Development of a Standard Protocol for the Processing of High Quality Sweetpotato Starch for Noodle Making

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Chapter 11 Development of a Standard Protocol for the Processing of High Quality Sweetpotato Starch for Noodle Making Kuakoon Piyachomkwan1 , Klanarong Sriroth2 , Kanjana Chinsamran2 , Kamlai Laohaphattanalert2 , and Christopher G Oates Introduction Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is one of the world’s most important food crops with an annual production of about 120 million tons The crop is mainly cultivated in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America with China accounting for about 85 percent of total world production (Woolfe 1992; Yen 1982) The storage root is the main part of the sweetpotato that is used for food Like other roots and tubers, sweetpotato has high moisture content and a relatively low dry matter content of around 30 percent Approximately 80-90 percent of its dry matter is carbohydrate, mainly starch, which is a glucose polymer This makes sweetpotato roots a good raw material for the starch industry (Woolfe 1992; Wheatley and Bofu 2000) Sweetpotato starch has unique characteristics and is mostly used by the food industry as an ingredient in products such as cakes, breads, biscuits, cookies and noodles The starch is also processed into glucose syrups and various chemicals through enzymatic, microbial and chemical processes Noodles, like bread, boiled rice, and pasta, have played an important role in the human diet, especially in Asian countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand There are many kinds of noodles which can be classified according to raw material used, noodle size, manufacturing process or form of the finished product (Table 1) Based on raw material, various types of noodles are produced throughout the world They can be classified into two types: the protein-based and the starch-based noodles Protein–based noodles are from wheat (Noda et al 2001; Janto et al 1998), buckwheat or rice (Bhattacharya et al 1999; Toh 1997; Kim 1998) Starch–based noodles are from mungbean (Galvez et al 1994), pigeon pea (Singh et al 1989), red bean (Lii and Chang 1981), sweetpotato (Collado et al 1997; 2001), sorghum (Beta and Corke 2001), potato (Kim and Wiesenborn 1996; Peng et al 1997) and cassava (Kasemsuwan et al 1998) When wheat flour is used to make noodles, a gluten-containing dough is first prepared and formed into sheets which are then cut into strings of different sizes The Senior Researcher, Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand Associate Professor, Graduate Student, and Assistant Researcher, respectively, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand Food Technologist and Managing Director, Agro Food Resources (Thailand), Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand 140 protein matrix binds the product together in the early stage of production Wheat flour noodles are very popular in Japan and China Unlike wheat flour noodles, starch noodles are gluten- free, thus, have no protein matrix The final product is created by a matrix of starch polymers formed during processing when the granule starch structure is destroyed Before cooking, binding of starch mixture is usually done with a small amount of partially gelatinized starch This is added before mixing with the ungelatinized starch, in order to function as a binder and to facilitate extrusion or sheeting of the starch mixture to produce noodles Both gluten- and gluten- free noodles can be handmade or machine- made and sold fresh, boiled, dried, steamed and dried, or steamed and fried as instant noodles to increase the product’s shelf life Asian noodles are generally starch noodles produced from purified starch Various starch types can be used to produce gluten-free noodles such as mungbean, sweetpotato and canna Around 28% of sweetpotato is processed to starch noodles (Collado and Corke 1997) Sweetpotato noodles are white to off-white with transparent appearance and soft texture Thus, they are sometimes called “transparent noodle” (Timmins et al 1992) or “glass noodles” (Galvez et al 1994) Sweetpotato starch is commonly used in noodle production in China Demand for starch noodles rose as quality improved in recent years not only in China but also in other parts of Asia such as Taiwan, Korea and Vietnam Noodle quality depends on several factors relating to the properties of the starch or the production process For noodle production, sweetpotato starch quality is considered inferior relative to other starches such as mungbean If starch properties important to noodle quality could be identified and improved, the final noodle quality