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STANDARD Y S F- MEBX D 21 WILLIAM C LYONS EDITOR STANDARD HANDBOOK OF PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS ENGINEERING VOLUME etroleum engineering now has its own true classic handbook that reflects the profession’s status as a mature major engineering discipline P Formerly titled the Practical Perroleurn Engineer’s Handbook, by Joseph Zaba and W ’1’ Doherty (editors), this new, completely updated two-volume set is expanded and revised to give petroleum engineers a comprehensive source of industry standards and engineering practices It is packed with the key, practical information and data that petroleum engineers rely upon daily The result of a fifteen-year effort, this handbook covers the gamut of oil and gas engineering topics to provide a reliable source of engineering and reference information for analyzing and solving problems It also reflects the growing role of natural gas in industrial development by integrating natural gas topics throughout both volumes More than a dozen leading industry expertsacademia and industry-contributed to this two-volume set to provide the best, most comprehensive source of petroleum engineering information available STANDARD HANDBOOK OF Engineering STANDARD HANDBOOK OF WILLIAM C LYONS, PH.D.,P.E EDITOR Gulf Publishing Company Houston, Texas STANDARD HANDBOOK OF ROLEUM L GAS Engineering Copyright 1996 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher Volume Chapter Chapter Chapter Contents - Reservoir Engineering - Production Engineering - Petroleum Economics Gulf Publishing Company Book Division P.O Box 2608OHouston, Texas 77252-2608 10 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Standard handbook of petroleum and natural gas engineering / [edited by William Lyons] p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-88415-642-7 (Vol l),ISBN 0-88415-643-5 (Vol 2) Petroleum engineering (William C.) TN870.S6233 1996 665.5-dc20 Natural gas I Lyons, William 96-13965 CIP Printed on Acid-Free Paper (-) iu Contributing Authors 1-Mathematics Preface vii ix Geometry, Algebra, 18 Trigonometry, 27 Differential and Integral Calculus, 35 Analytic Geometry, 50 Numerical Methods, 60 Applied Statistics, 92 Computer Applications, 108 References, 133 2-General Engineering and Science .135 Basic Mechanics (Statics and Dynamics), 137 Fluid Mechanics, 168 Strength of Materials, 185 Thermodynamics, 209 Geological Engineering, 240 Electricity, 278 Chemistry, 297 Engineering Design, 365 References, 386 V 3-Auxiliary Equipment 391 , Prime Movers, 393 Power Transmission, 420 Pumps, 458 Compressors, 476 References, 495 4-Drilling and Well Completions 497 Derricks and Portable Masts, 499 Hoisting Systems, 523 Rotary Equipment, 616 Mud Pumps, 627 Drilling Muds and Completion Systems, 650 Drill String: Composition and Design, 715 Drilling Bits and Downhole Tools, 769 Drilling Mud Hydraulics, 829 Air and Gas Drilling, 840 Downhole Motors, 862 MWD and LWD, 901 Directional Drilling, 1079 Selection of Drilling Practices, 1090 Well Pressure Control, 1100 Fishing Operations and Equipment, 11 13 Casing and Casing String Design, 1127 Well Cementing, 177 Tubing and Tubing String Design, 1233 Corrosion and Scaling, 1257 Environmental Considerations, 1343 Offshore Operations, 1363 References, 1373 1385 , 1399 Appendix: Units and Conversions (SI) Index vi Index Natural gas pipelines corrosion in, 930-931 inhibition of, 931-935 types of, 931 wet vs dehydrated, 931 Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in produced water, 957-961 prevention of, 961 in scale form, 961 Naumann, V O., 76 Near-critical oil, 374 Net pay volume, 256 Net present value (NPV) calculations, 695 in fracture design, 676, 682-683 Neuse, S H., 258 Neutron log interpretation, 163 theory, 162-163 Newman, G H., 51-52 Newton-Raphson iterative technique, 369 NGL See Natural gas liquid (NGL) Nielsen, R F., 83 Nierode, D E., 691 Nind, T E W., 555 Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as scale inhibitor, 912 Nitrogen flooding, 324, 330 Nitrogen, gas deviation factor, 649 NMR See Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Nolte, K G., 671, 680 decline analysis, 668, 669 Nordgren, R P., 686 NORM, 957-961 NPE, 327 NPV, 676, 682-683, 695 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 167-170 log modes, 168-169 uses of, 169-170 Nuclear magnetism log accuracy of, 317 to estimate residual oil saturation, 312-315, 318 Offshore production operations design and operation, 967 environmental considerations, 966 1063 pollution prevention, 969-970 flare system, 968 geographical considerations, 966 platform design, 965-966 regulatory agencies, 970-971 relief system, 968 safety shut-down system, 968 service safety system, 970 technological history, 964 transportation, 969 utility systems, 967 ventilation, 969 Oil See also Crude oil compressibility, 23-27 displaced during coring, factors affecting, 91-92 dissolved gas in, 3-4 viscosity and gravity effects, formation volume factor, 15-20, 28, 34 heavy, 374 physical properties, 365 relative volume curve, 398, 400 reservoirs, material balance, 233-234 saturated, saturation changes during core recovery, 92 superficial velocities, 435-436 undersaturated, viscosity of dead, correlation for, 31-32, 33 Oil flow performance choke, 537, 541 flowline, 541-544 for incompressible fluids, 537 inflow, 534-536 possibility of changes in, 538 tubing performance, 537 size and head pressure effects, 539 Oil in place (OIP), 992 Oil recovery residual, from waterflooding, 301-318 water-wet vs oil-wet cores, 79-80 Oil saturation for gas cap drive reservoirs, 243 for gravity drainage reservoirs, 243 Oil zone, 225 Oil-shrinkage curve, 399 Oil/water ratio, inflow performance and, 643 Index 1064 OIP See Oil in place (OIP) OOIP See Original oil in place (OOIP) Oosterhout, J C D., 937 Organometallic crosslinkers, 674 Orifice meter, 800, 802-806 flange tap expansion factors, 812-814, 822-823 orifice factors, 809-811 Reynolds number, 816-818 gas flow calculations, 806-834 expansion factor, 815 flowing temperature factor, 815 gage location factor, 829, 830 gas relative density factor, 815 manometer factor, 826-828 orifice flow constant, 806 pressure base factor, 815 Reynolds number, 815, 816-818 supercompressibility factor, 826 temperature base factor, 815 thermal expansion factor, 828-829 meter tube measurements, 803, 805-806, 807 pipe taps expansion factors, 824-825 orifice factors, 819-821 pressure tap locations, 803, 804 uncertainty limits and field problems, 834-835 Original oil in place (OOIP), 992, 993 estimating, 990-991 risk analysis, 1030 Orkiszewski method, 504-513 bubble flow, 506 mist flow, 508 Slug flow, 506-507 transition flow, 508 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 970 Overbalance pressure, oil displaced by, 91, 305 Ownership, working vs royalty interests, 1017 Oxygen corrosion, 924, 931 scavengers, 908-909, 924 P Paccaloni, G., 703 Panhandle equations, 556-557, 838, 840-841 Parsons, R L., 1008 Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides (HPAM), 321, 322 Patnode, H W., 55 Pattern flooding, well placement, 265-268 Pattern sweep efficiency See Areal sweep efficiency Pay thickness, log estimation, 117 Peak polished road load (PPRL), 631, 636 Peffer, J W.,553 Peng-Robinson equation, 370, 419, 420, 422 Penn State steady-state method, 76, 81 Perez-Rosales, C., 46 Performance See also Gas flow performance; Oil flow performance posttreatment, 688-690 risk, 1028 waterflooding monitoring, 293-300 Drediction 293 Peripheral flooding, well placement, 264 Perkins, Kern, and Nordgren model, 669, 677, 678, 681, 684 short-cut, 686 Perkins, T K., 684 Permeability absolute, 36 air, connate water saturation and, 74, 75 core analysis, 91 crossflow and, 290 effective vs absolute, 76 overburden effects, 74 log estimation, 118 micrologs, 156 relative dynamic vs static determination methods, 76-77 empirical equations, 79 fluid property effects, 79 gas-oil, 38 oil-water, 77-78 Index three-phase, 79 wettability and, 80-83 of reservoir rock, 36, 48 effective, 72-76 relative, 76-79 reservoir stimulation and, 665 resistivity logs, 151 stratification crossflow and, 289 quantitative extent of, 284-291 vertical, 286 waterflooding and, 