Total physical pespond POWERPOINT

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Ngày đăng: 23/04/2017, 01:36

Welcome to our TPR class TPR ROUTE The introduction of TPR Experience from a real TPR class The Inferences from the experience Principle review Technique review Micro-teaching THE INTRODUCTION OF TPR  What is TPR? - Total physical Response - Based on the coordination of speech and physical movement - Instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond - with whole-body actions Linked to the “trace theory” of memory psychology (Katona 1940) Background: - Asher developed TPR as a result of his experiences observing young children learning their first language - Most of the interactions that young children experience with parents or other adults combine both verbal and physical aspects  Children respond physically before they begin to produce verbal responses - Asher made three hypotheses based on his observations  The method is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching: • Comprehension abilities precede productive skills in learning language • The teaching of speaking should be delayed until comprehension skills are established • Skills acquired through listening transfer to other skills • Teaching should emphasize meaning rather than form • Teaching should minimize leaners’ stress In the book English through actions: “ No method of teaching foreign speech is likely to be economical or successful which does not include in the first period a very considerable proportion of that type of classroom work which consists of the carrying out by the pupil of orders issued by teacher” (Palmer) EXPERIENCE FROM A REAL TPR CLASS • • • • • • • • Teacher will present and explain the approach they will use to learn English in L1, in particular, Swedish Ask four volunteer Ss to come and what he requires in L2 with him “Stand up” the teacher does and Ss follow Say and another one “Sit down” and Ss follow Do the two orders several times through the teacher’s command A new order “Turn around” The volunteers act out with the teacher Use this command again for Ss to face to the class “Sit down Stand up Turn around Sit down” • • The new command “Walk” Ss walk towards the class together • Performs these commands again and changes the positions of them “Stand up Jump Sit down Stand up Turn around Jump Stop Turn around Walk Stop Turn around Walk Jump Turn around Jump Sit down” Faster • A series of command “Stop Jump Stop Turn around Walk Stop Jump Stop Turn around Sit down” The teacher does not move Sit and give orders “Stand up Sit down Walk Stop Jump Turn around Walk Turn around Sit down” • • • • • • One of the four Ss follows the teacher’s commands Turning to the rest of the class and giving the order “Stand up” A series of commands is said “Sit down Stand up Jump Stop Sit down Stand up Turn around Turn around Jump Sit down” Ss are able to carry out these commands Insert the new command “Point to the chair” “Stand up” / “Point to the door” / “Walk to the door” / “Touch the door” A variety of commands “Point to the desk Walk to the desk Touch the desk Point to the door Walk to the door Touch the door Point to the chair Walk to the chair Touch the chair” • • Practice the orders several times through the teacher’s command together • Turn to the rest of the class & give a series of commands “Stand up Sit down Stand up Point to the desk Point to the door Walk to the door Walk to the chair Touch the chair Walk Stop Jump Walk Turn around Sit down” • • Give order one more time No movement Say the commands & act them out when Ss are confused Turn to the four Ss and orders “Stand up Jump to the desk” they may pause for a moment Give the unpracticed commands “Touch the desk Sit on the desk” OBSERVATIONS 11.Teacher writes the new command on the black board 12.A few weeks later, a student who hasn’t spoken before gives commands 13.A student says “shake hand with your neighbor” PRINCIPLES In language teaching, spoken languages should be emphasized over written ones That student has enough motivation to begin to speak, students will speak when they are ready Students can make mistakes when they first begin speaking So, teacher should take time and work on the fine details of the languages The errors should be postponed until students have become more proficient PRINCIPLE REVIEW Objectives of the teacher: • • To have Ss enjoy their experience in learning to communicate in L2 To reduce stress when studying L2 Teacher’s and Learners’ roles: Teacher’s role Teacher plays an active and direct role in TPR Students’ role  Learner has the primary roles of listener an performer  Learners are imitators of teacher’s nonverbal model  Learners have little influence over the content of learning Major characteristic of TPR:  A few students are asked to follow teacher’s commands and actions students perform the commands alone to prove that they understand the  These requirements commands will be recombined to have students develop flexibility in understanding  The unfamiliar utterances    The commands are often humorous Students learn how to read and write the given oral commands When students are ready to speak, they become the ones who issue the commands After beginning speaking, students expand the activities including skits and games The nature of Student – teacher vs Student – student interaction: Phase Teacher interacts and speaks with both the whole group of students Students respond nonverbally and with individual students responds nonverbally become more verbal Must demonstrate Ss’ understanding of the commands perform actions together Begin to speak Had better issue commands to one another as well as to the teacher Ways to deal with learners’ feelings? Allow students to speak when they are ready Make language learning as enjoyable as possible Not provide too much modelling Should not expect the perfection How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?  With the acquisition of the native language, the oral modality is primary  Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?  Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized  They are embedded within imperatives with single words and multi- word chunks  The spoken language is emphasized over written language What is the role of the students’ native language?  TPR is usually introduced in the student’s native language  Meaning is made clear through body movements 9.How is evaluation accomplished? Teacher will know immediately whether or not students understand by observing their students’ actions 10 How does the teacher respond to student errors?  Teachers should be tolerant of them and only correct major errors  As students get more advanced, teachers can “ fine tune”- correct more minor errors TECHNIQUE REVIEW A USING COMMANDS TO DIRECT BEHAVIOR:  The use of commands which are acted out  Meaning are conveyed through actions  Preparation for commands in advance keeps students’ interest Main steps in a TPR lesson: • • • Teacher says and performs several basic commands and student copy them Next, only students carry out the commands said by the teacher Then several mixed sequences of the commands are introduce to better students’ memory of the language Notice:  The mastery of commands and the pleasure of succeeding are priority, so any rush for new commands is not recommended  Asher believes that teachers can base TPR method on teaching all grammatical points for a particular level of learners B DEMONSTRATION: Introducing commands: 1) First stage: “cook” - “eat” - “drink” 2) Next stage: “wash my hands” - “clean the table” - “take a shower” 3) Action sequence: “cook – eat – drink – wash my hands – clean the table – take a shower” Teaching present continuous tense through TPR method:  Teacher: “What am I doing?” – “I am eating” (modelling)  Teacher: “What is she/he doing?” (point to someone)  Students: “she/he is eating” Notice: Teacher and students the same with the remaining verb phrases Role reversal: After the teacher gives both spoken and written forms of the commands and students have grasped the relation between the commands and the relevant actions, it’s about time for them to speak through directing their classmates and teacher to perform the commands Action sequence: After the students get the hang of the commands, a long series of commands which together form a series of daily activities The teacher gives a chain of the commands as a daily routine of someone “cook the fish – eat the fish – drink coke – wash my hands – clean the table – take a shower” MICRO-TEACHING ... review Micro-teaching THE INTRODUCTION OF TPR  What is TPR? - Total physical Response - Based on the coordination of speech and physical movement - Instructors give commands to students in the... young children experience with parents or other adults combine both verbal and physical aspects  Children respond physically before they begin to produce verbal responses - Asher made three hypotheses
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