Phisical chemical treatment of water and waste water arcadio sincero, gregoria sincero

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PHYSICAL–CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER PHYSICAL–CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER Arcadio P Sincero Sr., D.Sc., P.E Morgan State University Baltimore, Maryland Gregoria A Sincero, M Eng., P.E Department of the Environment State of Maryland CRC PR E S S Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page Wednesday, June 19, 2002 1:28 PM Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sincero, Arcadio P (Arcadio Pacquiao) Physical–chemical treatment of water and wastewater / Arcadio Pacquiao Sincero, Sr., Gregoria Alivio Sincero p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 1-58716-124-9 (alk paper) Water—Purification Sewage—Purification I Sincero, Gregoria A (Gregoria Alivio) II Title TD430 S47 2002 628.1′62—dc21 2002023757 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated A wide variety of references are listed Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero Co-published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London, SW1H 0QS, UK Tel +44 (0) 20 7654 5500, Fax +44 (0) 20 7654 5555 publications@iwap.co.uk www.iwapublishing.com ISBN 1-84339-028-0 No claim to original U.S Government works International Standard Book Number 1-58716-124-9 Library of Congress Card Number 2002023757 Printed in the United States of America Printed on acid-free paper TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM Preface This textbook is intended for undergraduate students in their junior and senior years in environmental, civil, and chemical engineering, and students in other disciplines who are required to take the course in physical–chemical treatment of water and wastewater This book is also intended for graduate students in the aforementioned disciplines as well as practicing professionals in the field of environmental engineering These professionals include plant personnel involved in the treatment of water and wastewater, consulting engineers, public works engineers, environmental engineers, civil engineers, chemical engineers, etc They are normally employed in consulting firms, city and county public works departments, and engineering departments of industries, and in various water and wastewater treatment plants in cities, municipalities, and industries These professionals are also likely to be employed in government agencies such as the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, and state agencies such as the Maryland Department of the Environment The prerequisites for this textbook are general chemistry, mathematics up to calculus, and fluid mechanics In very few instances, an elementary knowledge of calculus is used, but mostly the mathematical treatment makes intensive use of algebra The entire contents of this book could be conveniently covered in two semesters at three credits per semester For schools offering only one course in physical–chemical treatment of water and wastewater, this book gives the instructor the liberty of picking the particular topics required in a given curriculum design After the student has been introduced to the preliminary topics of water and wastewater characterization, quantitation, and population projection, this book covers the unit operations and unit processes in the physical–chemical treatment of water and wastewater The unit operations cover flow measurements and flow and quality equalization; pumping; screening, sedimentation, and flotation; mixing and flocculation; conventional filtration; advanced filtration and carbon adsorption; and aeration, absorption, and stripping The unit processes cover water softening, water stabilization, coagulation, removal of iron and manganese, removal of phosphorus, removal of nitrogen, ion exchange, and disinfection The requirements for the treatment of water and wastewater are driven by the Safe Drinking Water Act and Clean Water Act, which add more stringent requirements from one amendment to the next For example, the act relating to drinking water quality, known as the Interstate Quarantine Act of 1893, started with only the promulgation of a regulation prohibiting the use of the common cup At present, the Safe Drinking Water Act requires the setting of drinking water regulations for some 83 contaminants The act relating to water quality started with the prohibition of obstructions in harbors as embodied in the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 At present, the Clean Water Act requires that discharges into receiving streams meet water quality standards; in fact, regulations such as those in Maryland have an © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM antidegradation policy In recent years, problems with Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia have come to the fore Toxic substances are being produced by industries every day which could end up in the community water supply These acts are technology forcing, which means that as we continue to discover more of the harmful effects of pollutants on public health and welfare and the environment, advanced technology will continue to be developed to meet the needs of treatment The discipline of environmental engineering has mostly been based on empirical knowledge, and environmental engineering textbooks until recently have been written in a descriptive manner In the past, the rule of thumb was all that was necessary Meeting the above and similar challenges, however, would require more than just empirical knowledge and would require stepping up into the next level of sophistication in treatment technology For this reason, this textbook is not only descriptive but is also analytical in nature It is hoped that sound concepts and principles will be added to the already existing large body of empirical knowledge in the discipline These authors believe that achieving the next generation of treatment requirements would require the next level of sophistication in technology To this end, a textbook written to address the issue would have to be analytical in nature, in addition to adequately describing the various unit operations and processes This book teaches both principles and design Principles are enunciated in the simplest way possible Equations presented are first derived, except those that are obtained empirically Statements such as “It can be shown…” are not used in this book These authors believe in imparting the principles and concepts of the subject matter, which may not be done by using “it-can-be-shown” statements At the end of each chapter, where appropriate, are numerous problems that can be worked out by the students and assigned as homework by the instructor The question of determining the correct design flows needs to be addressed Any unit can be designed once the flow has been determined, but how was the flow determined in the first place? Methods of determining the various design flows are discussed in this book These methods include the determination of the average daily flow rate, maximum daily flow rate, peak hourly flow rate, minimum daily flow rate, minimum hourly flow rate, sustained high flow rate, and sustained low flow rate What is really meant when a certain unit is said to be designed for the average flow or for the peak flow or for