284 Permeability anisotropy, 700 vertical-to-horizontal, 692, 694 Petroleum economics See also Cash flow controlled by baseline oil price, 1012 cost/benefit factors, 1013 function of petroleum engineer in, 1013 market for petroleum, 1011-1012 inflationary effects, 1012 price impact, 1012 Petroleum engineer, economic function, 1013 Petroleum products, classification Of, 989-990 Petroleum reservoir, definitions, 225 Petrolite Corporation, gas pipeline inhibitors, 933-934 Phase behavior multicomponent vs pure component systems, 370-371 in production tubing, 431 reservoir conditions, 374-380 Phasor Induction SFL, 134 Phosphates as scale inhibitors, 919-920 Phosphonates as scale inhibitors, 913-914, 915, 920-921 Photoelectric absorption effect, 161 Pipelines See Crude oil pipelines; Natural gas pipelines Pirson, S J., 85 Pits, production water, construction guidelines, 955-956 Pitting, 892, 894 PKN See Perkins, Kern, and Nordgren model Platform See Production platform, offshore 1065 Poetman, F H., 571 Poisson’s ratio, in stress calculation, 666 Polished rod horsepower (PRHP), 634, 636, 637-638 Polyacrylates as scale inhibitors, 915 Polymer flooding criteria for, 337 description, 332-333 injection rates, 338 laboratory design, 342-343 limitations and problems, 333 mechanisms, 333 Polymers crosslinked or gelled, 322 in fracturing fluid, 673 in-situ polymerization, 322 polymer-augmented waterflooding, 320-322 Pore volume of reservoir rock, 35-36 Porosity absolute vs effective, 35 core analysis, 90-91 formation resistivity factor and, 47 irreducible water saturation and, 118 log estimations, 116 of reservoir rock, 35 formation factor and, 39, 41, 44 sonic travel time and, 159 Porter, C R., 43 Positive separation, 157 Positive-displacement chemical pumps, 927 PPRL See Peak polished road load (PPRL) PR equation, 408 Present value of future income, 1021-1024 Pressure buildup test, 216 falloff test, 216 Pressure core barrel, 307 Pressure coring, 317-318 Pressure decline analysis, 669-673 Castillo’s time function, 669 dimensionless resistance, 672 to estimate fluid efficiency, 671 Kelvin model, 672 Nolte’s techniques, 669 Perkins and Kern model, 669 Voight model, 672 1066 Index Pressure drawdown defined, 643 reducing, 381 test, 216 Pressure gradient due to acceleration, 429 for annular flow regime, 473 for bubbly flow regime, 483 in complete systems, 429 correction for acceleration effects, 483-484 due to elevation, 429 frictional and gravitational, 470 liquid gas/oil ratio and, 645 for multiphase flow, 645 in production systems, 427 for slug flow regime, 478, 480 for stratified flow regimes, 464, 470 in tubing, 430 two-phase flow, semiempirical calculation methods, 488-533 due to viscous forces, 429 Pressure maintenance, 260 Pressure transient tests concepts, 219-222 definitions, 214-219 equations, 222-223 interference, 216-217 multiple-rate, 216 nomenclature, 223 type-curves, 223-224 Pressure traverse, 429 Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis, 17, 992 Pressurization/repressurization cycle, 668 PRHP See Polished rod horsepower (PRHP) Pr.ice/cost escalator, 989 Primary oil recovery, 225-226 See also Secondary recovery empirical estimates, 227-228 volumetric calculations, 242-243 material balance equations, 228-241 reserve estimation material balance, 992-997 volumetric methods, 990-992 in solution gas drive reservoirs, 228, 242-243 predicting, 238-240 statistical analysis, 226 in water drive reservoirs, 243 predicting, 240-241 Prime mover factor (PMF), 614 Prime mover for pumping units electric motors, 613 horsepower, 637-638 internal combustion engine, 612, 613 selecting size of, 613-614 Produced water disposal of, 955-956 hydrocarbons in, 955 from natural gas sites, 956 NORMS in, 957-961 solubility, 955-957 total dissolved solid content, 954-955 Product prices actual, 1014 gas sales, 1014 posted, 1014, 1016 projection of, 1016 Production decline See Decline curve analysis Production logs flow behind casing, 203 manometers and gradiomanometers, 203-206 temperature, 203 Production operations See also Surface production systems corrosion and scaling, 889-939 cost