would be improved Thus, this paper evaluates sweetpotato starch quality with respect to noodle production The findings will be used as a basis for establishing a production protocol of noodle- making starch Quality requirements of starch for noodle products Noodle quality A product’s quality and price are key factors influencing a buyer’s decision to purchase the product In term of food products, four quality attributes are important: nutritional quality, phytosanitary quality, keeping quality and organoleptic quality Nutritional quality refers to types and amounts of beneficial nutrients in the product Phytosanitary quality is determined by the absence of microbial and other contaminants such as insect, metal and dirt Keeping quality indicates a product’s stability under storage and handling after manufacture through the supply chain to final consumer These quality attributes are usually assessed by instrumental analysis because changes may not be detected through mere sensory observations unless severe food deterioration and spoilage has occurred Organoleptic quality is more complex and involves the interaction of several sensory properties of the noodle These include appearance (sight), texture (by hand and mouth) and flavor (taste and smell) which may have interrelated effects While there are trade standards on nutritional and 141 phytosanitary quality that have to be complied with, organoleptic quality is not well defined and is unique to a particular food and/or market Meanwhile, organoleptic attributes are influenced by an individual consumer’s preference and are often regionally and culturally dependent Noodles for human consumption should be of a quality that is equivalent to or better than standards governing food grade In general, microbial content should be minimal and there should be no pathogen Processing and noodle type affect storage quality of noodles Generally, fresh noodles with high moisture content (≈35 percent) have a short shelf life in terms of number of days, thus constraining prospects of market expansion This prompted the manufacture of dried noodles, which have a longer shelf life and are easier to transport An example is instant noodles made from wheat that has been steamed and then fried to lower moisture content to percent This extends the product shelf life to 5-6 months (Kim 1996) Customers generally prefer noodles that have good color and texture when cooked, have minimum cooking loss and high tolerance to overcooking Relationship between starch processing methods and noodle quality Noodle color is important, as it is the first characteristic examined by consumers It is dependent on the color of the raw material and can be assessed visually or instrumentally Flavor, typically evaluated by trained panels, is unique to each noodle type, and depends on raw material and other ingredients used Texture is also an important characteristic of noodles and can be determined through sensory evaluation or instrumental analysis High quality noodles should have the right firmness when cooked, not too hard, nor too soft and sticky These properties depend on flour and starch quality In protein-based noodles, texture attributes are based on structures of interacting protein strands reinforced by starch For instance, firmness and elasticity of boiled Ramyon Chinese noodles increase with increasing protein content and dough strength (Chung and Kim 1991; Miskelly and Moss 1985) In contrast to wheat flour noodles, starch noodles are gluten-free consisting mainly of purified starch that forms the structural network of the final cooked product (Kim and Wiesenborn 1996) Thus, starch properties largely influence noodle quality Starch with high content of amylose (a linear glucose polymer) is generally preferred for noodle production This includes starches from mungbean with amylose content of 27-30 percent (Galvez and Resurreccion 1993; Chotineeranat et al 2000; Galvez et al 1994; Singh et al 1989) and canna with amylose content 26 percent (Sriroth et al 2001; Soni et al 1990) Starch with a C-type pasting profile characterized by the absence of a peak viscosity and a constant or increased viscosity during continuous heating and shearing (good hot-paste stability) is claimed to be suitable for noodle processing (Collado and Corke 1999) Some textural attributes of sweetpotato noodles show high positive correlation with some starch paste properties as determined by a Rapid Visco Analyzer (Collado and Corke 1997) Starch of high stability ratio, i.e., the ratio of hot paste viscosity to peak viscosity, produces noodles with good firmness and rehydration capacity or cooked weight Peak viscosity of flour by amylograph is positively correlated