Effective techniques to motivate students to listen to english (3)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: INTRODUCTION PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT I Motivation in language learning I.1 Definitions of motivation I.2 Types of motivation I.2.1 Extrinsic motivation I.2.2 Intrinsic motivation I.2.3 The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation I.3.The role of motivation in learning listening comprehension II Teaching and learning the listening skill II.1 An overview of listening II.1.1 Definition II.1.2 Classification of listening II.1.3 The importance of listening II.2 Learner problems in listening comprehension II.3 Stages of a listening lesson III Some effective techniques to motivate students to listen to English III.1 Improving the teaching process III.2 Designing suitable tasks III.3 Developing listening materials PART THREE: CONCLUSION REFERENCES A sample listening lesson PART ONE: INTRODUCTION The real need for good communication skills in English has created a huge demand for English teaching and learning around the world Millions of people today want to be able to master English to a high level of accuracy and fluency For such an important role, teaching and learning English at upper secondary schools is a necessity Language can be recognized as a media of communication, rather than the simple complex of sound, vocabulary and grammar English language teaching, therefore, has long been conducted through reading, listening as receptive skills and speaking, writing as productive skills in communication Among all the factors, listening is an essential section of language competence and it indicates the comprehension of spoken language It is clear that one of the main goals of learning English is to use it effectively in communication Listening skill, more or less, is an important that students must acquire in the learning process However, listening is considered to be the most challenging one Most students find it hard to master this skill and soon feel bored with listening periods Obviously, nobody except the teacher has the ability to make the lesson interesting enough to attain the highest result in motivating students in listening activities If students are motivated, they will find it easy to listen and therefore they will probably be successful In any case, teachers’ job is to all they can to arouse their students’ interest and motivation All the reasons mentioned above encouraged me to carry out the study “Effective techniques to motivate students to listen to English” This study aims at: • Clarifying the importance of motivation and listening skill in foreign language teaching and learning • Offering some suggestions on effective techniques to promote students’ listening ability Hopefully, my study will be helpful in some way for teachers in their teaching work and it also helps students improve their own listening skill PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT I Motivation in language learning I.1 Definitions of motivation So far, there have been different definitions of motivation contributed by We should first begin with the definition of Jeremy Harmer “Motivation is some kind of internal drive that encourages somebody to pursue a course of action” (1991:3) Brown H.D defined it as “the extent to which you make choices about goals to pursue and the effort you will devote to that pursuit” (1994:34) According to Kenneth D Moore, motivation can be defined as “ forces or drives that energize and direct us to act as we do” (1992:172) The abstract term “motivation” on its own is rather difficult to define, can interpret it in our own way, but generally, motivation is the energy that directs us toward a given goal It is easier and more useful to think terms of the “motivated’ learner: one who is willing or even eager to invest effort in learning activities and to progress Motivation essentially concerns our own accomplishments We plan for them, work for them and then achieve them If we perceive a goal (that is, something we wish to achieve) and if that goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly motivated to whatever necessary to reach that goal Goals can be of different types, we can make a useful distinction between short-term goals and long- term goals Long-term goals might have something you with a wish to get a better job at some future date, or a desire to be able to communicate with members of a target language community Short-term might include such things as wanting to pass an end-of-semester test or ting to finish a unit in a book In general, strongly motivated students with long-term goals are probably easier to teach than those who have no such goals Hence, it is necessary for teachers to encourage their students to seek long-term goals in foreign language study I.2 Types of motivation Motivation can be divided into two main categories: extrinsic and intrinsic motivation The former concerns with factors outside the classroom and the latter concerns with what takes place inside the classroom I.2.1 Extrinsic motivation “Extrinsic motivation is that which derives from the influence of some kind of external incentive, as distinct from the wish to learn for its own sake or interest in tasks ”(Ur, 1996: 227) As we know, some students study a language because they have an idea of something they wish to achieve It has been suggested that there are two major of such motivation called integrative and instrumental motivation • Students of integrative motivation are attracted by the culture of the language community In the strong form of this motivation, they wish to integrate themselves into that culture In the weak one, they desire to know as possible about that culture Thus, students