Of, 1017-1018 environmental impacts, 939-963 equipment, radioactive contamination, 957-961 offshore, 964-971 possible system pressure losses, 427 site remediation, 948-954 Production performance analysis data evaluation, 1003-1004 economic limit, 1000-1001 for nonassociated gas reservoirs, 997-1004 Production platform, offshore, 964 design, 965 environmental considerations, 966 geographical considerations, 966 multiple use of, 965 operation and design, 967 safety factors, 965-966 Production stimulation, 1005 secondary and enhanced oil Index recovery, 1005-1008 Productivity index estimating from subsurface data, 570 inflow performance relationship, 210-213 J, 563, 589 pressure drawdown vs flow rate, 210 in pump selection, 663 straight line, 643 vertical vs horizontal well, 692 for well performance, 534-535 Proppants, 674, 676 continuous addition, 680 stairstep addition, 680-681 Prouvost, L P., 701 Pseudoscale, 911, 913 Pulse test, 217 Pulsed neutron log applications, 187, 190 to estimate residual oil saturation, 312-314 interpretation, 182, 184-187 presentation, 182 theory, 181-182 Pump displacement (PD), 615-616 stroke length and plunger diameter and, 629 Pump-in/flowback test, 668-669 PVT See Pressure-volumetemperature (PVT) analysis Q Quimby, W, S., 936, 937 R Radial diffusivity equation, 241 Radial flow of reservoir rock, 37-38 Radioactive contamination of production equipment, 957-961 Radioactive tracers, 207-208 contamination by, 959, 961 corrections for tracer loss, 311 to estimate residual oil, 309-311, 318 reservoir heterogeneity factor, 311 single-well technique accuracy, 311 1067 field application, 311 interpretation, 311 procedure, 310 theory, 309-310 Radium in produced water, 959 removal, 961 Radon detection of, 959 in drinking water, 957 on wellsite, 958-959 Raghavan, R., 564 Rahme, H D.,284 Ramey, H.J., Jr., 27, 52, 53, 224 Ransome, R C., 57 Rawlins, E L., 545 Raymer, L L., 159 Reciprocating compressor, 847 adiabatic power requirement, 851-852 calculations, 848-857 vs centrifugal compressor, 865-866 compression cycle, 848-849 compressor cylinder capacity, 850-851 displacement of, 849-850 intercooling effects, 853, 855, 858 volumetric efficiency, 850 Recoverable oil (RO), solution gas vs water drive reservoirs, 227 Recovery See also Enhanced oil recovery (EOR); Primary oil recovery; Secondary recovery improved, 251, 252 tertiary, 260, 301 economic factors, 317 method comparison, 317-318 waterflood, 277-279 Recovery estimation material balance, waterflooding, 292-293, 301 well test analyses applicability, 304 production data, 302-303 transient tests, 303-304 Recovery factor, 991 Recycling of contaminants, 948 Regeneration in glycol injection systems, 775, 782 performance of regenerators, 782-784, 797-798 pressure swing adsorption, 798 1068 Index Regulation of air and water, 873 bacteristats and bactericides, 923 of compressor stations, 875-882 of offshore production operations, 965, 966, 970-971 pipelines, 872-873 radionuclides, 958 Regulatory tax, 1018, 1019 Relative-oil-volumecurve in separator conditions, 388, 398 Relief system in offshore operations, 968 Remediation airstripping, 953 landfarming, 949-951 landspreading, 951-953 physical treatment methods, 948-949 Repeat formation tester, 180 Reserve estimation economic factors, 251-252 gas in place, 256 material balance, 257 in combination reservoirs, 994-995 in gas cap reservoirs, 994 general equation, 993-994 methods of determining, 254 analogy, 255 volumetric, 255-256 model studies, 257-258 nonassociated gas reservoirs, 997-1004 oil in place, 256 performance of similar properties, 1002 primary production material balance method, 992-997 volumetric methods, 990-992 production decline curves, 258 production performance approach, 997-1004 production stimulation methods, 1005-101 quality of, 258-259 uncertainty factor, 252 Reserves classification of, 252-254, 986-987 definitions, 249-252 develoned 254 econo& factors, 987, 1014 nonproducing, 254 producing, 254 proved, 252-253, 985 vs resources, 985 status categories, 254 undeveloped, 254 unproved possible, 253-254 probable, 253, 987 Reservoir defined, 251 