with smoothness of the cooked noodle The 142 optimum absorption of noodle dough increases with starch damage and fineness of granulation (Lee et al 1987) Further, smaller particle size improves the strength of uncooked noodles without affecting the firmness of cooked noodles (Oh et al 1985) Baseline variability of the raw material The variability of the properties of sweetpotato starch produced by micro and small-scale processors in Shandong and Sichuan provinces, China was evaluated These are the two biggest sweetpotato producing areas in China accounting for 40 percent of the 100 million tons total annual production of China and exceeding tha t of other nonChinese countries Starch produced in these provinces is mainly used for noodle production (Table 2) Sweetpotato production in these regions is mostly micro and small-scale using similar technologies Starch properties including granule size, amylose content, paste clarity and viscosity were analyzed in more than 100 sweetpotato starch samples to evaluate their consistency Starch samples collected from different processors in Sichuan and Shandong have different properties Starches, in ge neral, consist of medium-sized granules with an average diameter of less than 30 microns Some samples contained granules that are slightly bigger with a diameter of 40 microns In contrast, starch paste and gel properties are less homogenous (Figures 1-4) Using a Rapid Visco Analyzer, hot paste viscosity (HPV) (the pasting viscosity after the holding time at 95°C) ranges from 100 to 236 for starch from Shandong and 125 to 270 RVU for samples from Sichuan (Figure 1) A high variation in the paste properties of sweetpotato starch samples from different processors in Shandong and Sichuan provinces is also evident This was observed in the peak viscosity (PV) and cold paste viscosity (CPV), the pasting viscosity at the end of the hold time at 50°C (Table 3) This corresponds to the variation in the stability ratio (HPV/PV) of sweetpotato starches (Figure 2), which has been shown to be highly correlated with noodle firmness (r = 0.95, P < 0.01) and rehydration upon cooking (r = -0.89, P< 0.05) (Collado 1997) Unlike gluten-containing noodles, starch noodles are prepared by partially gelatinizing a small portion of starch to serve as a binder and to facilitate extrusion or the sheeting process Starches with different gelatinization temperatures may undergo different degrees of gelatinization when cooked under the same processing conditions As a result, noodle texture attributes are different In this test, a significant variation in pasting temperatures of starch samples was recorded Sweetpotato starch collected from Shandong has a narrower range (75-79°C) of pasting temperatures than the Sichuan samples ( 65-75°C) (Figure 3) Starches with various properties can provide various qualities of noodles as indicated by the texture analysis of starch gels (Figure 4) Starches collected from Sichuan province with mainly small-scale processors are likely to have more variability in their properties than those from Shandong Factors affecting starch quality Raw material 143 Root quality The quality of sweetpotato roots, the raw material for starch production, is the primary factor affecting starch properties Quality of roots relates to the dry matter content and to the way by which the starch is formed Root quality is controlled by internal (i.e., genetic variety) and external (i.e., environmental condition during cultivation) factors Starch content and properties vary in different sweetpotato varieties Starch content ranges from 40 to 80 percent (dry basis) in 18 cultivars cultivated in Brazil and 33 to 73 percent (dry basis) in Filipino and American cultivars In fresh roots, starch content is about 18 percent on average, but this varies from 11 to 26 percent in 31 Indian cultivars, to 22 percent in 292 Taiwanese cultivars, and to 27 percent in 75 Thai cult ivars grown under similar conditions (Woolfe 1992) Typically, sweetpotato starch has a type A pasting profile characterized by a high peak viscosity followed by a high degree of shear-thinning Starches of different varieties show peak viscosity, shear-thinning, cold paste viscosity, pasting temperature and stability ratio (Collado and Corke 2000) Other properties also differ among different varieties (Collado 1997), as shown in Table Sweetpotato starches of the same variety but grown and harvested at different times have varying properties Starch extracted from older roots has a higher gelatinization temperature and peak viscosity, but lower hot paste stability (Noda et al 1995; 1997) Furthermore, environmental conditions at planting significantly influence starch properties (Tian 1996) When soil temperature during sweetpotato tuber development increases, amylose content, granule size, enzymatic digestibility, gelatinization and pasting profile as well as amylopectin structure of produced starches are altered (Noda et al 2001) Post-harvest handling Functional properties of sweetpotato starch are affected by postharvest handling of roots prior to starch production Sweetpotato roots have a high moisture content (70-80 percent) and are therefore perishable Extended storage time at high temperature not only reduces starch content (Figure 5), but also alters starch properties Roots stored at temperatures above 25°C for more than days produce starches with lower paste viscosity (Table 5) Starch swelling properties are also influenced by storage conditions (Figure 6) Raw material form Sweetpotato is a seasonal crop and during harvest season, a large volume of roots is available for starch processing However, the tubers are perishable and if not stored properly, suffer high losses Thus, simple processing technologies are applied to avoid storage problems Also, reducing water content converts the bulky roots into a form more compact, easier to store and easier to transport such as in the form of frozen cakes and dried chips These materials can be used as raw material for starch production but the preservation method used may cause some degradation of starch properties (Table 6) For instance, the color quality of starch extracted from dried chips is inferior to the starch extracted from fresh tubers and stored frozen cake Sweetpotato starch processing Starch is the most commonly processed product of sweetpotato roots, produced at a micro-scale (household), small-scale or large-scale (factory) Production of 144 sweetpotato starch at household and village levels involves three stages - extraction, purification and final preparation (Figure 7) In rural areas, the process is not standardized and the capacity is 100-2,000 kg roots per day At the industrial level, capacity is 10,000-100,000 kg roots per day The operating process is similar to household and village- level, but techniques used are different The processes at the large-scale level are more controlled Extraction Extraction is the first stage in sweetpotato starch production wherein fresh roots are washed and ground to produce a mash Generally, for micro and small-scale processors, extraction efficiency is poor, thus requiring improvements In some countries such as China, extraction rate of most processors is not more than 15 percent (Wiersema et al 1989) However, in Japan, some starch plants have a 28 percent extraction rate (Woolfe 1992) Root preparation Fresh sweetpotato roots should be washed to remove contaminating soil and dirt Peeling of the skin can be used instead of washing to remove dirt if clean water is not available (Gankonyo 1993) Peeling is sometimes recommended to processors to improve starch quality, but this is time-consuming and invariably causes losses of 10 to 20 percent Thus, starch processing without skin peeling is more widely practiced (Soekarto 1995) Grinding Typically washed roots are ground with or without water, using a pin mill, hammer mill, or a traditional rasper However, if the water is added during grinding, the whiter starch can be obtained When more water is used, extraction yield increases Type of milling depends on production capacity of starch processing (Timmins et al 1992) Grinding is usually carried out with a hammer mill where the particle size is reduced to 60 – 80 mesh (Hal 2000) Sieving After grinding, the mash is sieved on a synthetic screen to remove undesirable skin and fiber from starch (Woolfe 1992; Timmins et al 1992) The mesh size used in this step is very important for starch quality Big aperture mesh can cause contamination of starch with fibrous materials Sedimentation After sieving, the starch slurry is allowed to sediment Processors often encounter a technical problem of slow sedimentation rate To address this problem, the unique process of adding sour liquid (an aqueous acidic fermented extract from dried peas, faba or mungbeans) has long been applied by most processors in China Sour liquid is used to promote starch sedimentation that can be checked visually The rate of sedimentation depends on starch slurry concentration and the amount of sour liquid used, which is inversely correlated to the slurry’s pH (Figure 8) By using the same content of sour liquid, starch slurry with low starch concentration sediments faster than that with high concentration Sedimentation is further improved when a higher amount of sour liquid is used, as indicated by a lower pH of starch slurry In starch processing, if the sedimentation