try their best to acquire • language so as to reach the culture's integration or at least thorough understanding Instrumental motivation describes a situation in which students believe mastery of the target language is an instrument to fulfil their personal such as getting a better job or having a higher position in the society in the future Many other factors have an impact upon a student's level of extrinsic motivation and most of these have to with his or her attitude to the language This in turn will be affected by the attitude of those who have on that student such as the parents, members of the student's community and his or her previous success or failure as a language learner I.2.2 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation is associated with those who learn for their own self-perceived needs and goals (intrinsically motivated learners) In other words, it is what learners bring to the learning environment, that is, their internal attitudes, values, needs and personality factors Ur (1996:280) states “Global intrinsic motivation -the generalized desire effort in the learning for its own sake- is largely rooted in the attitudes of the learners: whether they see the learning as worthwhile, whether they like the language and its cultural, political and ethnic associations.” While it is reasonable that many adult learners have some degree of extrinsic motivation, and while it is clear that the attitude of students can be affected by members of their communities, there can be no doubt that intrinsic motivation plays a vital part in most students’ success or failure as language learners Many students bring no extrinsic motivation to the classroom They even have negative feelings about language learning For them what happens in the classroom will be of vital importance in determining their attitude to the language, and in supplying motivation- a component in successful language learning We can some factors affecting intrinsic motivation such as physical conditions, the teacher’s methods and success • Physical conditions have a great effect on learning and can alter a student's motivation either positively or negatively So the teacher should try to make their classroom, as well as the atmosphere, as pleasant as possible • The method by which students are taught also affects their motivation If students lose confidence in the method, they will find it boring and become passive recipients • Success or lack of it is important in the motivational drive of a student Both complete failure and complete success may be de-motivating To assure the success of learning tasks, much of teacher's work in the classroom should be given the level of challenge right I.2.3 The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation originates from external factors whereas intrinsic one roots from internal factors However, they are interrelated Both of them have an important part to play in classroom motivation There is a fact that intrinsic motivation is more stable than extrinsic motivation Therefore, intrinsic motives are rarely changed and when a change does occur, it usually occurs slowly while encouragement of students' intrinsic desire is every teacher's ultimate goal Moreover, external incentives are effective means to push intrinsic forward, or we can say that rewards students to learn better Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations can be as two parallel processes but integrate with each other to make the approach to the target language more rapid and more efficient II Teaching and learning the listening skill A glance through the past century or so of language teaching will give an interesting picture of how varied approaches and methods applied in language teaching are New methods have appeared, developed and replaced the previous ones for the only purpose: to find out the best way to teach a foreign language Obviously, using a language well is not a simple question of grammar but overall appropriateness and acceptability Thus, what is going to be presented in this paper is in the light of the communicative approach II.1 An overview of listening II.1.1 Definition It seems to be difficult to define what listening is Through years, various definitions of listening have been proposed Listening is more than merely hearing words It is claimed to be a complex and active process Howatt and Dakin (1974) define listening as the ability to identify and understand what others are saying This involves understanding a speaker’s accent or pronunciation, his grammar and vocabulary, and grasping his meaning An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously Besides, according to Rost (1991), listening comprises some component skills such as discriminating between sounds, recognizing words, identifying grammatical groupings of words, identifying expressions and sets of utterances that act to create meaning, connecting linguistic cues to non-linguistic and paralinguistic cues, using background knowledge to predict and later to confirm meaning and recalling important words and ideas II.1.2 Classification of listening According to Ur (1996: 105), listening can be divided into real-life listening and classroom listening Many learners of English find themselves in a variety of situations where they need or want to listen to English being used in real - life for different purposes There is, however, a big gap between listening activities in the classroom and actual listening situations in real life This is because listening materials which learners usually listen to (dialogues or conversations for example) are very grammatical and controlled in so many ways as the speakers often speak at perfectly controlled speed, with perfect voice tone, accent and correct grammar