engineering, Reservoir fluids depletion studies, 385, 390-393, 395 constant volume, 382 retrograde condensation, 394 equilibrium cell determinations, 384-385 equilibrium flash calculations, 385-394, 395, 396 fluid viscosities gas, oil, 7-10, 11, 12 water, 10, 12, 13, 14 oil and gas, physical properties, estimating with programmable calculators and computers, 27-35 pressure-volume relations, 384, 385 sample collection, 380-394 subsurface vs surface, 381 shrinkage of, 92 water, wellstream compositions, 384-385, 388 Reservoir rock compressibility of, 49-52 multiple-fhid-containing capillary pressure, 68-72 effective permeability, 72-76 relative permeability, 76-79 resistivity index, 53-58 surface and interfacial tensions, 58-61 total reservoir compressibility, 52-53 wettability and contact angle, 61, 63-68 Reservoir stimulation, 664-665 fracturing, 665-696 Reservoir volume factor See Formation volume factor Index Residual oil saturation coring and core testing, 304-309 estimation methods existing wells, 318 new wells, 319 geophysical well logging techniques, 312-3 17 material balance equations, 301 tracer tests, 309-311 well test analyses, 302-303 applicability, 304 transient tests, 303-304 Resistivity mud, temperature and, 120-121 of reservoir rock, 38-39 containing multiple fluids, 53-58 variables affecting, 46 water saturation effects, 54-58 of saline solutions, 40 saturation effects, 83, 84-86 Resistivity tools affected by drilling mud, 118-120 correction charts, 135-146, 147-150 electrode arrangement, 132- 133 focused, 134-135 to identify permeable zones, 151 induction, 134 interpretation, 146-151 nonfocused, 130, 134 phasor induction, 134, 146 purpose of, 127-128 service company nomenclature, 131-132 types of, 128-129 Resaurces discovered vs undiscovered, 987 vs reserves, 987 Reynolds number for drag coefficient, 708 for orifice meters, 815, 816-818 Rice, R R., 76 Risk analysis, 1027-1028 defining range of values, 1028 defining risk, 1028 evaluation method expected value theory, 1030 Monte Carlo analysis, 10291030 selecting, 1029 sensitivity analysis, 1029 measurement of risk, 1028-1029 RO, 227 1069 Roads, hydrocarbon/soil mixtures as base for, 940 Robinson correlation, 33 Rod pump, downhole components, 596 Rose, W R., 70 Rozelle, W O., 77 Rust, C F., 85 S Safety factors in offshore production, 965-966 measurement of risk service safety system, 970 shut-down system, 968 Sand accumulation in sucker rod pumps, 612 as a proppant, 676 Sandstone acidizing, 696, 698 formation resistivity factor, 46 SAR, 952 Saturation See also Fluid saturation; Oil saturation; Water saturation capillary pressure and, 70 changes during core recovery, 92 effect of gas/liquid ratio on, 387 effect on resistivity factors, 83, 84-86 irreducible, 70 gas, 78-79 water, 77, 91 pressure, residual oil, 70, 91 resistivity and, 54-58 waterflood residual oil, 78 Scale inhibitors, 924 emulsification tendency, 13 squeeze treatment, 914-915 in waterflooding operations, 912-920 concentrations, 913 disadvantages of, 13 Scaling radioactive, 961 in sucker rod pumps, 612 supersaturation and, 911-912 in waterflooding operations, 910-920 causes of, 911 regions of occurrence, 910 1070 Index SCC See Stress corrosion cracking Schellhardt, M A., 545 Schilthuis, R J., material balance equation, 233, 238-239, 257 Schlumberger, Ltd., 184, 202 electromagnetic propagation tool, 171 induction tool, 134 permeability estimation chart, 118, 120 Schmalz, J P., 284 Scrubber, 702 vertical inlet, 778-779, 789 Secondary recovery, 1005-1008 definitions, 259-260 gas injection, 260-262 injection well placement, 263-268 pressure maintenance, 260 saturation distribution and, 272 water injection, 262 well spacing, 262-263 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), definition of reserves, 987 Semilog plots, 248-249 Semisubmersible, 964 Separation gas-oil-water, 722-731 momentum for bulk, 706 two-stage, 731-733 Separator gas equilibrium cell determinations, 384-385 hydrocarbon analysis, 383 Separator liquid equilibrium cell determinations, 384-385 hydrocarbon analysis, 383 Separator sampling, 381 Separators, 702 collection efficiency, as