rate is not satisfactory, more fresh sour liquid is applied Also, sour liquid must be added to the wet starch following the first sedimentation to prevent discoloration of final starch products However, the effect of sour liquid on other starch properties has not been investiga ted It is likely that sour liquid may affect starch properties such as paste viscosity (Figure 9) 145 Purification This stage involves the separation of starch from other impurities that may affect starch properties Purification of sweetpotato starch is a difficult and complex process Due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and carotene, white starch is rarely obtained Sweetpotato starch is frequently less pure and darker than other commercial starches, presumably due to the contamination of “jalapin”- the resin produced by the sweetpotato latificers, and polyphenolic compounds formed during starch processing (Woolfe 1992) In some rural areas of China, fresh water is used to purify sedimented starch prior to final recovery, but the starch products are invariably discolored Most processors employ the sour liquid method to enhance separation and also starch quality (Timmins et al 1992; Wheatley and Bofu 2000) In Japan, purification is accomplished under alkaline conditions by using saturated lime water (calcium hydroxide) to improve starch yield and whiteness In the purification stage, centrifugal separators are often used in Japan in place of the settling tanks (Woolfe 1992) Final preparation After receiving purified starch, wet starch is subjected to a drying process to remove water and prolong the product’s shelf life In addition, drying also affects starch properties, the extent of which depends on the drying protocol Solar or sun drying is the cheapest process since it is free and uses a non-polluting energy source However, the process depends on weather conditions thus, is difficult to control Product quality is relatively inferior and more likely to be contaminated with microorganisms, dusts and insects Therefore, drying machinery such as by cabinet and tunnel dryers is preferred The quality of starch is affected by drying temperature (Figure 10) In general, starch dried at higher temperature has a lower peak viscosity, but higher hot and cold paste viscosity The hot paste stability can be improved when dried at a higher temperature Starch paste modification during the drying process is presumably explained by heat- moisture phenomena (Collado et al 2001) The last step of starch process is milling of dried starch to reduce the particle size and then sieving as size can affect the quality of starch-based product Conclusions To produce sweetpotato noodles of good quality that are acceptable to consumers, care should be taken in the use of good quality sweetpotato starch Starch quality highly depends on the root quality, the extraction process and processing conditions Fresh roots of different varieties provide starches with different pasting characteristics and, therefore, influence the noodle quality Even when the roots of the same variety are used, poor handling after harvesting may result in starch of lower paste quality Fresh roots are recommended, however, this may not be practical given the seasonal nature of the crop in China Processing fresh roots into wet cake, rather than using dried chip, is therefore recommended During starch extraction, it is critical to remove all dirt by adequate washing Water should be used during milling as an extracting medium to improve yield and starch quality The n, sieving is done with 120 mesh to remove other fibrous impurities Sometimes peeling of the roots is suggested to obtain high quality starch Otherwise, the use of sour liquid is necessary to improve starch whiteness and purity After purification, starch is then subjected to a drying process Drying starch cake with an intermediate moisture content (≈35-40%) at high 146 temperature can be applied to improve hot paste viscosity and the stability ratio of starch, but the condition should be optimized to avoid starch gelatinization References Beta,T and H Corke 2001 “Noodle quality as related to sorghum starch properties” Cereal Chem 78 (4): 417-420 Bhattacharya, M., S.Y Zee and H Corke 1999 “Physico-chemical properties related to quality of rice noodles” Cereal Chem 76 (6): 861-867 Chotineeranat, S., K Laohaphatanaleart, E Sarobol and K Sriroth 2000 “Physicochemical properties of mungbean starch extracted from Thai variety” In: The 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference 1-4 February, 2000, Kasetsart University Bangkok Chung, G S and S.K Kim 1991 “Effects of wheat flour protein contents on Aamyon (deep-fried instant noodle) quality” Korean