Whereas, in real - life conversations, different people speak with different accents, speed and voice tones without or less paying attention to grammar ♦ Real-life listening In real life, there are two ways in which we often listen:  Casual listening Sometimes, we listen with no particular purpose in mind, often without much concentration Usually, we not listen very closely, unless we hear something that particularly interests us, and afterwards, we may not remember much of what we hear, for example, listening to the radio while chatting to a friend  Focused listening Sometimes, we listen for a particular purpose to find out information we need to know or to study the language In this situation, we listen much more closely, trying to get the content as much as we can, for example, listening to your friend explaining how to use a new cassette player ♦ Classroom listening Listening in the classroom may be divided into intensive listening and extensive listening  Intensive listening Intensive listening is the careful, focused listening to a short passage for full, detailed comprehension, for example, listening to a dialogue on the tape to study its structures, intonation patterns in an English class In the classroom context, there are two possible types of intensive listening exercises: Exercises focusing on detailed comprehension of meaning: This can be done through + Comprehension questions which may be: - Factual (where the answer is clearly stated somewhere in the passage) - Inferential (where the learner has to make some sort of connection for himself) - Personal (where the question is related to the learner's own experience or opinion) + Summary questions (where the learner listens to a passage and has to summarize it) + Logical problems Intensive listening for language Teachers often more detailed work on language once the learners can understand what they are listening to  Extensive listening Extensive listening is the freer, more general listening to natural language for a general idea, not for a particular detail and not necessarily under the teacher's direct guidance With this type of listening, the learner is not reinforcing a structure or practicing a grammar point linked to the rest of the course Extensive exercises are those where the learner is primarily concerned with following a story, or finding something out from the passage he is listening to In summary, to a large extent, however, the division between intensive and extensive listening is somewhat artificial Listening does not lend itself neatly to this type of classification in the way that reading does It is perfectly easy to use the same listening passage for both extensive and intensive listening II.1.3 The importance of listening It is now widely accepted that oral communication cannot take place without listening and listening plays a central and possibly predominant part in the whole process of language learning As mentioned before, listening is an important, active skill of spoken language as it involves various kinds of the listener’s knowledge: knowledge of phonology, vocabulary, semantics of the language in use, culture of its people, his life experience in the topic, his ability to predict and respond, etc It decides his comprehension, content and attitude in response to the speaker’s speech as well In learning English as a foreign language, the learner cannot develop speaking skill unless he develops listening skill To have a successful conversation, he must understand what is said to him Later on, the ability to understand the native speaker in direct conversations, on the radio or tape may be very important for him to further study the language and communicate in it Besides, listening to spoken English is an important way of acquiring the language – of “picking up” structures, vocabulary In the Vietnamese situation where the learners not have a chance to hear English spoken around them every day and cannot acquire it easily the teacher needs to give them as much opportunity to listen to spoken English on tape as possible To conclude, listening provides a foundation for all aspects of language and cognitive development It can be said to be not only the end but also the means of teaching, learning languages in general and English in particular II.2 Learner problems in listening comprehension It can’t be denied that listening is considered to be the most difficult among the four skills Many learners have difficulties with different aspects of listening comprehension These difficulties are closely associated with the characteristics of spoken language Underwood (1990) identifies seven potential problems learners often encounter in their learning listening • Inability to control the speed of the speaker: Many students of English cannot keep up with the speed at which a speaker speaks They feel that the utterances disappear before they can elicit the information, while in a written text, in reading comprehension for example, words remain on the page and they can look back or reexamine them thoroughly They often try to understand everything they hear When they fail in sorting out the meaning of one part, the following will be missed This can lead to the ignorance of the whole chunk of discourse • Obviously they fail to listen Inability to get things repeated: Another difficulty connected with controlling the "input" (what the speaker says) is that the leaner is not always in a position to get the speaker to repeat an • utterance Vocabulary limitation: Listeners have to try their best to follow the speakers and sometimes to guess the meaning of a word or phrase from its content Native listeners can guess the meaning with the help of context clues, but for foreign language learners, a new word can be a