function of pressure drop, 720-721 design and construction horizontal, 709, 711, 716-720 spherical, 711 vertical, 709, '710-716 filter, 704 gas capacity constraint, 716, 717-718, 719 impingement type-mist-extraction elements, 720, 722 with knitted wire mesh extractors, 721 liquid capacity constraint, 718, 719-720 liquid-liquid, 704 low-pressure flash, 732, 733 metal used in, 721 retention time, 724 stem, 722 three-phase, 704, 724-731 twephase, retention time, 714-715, 718, 720 vane type mist extractor, 720 vessel carryover problems, 722 vessel internals, 720-722 Severance tax, 1018 Sherwood-Hollowayequation, 954, 955 Showalter, E., 613 Shrinkage curve, 388 Shut-in period, 381 Sidewell neutron tools (CNL), 163 Signal-to-noiseratio (STNR), 168 Silicon chip hygrometer, 761, 762 Silicon-calcium ratio, 190, 192 Simpson's rule, 256 Simulators black oil, 431 classification of, 258 Skin effect, 212, 218-219, 221-222, 223 damage-induced, 696 evolution of, 703 due to flow impairment around wellbore, 696 reservoir stimulation and, 665 total, 696 Slider, H C., 79, 237, 248, 1003 Slimeforming microorganisms, 920-921 Slug catcher, 704 Slug-bubbly transition, 451 Slurry phase bioreactor, 951 Smith, C R., 269 Smith, R V., 550, 553 SNP See Sidewell neutron tools (CNL) Soave equation, 369-370, 408, 419 Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), definition of reserves, 987 Sodium activity ratio (SAR), in landspreading operations, 952 Sodium sulfite as oxygen scavenger, 908 Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, 940-941 Index conductivity of liquid hydrocarbons, 946 saturation level and type of, 946-947 Solution gas drive reservoir, 226 material balance with gas liberation, 238 with liquid expansion, 237-238 oil recovery, 227, 228 predicting, 238-240 reserve estimation, 994 Solution gas-oil ratio, 4, 19-20 Solvent extraction method, 93 Sonic flow, 554-555 upstream pressure effect, 555 Sonic log interpretation, 158-160 theory, 158 travel-time to porosity transform, 159-160 SP log See Spontaneous Potential log Spangler, M B., 56 Spencer, G B., 50 Spills bacterial degraders, 949 containment of, 939-940 evaporation from pore space, 945 offshore, 969-970 results of, onsite and laboratory study, 945-947 treated as exempt waste, 940 Sponge coring, 307, 317-318 Spontaneous Potential log electrochemical component, 124-125 electrokinetic component, 123-124 interpretation, 125-127 liquid-junction potential, 124- 125 membrane potential, 125 theory, 123-125 uses, 122-123, 126 Spurt loss, 305 SRK equation See Soave equation SSC See Sulfide stress cracking Standing, M B., correlation for estimating formation volume factor, 19, 27, 31-33 IPR curve modification, 212-213, 564-567 Stanley, M.E., 937 Starling modification, 421-422 1071 Steamflooding, 326-327 Buckley-Leverett approach, 1010 criteria for, 338-339 description, 335 estimating steam drive performance, 1009- 1010 limitations and problems, 336 mechanisms, 336 Steward, M., 747 Stewart, F M., 77 Stiles recovery method, 293, 1008 Stimulation See Matrix stimulation; Reservoir stimulation STNR See Signal-to-noiseratio (STNR) Stokes law, 726 Storage effect, 221-222 Storage tanks classification, 705 corrosion in field results, 936 inhibition program, 936-939 vapor space, 935 Streamtube model, 289, 293 Stress absolute, 666 effective, 666 effective vertical, 666 horizontal, 666 effective minimum, 666 maximum, 666, 695 minimum, 668, 695 intensity factor, 686-687 principal direction, 667 in sucker rods, 600, 602, 605-607 Stress corrosion cracking, 891 Stripping towers, design of, 953-954 Strontium sulfate scale, control of, 913-914 Subsonic flow, 554-555 Subsurface geological contour map, 255 Sucker rod pumping beam pumping unit casing size, 619 expected fluid production, 615-619 performance computation procedures, 914-915 setting depth, 619 tubing anchor, 619 design data, 619-625 1074 Index Sucker rod puinping (continued) API RPIL calculations, 625-631 peak torque, 633, 635, 637 plunger diameter, 620 prime mover horsepower, 637-638 pumping speed, 620 rod stress, 636 string selection, 623-625 stroke length, 621, 637 structural