J Food Sci Tech 23(6): 649-655 Collado, L S 1997 Physical properties and utilization of sweetpotato starch and flour Ph.D dissertation, The University of HongKong HongKong 231p Collado, L.S and H Corke 1997 “Properties of starch noodles as affected by sweetpotato genotype” Cereal Chem 74 (2): 182-187 Collado, L.S and H Corke 1999 “Heat-moisture treatment effects on sweetpotato 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Pasta and Noodle Technology, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Minnesota, USA Lee, C H., P.G Gorge, H.D Lee, B.S Yoo and S.H Hong 1987 “Utilization of Australian wheat for Korean style dried noodle making” J Cereal Sci 6: 283287 Lii, C.Y and S.M Chang 1981 “Characterization of red bean (Phaseolus radiatus var Aurea) starch and its noodle quality” J Food Sci 46: 78-81 Miskelly, D M and H J Moss 1985 “Flour quality requirements for Chinese noodle manufacture” J Cereal Sci 3: 379-387 Miskelly, D M 1984 “Flour components affecting paste and noodle colour” J Sci Food Agric 35:463-471 Noda, T., Y Takahata, T Sato, M Hisamatsu and T Yamada 1995 “Physicochemical properties of starches extracted from sweetpotato roots differing in physiological age” J Agric Food Chem 43: 3016-3020 Noda, T., Y Takahata, T Sato, H Ikoma and H Mochida 1997 “Combined effects of planting and harvesting dates on starch properties of sweetpotato roots” Carbohydrate Polymers 33 (2-3): 169-176 Noda, T., T Kobayashi and I Suda 2001 “Effect of soil temperature on starch properties of sweetpotatoes” Carbohydrate Polymers 44: 239-246 148 Oh, N H, PA A Seib, A.B Ward and C.W Deyoe 1985 “Noodles IV Influence of flour protein, extraction rate, particle size and starch damage on the quality characteristics of dry noodles” Cereal Chem 62: 441-447 Peng, H., R Lian and T.S Toh 1997 “Instant mungbean or potato starch noodles” Trends in Food Science & Technology 8: 249 Singh, U., W Voraputhaporn, P.V.Rao and R Jambunathan 1989 “Physico-chemical characteristics of pigeon pea and mungbean starches and their noodle quality” J Food Sci 54 (5): 1293-1297 Soekarto, S T 1995 Sweetpotato processing for flour and noodles A final report Bogor Agricultural University International Potato Center (CIP) Ease Asia, South East Asia, and the Pacific (ESEAP), Bogor, Indonesia 42p Soni, P L., Sharma, H., Srivastava, H C and M.M Gharia 1990 “Physico-chemical properties of Canna edulis starch – comparison with maize starch” Starch/Starke 42: 460-464 Sriroth, K., K Piyachomkwan, S Jin, and C.G Oates 2001 “Canna starch: properties, processing and utilization” In: 52th Starch Convention 2001 25-27th April, 2001 Detmold, Germany Tian, S J 1996 Varietal and environmental effects on the physico-chemical properties of sweetpotato starch Ph.D dissertation The University of Nottingham Leicestershire, UK 319p Timmins, W.H., A.D Marter, A Westby and J.E Rickard 1992 “Aspects of sweetpotato processing in Sichuan province, People’s Republic of China” In: Schott, G J., S Wiersema, P.I Fergusun (eds.) Product Development for Root and Tuber Crops Vol.1 Lima, Peru: International Potato Center, pp 217-227 Toh, T.S 1997 “Instant rice noodles” Trends in Food Science & Technology 8: 249 Wheatley, C.C and S Bofu 2000 “Sweetpotato starch in China: Current status and future prospects” In: Howeler, R.H., C.G Oates and G.M O’Brien (eds) Cassava, Starch and Starch Derivatives Proceedings of the International Symposium.held in Nanning, Guangxi, China Nov 11-15.1996 A CIAT Publication, CIAT Regional Cassava Program for Asia, pp.201-205 Wiersema, S G., J.C Hesen and B.F Song 1989 Report on a sweetpotato post harvest advisory visit to the People’s Republic of China, 12-27 January, 1989, International Potato Center, Lima [Mimeo] Cited by Woolfe, J A Sweetpotato : an Untapped Food Resource Cambridge University Press, New York 1992 p.367 Woolfe, J.A 1992 Sweetpotato: An Untapped Food Resource Cambridge University Press, New York 149 Yen, D.E 1982 “Sweetpotato in Historical Perspective” In: Villareal, R.L and T.D Griggs (eds) Sweetpotato: Proceeding of the first International Symposium Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Tainan, Taiwan, pp.17-30 150 Table Classification of noodles based on various criteria and characteristics Criteria Raw material Noodle size Process Product form Class /Type Characteristics Soft wheat flour - Japanese noodles (udon) Hard wheat flour - Chinese noodles (ra-men, chuka ramen, chuka-soba) Buckwheat (mixed with wheat flour) - Buckwheat noodles (soba) Rice flour - mien, bihon, beehon, bifun - knanom-jeen - vermicelli Mungbean starch - glass noodles Sweetpotato starch Other starches: - Potato, Canna Very thin - So-men Thin - Hiya-mugi Standard - Udon Flat - Hira