barrier which makes them stop and think about the meaning of the word and thus makes them miss the next part of speech The problems often occurs when learners have been taught English with more emphasis on accuracy than on fluency, more stress on the forms of language than its • functions Failure to recognize the signals: To move from one point to another, or give an example, or repeat a point, speakers use many different signals For foreign listening, these signals can easily be missed In order to be able to connect the various utterances and ideas in the way the speakers intended them to be connected, students need to be taught to listen to these signals For example, in a formal situation, when giving a new point the speakers can use expression like "Secondly or then ", or they may pause or increase loudness, make use of a different • intonation Problems of interpretation: Problems of interpretation can also hinder communication Students who are unfamiliar with the context may have difficulty in interpreting the words they hear And the listeners from other cultures can easily misinterpret the meaning of non-verbal • clues-facial expressions, nods, gestures, tone of voice Inability to concentrate: Even the shortest break in listening can seriously affect comprehension Therefore, lack of concentration is a major problem Students will concentrate easily if they find the topic interesting or familiar But if they make enormous effort to follow what they hear word by word, the listening work will be tiring Such factors as equipment, poor recording, unacoustically suitable rooms for the use of recorded material can also make • concentration difficult Establish learning habits: Teachers often teach students to understand everything in the English lesson by repeating and pronouncing words carefully Students can form the habit of listening word by word from this teaching method of teachers So when they fail to understand a particular word or phrase, they will be worried and become discouraged by their lack of success This habit will cause a lot of difficulties when the learners deal with real-life listening situations II.3 Stages of a listening lesson Normally language teachers often facilitate the development of listening skill by creating listening lessons that guide learners through three stages: pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening II.3.1 Pre-listening stage It is widely accepted that this stage is conducted before learners listen to the text The prelistening phase is a kind of preparatory work which ought to make the context explicit, clarify purposes and establish roles, procedures and goals for listening” (Rost,1991:232) Thus its main aim is to contextualize the listening text, providing any information needed to help learners appreciate the setting and the role relationships between participants Agreeing with that Hedge, T (2000:249) points out “at this stage the teacher will need to decide what kind of listening purpose is appropriate to the text The learners will need to “tune in” to the context and the topic of the text, perhaps express attitudes towards that topic, certainly bring to the front of their minds anything that they already know about the topic and most probably hear and use some of the less familiar language in the text which would otherwise distract or create anxiety during listening” II.3.2 While-listening stage While-listening activities can be shortly defined as all tasks that students are asked to during the time of listening to the text The nature of these activities is to help learners to listen for meaning that is to elicit a message from spoken language Rixon (1986:70-1) points out that, at the whilelistening stage students should not worry about interpreting long questions or giving full answers, but they should concentrate on comprehension, whether they have understood important information from the passage The work at the while-listening stage needs to link in relevant ways to the pre-listening work While they listen, learners will need to be involved in an authentic purpose for listening and encouraged to attend to the next more intensively or more extensively, for gist or for specific information (Hedge, T 2000:252) II.3.3 Post-listening stage This is the last stage of a lesson so it is for student’s production Post-listening activities allow the learners to ‘reflect’ on the language from the passage; on sound, grammar and vocabulary as they last longer than while-listening activities so the students have time to think, discuss or write (Rixon 1986:64-97) Activities for this stage are aimed at helping learners to use what they have learnt from the listening text Therefore teachers should create and vary the activities for learners to depending on their level of English Hedge, T (2000:252) emphasizes that the work at this stage can also usefully involve integration with other skills through development of the topic into reading, speaking and writing activities III Some effective techniques to motivate students to listen to English Success in English teaching and learning comes easily if teachers can use motivational strategies effectively and arouse interest in learning the subject In learning English, listening skill is very important, therefore, it is worth seeking techniques to make the teaching and learning the listening skill successful III.1 Improving the teaching process III.1.1 Techniques for pre-listening It is commonly recognized that pre-listening is a preparation of the listening class In this stage, teachers tend to arouse learners’ expectation and interest of the language text they are going to listen For teachers, when planning lessons, time must be allocated for pre-listening activities and these activities should