capacity, 637 testing, 631, 634-638 fluid pound condition, 611-612, 639 gas pound, 612, 640 primer movers electric-motor types, 613 internal combustion engines, 613 selecting size of, 613-614 pumping units dynamometer tests, 638-641 operating characteristics, 630-631 operation, 594-595 system components, 594 types and specifications, 595-598 well pumping off, 612, 640 Pumps API designations, 607-609 obtaining optimum performance, 610 problems and solutions, 610-612 rod, 610 tubing, 609-610 sand accumulation, 612 scale formation, 612 sucker rods allowable stress, 600, 602, 605-607 API selection, 600 determining percent of rod size, 625 dimensions and tolerances, 601 reinforced plastic, 600, 604 steel, 605 types, sizes, and grades, 599-600 Sulfide stress cracking, 891 in sucker rods, 600 Sulfur dioxide as oxygen scavenger, 908 Supersaturation, 911-912 Surface production systems crude oil treating systems, 733-754 gas-oil-water separation, 722-731 gravity setting, 706, 708-709 momentum, 706 phase separation, 705-709 purpose of, 702 separating vessels design and construction, 709-720 nomenclature, 702-705 storage classification, 705 two-stage separation, 731-733 vessel internals, 720-722 Surface tension of reservoir rock, 58-61 between water and natural gas, 57, 59 Surfactant flooding, laboratory design, 343 Surfactant/polymer flooding, 323 criteria for, 337 description, 332 mechanisms, 332 problems and limitations, 332 Surge tank, 779 Sweeny, S A., 83, 85 T Taber, J J., 323 Tankship corrosion flotation inhibitors, 937-938 inhibition program, 938-939 oil-soluble inhibitors, 936-937 vapor-space, 937 Tapered rods, 624, 625 Tarner material balance method, 239, 257-258, 994 Taxes, production, 1018-1019 TBP, 413 TDH, 663 TDS, 954-955 TEG, 778 Temperature log, 203, 205, 206 Terzaghi’s criterion, for fracture initiation pressure, 667 Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast logs, 43 Theis equation, 962 Timmerman, E H.,239 Timur, A., 43 chart for permeability estimation, 118, 119 Tornado Charts, 141-146 Index Total dissolved solids (TDS), 954-955 Total dynamic head (TDH), 663 T method, 175-177 Tf’R See Tubing performance relationship Transition zone, 70, 72 Transmissibility of reservoir rock, 38 Treater emulsion, 736 gunbarrel, 737-738 horizontal, 738 sizing, 746 oil-water interface control, 738 vertical, 736 Triethylene glycol as a desiccant, 778 minimum lean concentration, 778 Trube’s correlation, 22, 23, 25, 26 True boiling point, partial vs complete analysis, 413 Tubing anchor for beam pumping unit, 619 Tubing p e r b m c e relationship (TPR) gas, 551-354 oil, 537, 542 two-phase, 568-571 flowing pressure gradients, 568, 572-584 multiphase flow equation, 568 predicting flowing life, 570-571 vertical pressure gradients, 570 water content, 570 wellhead pressure, 570 Tubing pump, downhole components, 596 Tubing-operated valve mechanics, 647, 649 in well unloading process, 653, 654-656 Turbidimeter, 950 Turbulent factor, 536 Type-curve analysis, 303 in pressure transient tests, 223-224 production, 248-249, 1003 U U.S Army Corps of Engineers, regulation of offshore operations, 970 U.S Bureau of Mines wettability test, 65 1073 U.S Coast Guard, regulation of offshore operations, 970 U.S Department of Energy, definition of reserves, 987 U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), pipeline regulations, 872-873 U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), clean air and water regulations, 873 U.S Geological Survey, Minerals Division, regulation of offshore operations, 970 UHF sondes, 171 Underground Injection Control Program (UIC), 961 criteria and standards, 962-963 permitting process, 963 Underground source of drinking water (USDW), 962 V Vacuum distillation method, 92-93 Valuation of oil and gas properties profitability of, 1024-1027 purpose of, 1024 risk analysis, 1027-1030 Valve spread, 6481508 Van der Knapp, W., 50 Van Everdingen, A F., 241 Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, 394, 400-408 bubble point/dew point, 405-406 vs calculated phase compositions, 406 dew point, 401, 402-403 by equations of state, 413, 416, 418-426 to