men Type of binders - Protein: wheat flour noodles - Pregelatinized starch: starch noodles Strand making - Sheeting & cutting: So-men, Udon - Extrusion: Rice noodles Equipment - Handmade: Tenobe so-men - Machine-made: Udon, Hira-men Fresh and uncooked Cooked noodles (Boiled or steamed) Frozen boiled noodles Dried noodles Instant noodles White or creamy white in color and soft texture Light yellow in color and a little stiff in texture Light brown or gray in color with a unique taste and flavor White to yellow color and opaque with tender texture Transparent and firm texture Transparent and elastic 1.0-1.2 mm strand width 1.3-1.7 mm strand width 2.0-3.8 mm strand width 5.0-7.5 mm strand width Table Sweetpotato production in Sichuan and Shandong provinces, China Item Sweetpotato production in 1993/94 (million tons) Sweetpotato utilization % processed into starch Sweetpotato starch production Use of sweetpotato starch Sweetpotato starch market Noodle market Sichuan Shandong 20 24 food, feed, processed 10-15 micro -scale noodles local food, feed, processed 30-40 micro and small-scale noodles local and export local, provincial, national and export local, provincial, national Source: Wheatley and Bofu 2000 156 Table Paste characteristics of sweetpotato starch samples from different processors in Shandong and Sichuan provinces, China Starch from Shandong Starch from Sichuan Parameter Minimum Maximum Average Minimum Maximum Average Mungbean starch Cassava starch Peak viscosity, PV, (RVU) 250 430 320 150 520 390 460 340 Hot paste viscosity, HPV, (RVU) 100 240 150 130 270 190 250 100 Cold paste viscosity, CPV, (RVU) 180 380 250 220 340 270 390 180 Stability ratio (HPV/PV) 0.39 0.77 0.48 0.33 0.83 0.48 0.54 0.29 Setback ratio (CPV/HPV) 1.40 1.82 1.65 1.26 2.25 1.45 1.58 1.81 Pasting temperature (°C) 75.0 79.0 76.5 66.0 76.0 73.0 71.5 68.5 Table Minimum, maximum and average values for various starch properties of 44 sweetpotato varieties Property Range Average Amylose content (%) 12.9 to 29.7 19.1 Con A precipitation Swelling volume 24.5 to 32.7 29.0 0.35 g (db) in 12.5 ml water at 92.5°C, 30 Solubility 12.4 to 24.1 16.9 Similar to swelling volume Pasting property Method of Analysis Use of a Rapid Visco Analyzer at 7% starch concentration Peak viscosity (RVU) 66 to 132 108 Hot paste viscosity (RVU) 58 to 109 94 Cold paste viscosity (RVU) 82 to 186 149 Stability ratio 0.73 to 0.96 0.86 Setback ratio 0.73 to 0.96 1.59 Onset gelatinization temperature (°C) 61.3 to 70.0 64.6 Use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter Gel hardness 15.8 to 37.1 22.7 Texture profile analysis Gel adhesiveness -52.3 to 3.0 -24.1 Texture profile analysis 157 Table Paste viscosity, as determined by a Rapid Visco Analyzer using 9.2% starch content, of sweetpotato starch extracted from tubers stored at –20, and 25 °C for 0, 3, 10, 14 and 22 days Storage Time Pasting temp Hot paste viscosity, HPV (RVU) Breakdown (°C) Peak viscosity, P (RVU) Temperature (days) Fresh 80.35 ± 0.00 432 ± 207 ± 225 ± 272 ± 65 ± –20 °C 80.58 ± 0.25 428 ± 220 ± 208 ± 282 ± 62 ± 10 80.95 ± 0.35 419 ± 232 ± 186 ± 299 ± 10 66 ± 14 80.18 ± 0.32 437 ± 228 ± 209 ± 295 ± 67 ± 22 80.35 ± 0.57 432 ± 218 ± 214 ± 280 ± 61 ± 3 80.58 ± 0.32 429 ± 221 ± 208 ± 290 ± 69 ± 10 79.95 ± 0.00 452 ± 23 217 ± 235 ± 16 294 ± 77 ± 14 79.98 ± 0.46 442 ± 221 ± 221 ± 293 ± 72 ± 22 80.15 ± 0.35 438 ± 206 ± 232 ± 276 ± 69 ± 80.93 ± 0.25 407 ± 199 ± 208 ± 267 ± 68 ± 10 80.50 ± 0.42 404 ± 201 ± 204 ± 266 ± 65 ± 14 80.50 ± 0.28 410 ± 200 ± 210 ± 265 ± 65 ± 22 79.58 ± 0.04 417 ± 188 ± 229 ± 247 ± 59 ± (P-HPV, RVU) Cold paste viscosity, CPV(RVU) Setback (CPV-HPV, RVU) (°C) °C 25 °C Table Raw material Starch whiteness and paste characteristics as determined by a Rapid Visco Analyzer of sweetpotato starches extracted from different raw materials Starch whiteness (Kett scale) Paste clarity (% light transmittance) Paste characteristics Pasting temperature (°C) Fresh tuber 91 ± 0.4 Peak viscosity (RVU) Trough (RVU) Final viscosity (RVU) Stability ratio Setback ratio 23.18 ± 0.59 78.4 ± 0.2 372 ± 207 ± 262 ± 0.56 ± 0.01 0.70 ± 0.01 Frozen cake stored for 10 days 92 ± 0.3 25.85 ± 1.11 77.0 ± 0.2 394 ± 15 194 ± 255 ± 0.49 ± 0.01 0.65 ± 0.00 20 days 91 ± 0.3 23.10 ± 0.57 77.8 ± 0.3 395 ± 204 ± 266 ± 0.52 ± 0.01 0.67 ± 0.02 30 days 92 ± 1.0 30.33 ± 0.79 78.3 ± 0.2 397 ± 200 ± 259 ± 0.50 ± 0.01 0.65 ± 0.02 Chip stored for day 83 ± 0.4 23.08 ± 1.28 76.9 ± 0.0 380 ± 206 ± 270 ± 0.54 ± 0.02 0.71 ± 0.01 30 days 83 ± 21.45 ± 0.38 77.4 ± 1.2 390 ± 10 221 ± 277 ± 0.57 ± 0.01 0.72 ± 0.01 158 Shandong -small roaad of hillside area Shandong -small road of plain area Shandong -main road of plain area Sichuan -An Yue County Sichuan -Qiong Lai County