An connective prepositional phrase can be moved in front of the main clause for emphasis A comma is placed after it USE A COMMA As soon as you get here, we'll leave Before I drink coffee, my head hurts After I drink coffee, my headache stops When you give me the keys, I'll start driving FINAL POSITION No comma is used when the connective prepositional phrase is placed after the main clause USE NO COMMA We'll leave as soon as you get here My head hurts before I drink coffee My headache stops after I drink coffee I'll start driving when you give me the keys Adjunct – add on structure; the connective preposition adds a clause that is not required by the main clause to make sense Prepositional Phrase = [Preposition + Clause] See Prep Complements Common Mistakes Errors and Solutions Error and Solution ERROR *I'll make some popcorn After we'll eat it *I'll call you before I will get there *I'll lock the door before I leave SOLUTION I'll make some popcorn Afterward, we'll eat it I'll make some popcorn After that, we'll eat it After I make popcorn, we'll eat it I'll call you before I get there Use present tense in the adverb clause I'll lock the door after I leave (After is followed by a clauses with the second activity.) Also see Time-Relative Events (present tense) ... her I came out of the action/event conjunction time bank Many of these time conjunctions can be followed by -ing or -ed forms instead of subject + verb See also: • Non-finite clauses Warning:... moments of the first activity.) We have had¹ fun by the time the evening ends (in the time before) (routinely) We have a good time whenever we get together (always We have a good time anytime we... by the time the time (1st) evening ends (2nd) "in the time before" (future perfect) Also see present and future time- related events | Past Perfect tense See Grammar Notes for details of grammar
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