determine physical properties, 431 objectives of, 422 solutions for cubic, 422-426 flash, 403-408 Vasquez empirical correlation, 33-35 Velocity fluid, 207 in separation process, 722 Vertical sweep efficiency, 284 vs areal sweep efficiency, 283 VHF sondes, 171 1074 Index Viscosity of crude oil, 7-10, 11, 12 effect of pressure on, temperature and, undersaturated, 35 of dead oil, correlation for, 31-32, 33 of fracturing fluids, 673 of gas, correlations for, 31 of water, 10, 12, 13, 14 correlation for, 29-30 salinity and, 12 Viscous fingering, 275-276, 330 Vogel, J V., 210-213 inflow performance equation, 212, 561, 567, 587, 617, 644 Volatile oil See Near-critical oil Volumetric efficiency of sucker rod pumps, 617 Volumetric reservoir, 225 Volumetric sweep efficiency, 279-280 estimates of, 289, 291, 292 W Water See also Produced water compressibility, 27 content of natural gas, 754-762 formation volume factor, 20, 21 superficial velocities, 435-436 surface tension, 58 viscosity of, 10, 12, 13, 14 correlation for, 29-30 Water drive reservoir recoverable oil, 227 predicting primary recovery, 240-241 reserve estimation, 990 Water saturation calculating, 147-148, 151 irreducible, 77, 91 porosity and, 118 log estimations, 116-117 Water table, hydrocarbon contamination of, 941-943 Waterflooding, 260, 1007-1008 areal sweep efficiency, 281-284 corrosion problems, 906-923 inhibition of, 923-924 microbiological, 920-923 water quality factor, 907-908 crossflow effects, 289 displacement mechanisms, 269-275 displacement sweep efficiency, 279 frontal advance method, 1007-1008 inhibitors used in, 909-910 injectivity and injectivity index, 293-299 Johnson graphical approach, 1008 mobility ratio, 276-277 monitoring performance, 293-299 parameters, 300 performance prediction methods, 293 polymer-augmented, 320-322, 332-333 production curves, 299-300 recovery efficiency, 277-279 residual oil recovery coring and core testing, 304-309 corrections for shrinkage and bleeding 305-307 geophysical well logging, 312-317 material balance, 292-293, 301 method comparison, 317-318 tracer tests, 309-311 well test analyses, 302-304 scaling and scale inhibitors, 910-920 Stiles method, 1008 viscous fingering, 275-276 volumetric sweep efficiency, 279-280, 289, 291, 292 Water-holdup meter, 206 Water-oil ratio, 286 corrosion and, 889 vs oil recovery, 286-287 Welge, H J., 76 graphical technique, 272-275, 277 Well coring See Coring Wellbore storage, 219, 222 Wellhead pressure, 429 Wellhead tax, 1018-1019 Wettability changes during handling and storage, 67 effect of mud additives on, 66-67 effect on fluid-rock properties capillary pressure, 83 oil recovery and fluid saturation, 79-80 relative permeability, 80-83 0, Index resistivity factors and saturation exponents, 83, 84-86 fractional, 65 preventing changes in, 89 quantitative indication, 64-65 of reservoir rock, 61 distribution by lithology, 65 role in crude oil recovery, 63-68 residual oil determination and, 309 speckled, 66 spotted or Dalmatian, 65 Weymouth equation, 838, 839-840, 844, 846, 847 Whiteley, B W., 650 Willman, B T., 1010 Windfall profit tax, 1018, 1019 1075 WOR See Water-oil ratio Wormholes, 698 Wyckoff, R D., 76 Wyllie, M R J., 42, 55, 56, 79 porosity equation, 159, 160, 162 X Xanthan gum, 321 Y Young's equation for wetting tension, 63 r I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Gulf Publishing Company @ gC STANDARD HANDBOOK OF PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS ENGINEERING Volume William C Lyons, Editor Volume presents the mathematics and general engineering and science of petroleum engineering This first volume examines the auxiliary equipment and provides complete coverage of all aspects of drilling and well completion 1996 1,382 pages, figures, index, x jacketed hardcover ISBN 0-88415-642-7 X5642 $195 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING John C Reis This book assembles a tremendous amount of practical information to show how to plan and manage production activities to minimize and even eliminate some environmental problems without severely 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