not be rushed The techniques before listening are varied and depend on a number of factors: time, material, the ability of the class, the interest of the class, the nature and content of the listening text itself, etc It is, therefore, of great importance to let students know what to expect for the tasks before listening The techniques used at this stage are: • • • • Using visual aids / games to introduce the topic of the text Giving background information Using pre-listening questions Pre-teaching new vocabulary in the listening text • Giving listening tasks In general, pre-listening plays a role of warming-up and the main aim of this stage is to make learners focus their attention on the following while-listening stage and decrease the difficulties of the text It is more important in its relating to and being of help to many other aspects which will be represented later III.1.2 Techniques for while-listening While-listening is the main procedure of listening information input In this stage, learners are given some audio materials for listening Learners may be requested to deal with some questions with the listening materials, such as:          Multiple choice True/false statements Comprehension questions Gap-filling Information transfer Differences or mistake detection Pictures or statements sequencing Matching Note taking Usually learners need to answer the questions simultaneously or take note of some main points of the listening materials Teachers, as a guide during this process take control of the speed of the materials, start or pause of the machine and raise some questions for discussions or give necessary explanations to help the learner comprehend the materials Depending on the learners’ language level 10 and the difficulty level of the materials, teachers can decide the times of presenting the listening materials The purpose of while-listening is to provide the learners with audio material input with exercises and therefore promote the learners’ listening competence Giving feedback is an essential step in while-listening stage as it helps the teacher to see how well his students have done the tasks This will help students to assess their ability, recognize their strong points and weak points and to find out the reason why they have not perform the tasks well so that they will make an effort and get better results in the next listening lessons The fact is that most of the teacher’s work related to a listening lesson has been done in prelistening stage During the lesson, the teacher should exceed his role of supervising, and only give help to the students when really necessary The teacher’s mission is to create and maintain an encouraging atmosphere in class III.1.3 Techniques for post-listening Post-listening is also an important stage as it reviews and checks the listening efficiency and result During this stage, teachers are not only supposed to check the answers, they also need to lead the learners to consolidate the comprehension of the listening input Apart from the techniques for pre and while listening stages, techniques for post - listening is very necessary and important • Organizing further discussions on the listening text • Summing up appeared language rules and designing some related exercises • Role-play or simulation • Summarizing the listening text Obviously, learners have received many comprehensible input through the first two stages, thus, the purpose of post-listening is to transfer these input into intake In other words, the stage of postlistening can be considered as a transformation of language knowledge to language competence in listening teaching section III.2 Designing suitable tasks No single textbook is completely suitable for any specific class One of the teacher’s roles is to make it more appropriate and relevant to students’ background, levels, and interests This can be done by simply changing the order of some parts of the tasks, or by getting rid of some exercises or tasks and adding others Therefore, designing and assigning listening tasks is necessary The tasks not only provide students with opportunities to use the target language, but they also cover a satisfactory range of language items and skills for students A task is an activity which requires learners to use language, with emphasis on meaning, to attain an objective It involves communicative language use in which the user's attention is focused on meaning rather than grammatical form A task is goal-oriented, meaning-focused first and formfocused then, contextualized Upon designing listening tasks for the students, it is a good idea to 11 remember that a language recognition task is easier for students than a language production one What’s more, information that the students need to listen should not be too close to each other so that the students have enough time to complete parts of the tasks and not to miss any important part of the listening text Students can easily be demotivated when faced by tasks that are very challenging, particularly the first few times, but if you show them that you will gradually lead them to an understanding of the text, they will gradually start to relax more about dealing with more difficult texts And once you have shown them a few times that they can gradually understand a challenging text, then, in the long run they will develop a much greater sense of achievement and experience far less stress when dealing with challenging situations in the real world To sum up, it is not easy for every teacher of English to make changes in order to bring about effective teaching and learning English The work does take time and efforts from all teachers In order to obtain the goal, teachers must be flexible and adaptive so as to respond to the requirements