Sichuan -Xi Yang County Sichuan -Luo Jiang County Sichuan -San Tai County Sichuan -Others 260 Hot paste viscosity (RVU) 230 200 170 140 Cassava 110 Mungbean 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Sample no Figure Hot paste viscosity (HPV) of sweetpotato starch samples from Shandong (close symbols) and Sichuan (open symbols) provinces Note: The line represents the average values of each province Source: Sriroth et al 2001 0.2 Shandong -small roaad of hillside area Shandong -small road of plain area Shandong -main road of plain area Sichuan -An Yue County Sichuan -Qiong Lai County Sichuan -Xi Yang County Sichuan -Luo Jiang County Sichuan -San Tai County Sichuan -Others 0.1 Cassava 0.9 0.8 Stability ratio 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Mungbean 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Sample no Figure Stability ratio of sweetpotato starch samples from Shandong (close symbols) and Sichuan (open symbols) provinces Note: The line represents the average values of each province Source: Sriroth et al 2001 159 Shandong -small roaad of hillside area Shandong -small road of plain area Shandong -main road of plain area Sichuan -An Yue County Sichuan -Qiong Lai County Sichuan -Xi Yang County Sichuan -Luo Jiang County Sichuan -San Tai County Sichuan -Others 79 Pasting temperature (oC) 77 75 73 71 69 Cassava 67 Mungbean 65 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Sample no Figure Pasting temperature of sweetpotato starch samples from Shandong (close symbols) and Sichuan (open symbols) Note: The line represents the average values of each province Shandong -small roaad of hillside area Shandong -small road of plain area Shandong -main road of plain area Sichuan -An Yue County Sichuan -Qiong Lai County Sichuan -Xi Yang County Sichuan -Luo Jiang County Sichuan -San Tai County Sichuan -Others 5.500 5.000 4.500 4.000 Hardness (N) 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000 Cassava 0.500 Mungbean 0.000 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 1 Sample no Figure Hardness of the first cycle of sweetpotato starch samples from Shandong (close symbols) and Sichuan (open symbols) provinces Note: The line represents the average values of each province 160 Saccharides content (%) 25 20 at -20 C 15 at C at 25 C 10 0 10 15 20 25 Time (days) Figure Contents of starch by a polarimetric method and water soluble non -starch carbohydrates by a phenol -sulfuric method in sweetpotato roots when stored at – 20, and 25 °C for 0, 3, 10, 14 and 22 days Note: Dash line = starch content, % wet basis Solid line = water soluble non-starch carbohydrates (g/100g dry tuber) 161 Swelling power 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 day days 10 days 14 days 22 days 25 OC OC -20 OC 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Temp (oC) Figure Swelling power of sweetpotato starch extracted from tubers stored at F–20, and 25 °C for 0, 3, 10, 14 and 22 days 162 Figure Typical protocol of sweet potato starch production by the sour-liquid method Source: Timmins et al 1992 163 Sediment and liquid interface (ml) 80 20% 70 30% 60 40% 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 Time(min) 50 60 70 Sediment and liquid interface (ml) (a) 4.5 distilledwater 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 Time (m 40in) 50 60 70 (b) Figure Sedimentation rate of sweetpotato starch slurry using sour liquid: (a) effect of starch slurry concentration (pH 4.0) (b) effect of sour liquid content (using 20% starch slurry) on sedimentation rate Note: Sedimentation rate indicated by the volume mark between the sediment and liquid interface 164 Figure Paste viscosity profiles of sweet potato starch processed without and with sour liquid application Note: Method used was a Rapid Visco Analyzer (11% starch) Figure 10 Paste viscosity profile of sweetpotato starch obtained by drying cakes (45% moisture content) at different temperatures (50, 70, 90 and 120°C) Note: Method used was a Rapid Visco Analyzer (9.2% starch content) 165 ... ± 27 2 ± 65 ± 20 °C 80.58 ± 0 .25 428 ± 22 0 ± 20 8 ± 28 2 ± 62 ± 10 80.95 ± 0.35 419 ± 23 2 ± 186 ± 29 9 ± 10 66 ± 14 80.18 ± 0. 32 437 ± 22 8 ± 20 9 ± 29 5 ± 67 ± 22 80.35 ± 0.57 4 32 ± 21 8 ± 21 4 ± 28 0... ± 0. 32 429 ± 22 1 ± 20 8 ± 29 0 ± 69 ± 10 79.95 ± 0.00 4 52 ± 23 21 7 ± 23 5 ± 16 29 4 ± 77 ± 14 79.98 ± 0.46 4 42 ± 22 1 ± 22 1 ± 29 3 ± 72 ± 22 80.15 ± 0.35 438 ± 20 6 ± 23 2 ± 27 6 ± 69 ± 80.93 ± 0 .25 407... 80.93 ± 0 .25 407 ± 199 ± 20 8 ± 26 7 ± 68 ± 10 80.50 ± 0. 42 404 ± 20 1 ± 20 4 ± 26 6 ± 65 ± 14 80.50 ± 0 .28 410 ± 20 0 ± 21 0 ± 26 5 ± 65 ± 22 79.58 ± 0.04 417 ± 188 ± 22 9 ± 24 7 ± 59 ± (P-HPV, RVU) Cold
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