of the new teaching circumstance III.3 Developing listening materials Supplementary materials play a very important role in the process of teaching and learning English in general, and in teaching and learning the listening skill in particular They show their great importance when the core textbook cannot meet the requirements of the course Therefore, except for listening materials in the textbooks, students have chances to listen to the supplementary listening materials taken from different sources When selecting materials, teachers should consider the following criteria: • Topic The topics of the listening text are important as they will involve students and make students want to listen Thus, the content of the reading texts must be accessible to the students and suitable for their interests If students have to the same kind of work again and again, they may get bored The topics should be various, familiar and related to everyday life; therefore, it can help the teacher motivate the students to develop their listening skill as well as expose them to valuable extra contact with spoken language • Language Using listening texts of the right level will not only develop students’ listening skill but also contribute to students’ overall language learning The language used in the listening texts should also be within the students' current ability so that students find it interesting when listening Moreover, it is also good for students to be faced with language that they should be capable of understanding although it is slightly above their current level of use 12 • Length The length of the listening text should be taken into consideration There is no doubt that it is difficult for high school students to listen attentively for a too long text, whereas, teachers will not motivate students if the text is too short Thus, the teacher had better select a listening text of suitable length so that learners can have chances to get to grips with the content, have several tries at difficult parts and to be fitted within the time allowed for a lesson Failure can easily and rapidly lead to de-motivation The level of difficulty can be adjusted by giving support (which can be done at the pre-listening stage) It is advisable to provide while-listening activities which are a challenge for the more advanced students, but not discouraging those who only gain little success In short, to ensure the success of the teacher in activating his students and improving their listening skill, teachers have to note the importance of finding well-recorded material of the right length, with interesting content, and with suitable level PART THREE: CONCLUSION Summary Over the past few years, the process of English teaching and learning has experienced a lot of changes Instead of emphasizing much on ‘linguistic competence’, teachers and students have paid their attention to ‘communicative competence’ Nowadays, both teachers and students of English are aware of the importance of English in general and listening skill in particular So the teachers of English have an important role in finding out the ways to make their speaking lessons more interesting and more attractive How to motivate students in learning to listen to English, which is often considered difficult, has become my great concern As I have done so far, theoretical background about motivation and listening skill has been mentioned briefly The study also includes some suggestive techniques to improve students’ listening skill It is essential for teachers to help their students to become efficient listeners The teachers have to adjust the time and efforts to manage the class and make their students involve in the listening lesson by varying teaching strategies in three stages of a listening lesson and designing suitable tasks Finally, along with the listening lessons in the textbooks, supplementary listening materials should be carefully selected and provided In conclusion, teaching listening is not a simple task, but it can be quite rewarding if we find ways 13 to help our students improve their listening ability and make progress In some ways, we are helping them cope with vocabulary and grammar, as we in other subjects, but there are also many unique aspects of the listening process that we can help them grasp When our students understand how to listen and what to listen to, the foundation for improvement in their listening skill will be set Our own ability to teach listening will also be improved as we work to better grasp the strategies and skills our students need Implications To take advantage of teaching and learning listening in the new textbook and its underlying communicative methodology more effectively, greater efforts should be made on the part of the teachers, the students, the educational authorities and the whole society in general Hence, I have some recommendations as follows:  Getting students to listen to spoken English is to let them hear different accents and varieties apart from their teacher and that way better prepare them for real world listening Encouraging students to participate in English-speaking clubs, communicate with native speakers to practise listening and speaking skills  Providing professional support for teachers They should be introduced to new skills and classroom techniques related to the new methodology such as presentation of new language, listening activities appropriate to a certain group of students, pair work or group work, and teaching aids in teaching listening  A lack of assessment in listening skill may be an important issue that reduces students’ motivation in listening Teachers should mark students’ good performance in the listening process to stimulate them In other words, the standardized tests, including progressive and achievement examinations, included in the school curriculum to stimulate students’ instrumental motivation To some extent, it forces teachers’ responsibility for planning and teaching listening skill more carefully and appropriately It is hoped that my findings in this study will be some sort of supplementary information from theory to practical application for teachers interested in the topic In any research, mistakes are unavoidable so all the constructive remarks and suggestions on this study will be highly appreciated 14 REFERENCES Brown, H.D (1994) Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy Prentice Hall Regents Harmer, J (1991) The Practice of English Language Teaching London: George Allen & Unwin Hedge, T (2000) Teaching and learning in the Language Classroom Oxford: Oxford University Press Howatt, A & J Dakin (1974) Language laboratory materials, ed J P B Allen, S P B Allen, and S P Corder Moore, K.D (1992) Classroom Teaching Skills NewYork: Mc.Graw - Hill, Inc Rixon, S (1986) Developing listening skills London and Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishers Ltd Rost, M (1991) Listening in Action Activities for developing listening in language teaching Hertfordshire, UK: Prentice Hall International Ltd Underwood, M (1990) Teaching listening Longman, New York Ur, P (1996) A Course in Language Teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press A sample listening lesson 15 UNIT 5: TECHNOLOGY ( grade 10 Intensive) I II - III IV Time 7’ Period 4: Listening Aim: listen to the operations of a technical device: a digital camera Objectives: By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: Know how to use a digital camera Improve listening skill through different tasks and related vocabulary Materials: Textbook, cassette, a real digital camera Procedure Stages and Content I Warm up: Look at the pictures and give the names of the devices T’s activities Ss’ activities - Show pictures on -Answer: the screen and ask questions: ……… What are they ? -Sts: - Focus on the digital To record data Modern devices and images To take photos camera What’s it used for? - Discuss - Gather ideas and introduce Discuss the questions: - How often you take photos? On which occasions? - Have you ever used a digital camera? -Have you ever had your photos taken by a digital camera? 10’ 7’ Unit 5: Technology (Listening) II Pre-listening: * Teaching vocabulary + Vocabulary : - power button ['pauə 'bʌtn] (n) - lens [lenz] (n) - zoom button [zu:m 'bʌtn ] (n) - shutter button ['∫ʌtə(r)](n) - LCD screen [skri:n]( n) - mode dial [məud daiəl](n) Give some practice on pronunciation * Checking vocabulary: Label parts of a digital camera the listening - Listen and Elicit meaning from take part SS or give presenting in vocabulary explanations picture picture+ explanation - Copy down picture picture picture+ explanation picture+ explanation - Check Practise - (whole class and individual III While listening: work ) + TASK 1: Ordering Set the scene: Lisa is asking John how to use a digital camera 16 - Tell Ss to study the - Study the Listen to the conversation and choose the right pictures carefully steps (A, B, C or D) John suggests and have a guess of the order of the pictures - State their ideas steps - Give explanation for each picture if necessary - Listen and Picture a: hold camera firmly, position the dog in LCD 8’ screen, press zoom button Picture b: press shutter button fully down, hear click sound, image has been recorded Picture c: select automatic mode, turn power button on Picture d: press shutter button half way down, hear beep sound their answers with a friend take notes - Listen - Discuss the answers - Take notes - Call on some Ss to give their answers in front of the class - Check the answers Give correct answers: l c 2.a 3.d 4.b - Do the task - Listen + TASK 2: Answering questions Listen again and answer the questions Who gave Lisa the digital camera? Whose photos Lisa and John want to take? What does John advise Lisa to before pressing 10’ -Play the tape - Ask Ss to compare - Ask Ss to listen to - Write down the tape again the answers - Encourage Ss to Take write the answers - the zoom button? quickly while part in the What sound does Lisa hear when the images is game listening to the tape recorded? -Take notes Checking : Game “ Lucky stars” -Divide the class into groups :A & B Give correct answers: Her father A dog John advises Lisa to hold the camera firmly with both hands and position the 3’ dog in LCD screen The sound click is heard - Make necessary corrections -Discuss in pairs - Make a mini talk on the IV Post-listening : 17 Mini Presentation - Go around the class topic in front Ask Ss to work in pairs and look at the pictures and provide help of the class again to tell their partner how to take photos when necessary - Call on some Ss to Notes: When giving instructions, you • use imperative form • use chronological connectors • …………………………… speak Give suggested answers: pronunciation -Make necessary corrections regarding intonation V Homework: - Summarize the main points - Assign homework 18 and ... to arouse their students interest and motivation All the reasons mentioned above encouraged me to carry out the study Effective techniques to motivate students to listen to English This study... activities III Some effective techniques to motivate students to listen to English Success in English teaching and learning comes easily if teachers can use motivational strategies effectively and... suggestive techniques to improve students listening skill It is essential for teachers to help their students to become efficient listeners The teachers have to adjust the time and efforts to manage
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