any flow? The answer to this question is not as easy as it may seem This book uses the concept of the probability distribution to derive these flows On the other hand, the loss through a filter bed may need to be determined or a deep-well pump may need to be specified The quantity of sludge for disposal produced from a water softening process may also be calculated This book uses fluid mechanics and chemistry without restraint to answer these design problems Equivalents and equivalent mass are two troublesome and confusing concepts If the chemistry and environmental engineering literature were reviewed, these subjects would be found to be not well explained Equivalents and equivalent mass in a unified fashion are explained herein using the concept of the reference species Throughout the unit processes section of this book, reference species as a method is applied Related to equivalents and equivalent mass is the dilemma of expressing concentrations in terms of calcium carbonate Why, for example, is the concentration © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM of acidity expressed in terms of calcium carbonate when calcium carbonate is basic and acidity is acidic? This apparent contradiction is addressed in this book As in any other textbook, some omissions and additions may have produced some error in this book The authors would be very grateful if the reader would bring them to our attention © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM Acknowledgments First, I acknowledge Dr Joseph L Eckenrode, former Publisher, Environmental Science & Technology, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc Dr Eckenrode was very thorough in determining the quality, timeliness, and necessity of the manuscript It was only when he was completely satisfied through the strict peer review process that he decided to negotiate for a contract to publish the book Additionally, I acknowledge Brian Kenet and Sara Seltzer Kreisman at CRC Press This book was written during my tenure at Morgan State University I acknowledge the administrators of this fine institution, in particular, Dr Earl S Richardson, President; Dr Clara I Adams, Vice President for Academic Affairs; Dr Eugene M DeLoatch, Dean of the School of Engineering; and Dr Reginald L Amory, Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering I make special mention of my colleague, Dr Robert Johnson, who was the acting Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering when I came on board I also acknowledge my colleagues in the department: Dr Donald Helm, Prof A Bert Davy, Dr Indranil Goswami, Dr Jiang Li, Dr Iheanyi Eronini, Dr Gbekeloluwa B Oguntimein, Prof Charles Oluokun, and Prof Neal Willoughby This acknowledgment would not be complete if I did not mention my advisor in doctoral studies and three of my former professors at the Asian Institute of Technology (A.I.T.) in Bangkok, Thailand Dr Bruce A Bell was my advisor at the George Washington University where I earned my doctorate in Environmental–Civil Engineering Dr Roscoe F Ward, Dr Rolf T Skrinde, and Prof Mainwaring B Pescod were my former professors at A.I.T., where I earned my Masters in Environmental– Civil Engineering I acknowledge and thank my wife, Gregoria, for contributing Chapter (Constituents of Water and Wastewater) and Chapter (Conventional Filtration) I also acknowledge my son, Roscoe, for contributing Chapter 17 (Disinfection) Gregoria also contributed a chapter on solid waste management when I wrote my first book Environmental Engineering: A Design Approach This book was published by Prentice Hall and is being adopted as a textbook by several universities here and abroad This book has been recommended as a material for review in obtaining the Diplomate in Environmental Engineering from the Academy of Environmental Engineers Lastly, I dedicate this book to members of my family: Gregoria, my wife; Roscoe and Arcadio Jr., my sons; the late Gaudiosa Pacquiao Sincero, my mother; Santiago Encarguiz Sincero, my father; and the late Aguido and the late Teodora Managase Alivio, my father-in-law and my mother-in-law, respectively I also dedicate this book to my brother Meliton and to his wife Nena; to my sister Anelda and to her husband Isidro; to my other sister Feliza and to her husband Martin; and to my brother-in-law Col Miguel M Alivio, MD and to his wife Isabel My thoughts also go to my other brothers-in-law: the late Tolentino and his late wife Mary, Maximino © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page 10 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM and his wife Juanita, Restituto and his wife Ignacia, the late Anselmo and his wife Silvina, and to my sisters-in-law: the late Basilides and her late husband Dr Alfonso Madarang, Clarita and her late husband Elpidio Zamora, Luz and her husband Perpetuo Apale, and Estelita Arcadio P Sincero Morgan State University © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page 11 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM About the Authors Arcadio P Sincero is Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD He was also a former professor at the Cebu Institute of Technology, Philippines He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the Cebu Institute of Technology, a Master’s degree in Environmental–Civil Engineering from the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, and a Doctor of Science degree in Environmental–Civil Engineering from the George Washington University He is a registered Professional Engineer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and in the State of Maryland and was a registered Professional Chemical Engineer in the Philippines He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, a member of the Water Environment Federation, a member of the American Association of University Professors, and a member of the American Society of Engineering Education Dr Sincero has a wide variety of practical experiences He was a shift supervisor in a copper ore processing plant and a production foreman in a corn starch processing plant in the Philippines He was CPM (Critical Path Method) Planner in a construction management firm and Public Works Engineer in the City of Baltimore In the State of Maryland, he was Public Health Engineer in the Bureau of Air Quality and Noise Control, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; Water Resources Engineer in the Water Resources Administration, Department of Natural Resources; Water Resources Engineer in the Office of Environmental Programs, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; Water Resources Engineer in the Water Management Administration, Maryland Department of the Environment For his positions with the State of Maryland, Dr Sincero had been Chief of his divisions starting in 1978 His last position in the State was Chief of Permits Division of the Construction Grants and Permits Program, Water Management Administration, Maryland Department of the Environment These practical experiences have allowed Dr Sincero to gain a wide range of environmental engineering and regulatory experiences: air, water, solid waste, and environmental quality modeling Gregoria A Sincero is a senior level Water Resources Engineer at the Maryland Department of the Environment She was also a former professor at the Cebu Institute of Technology, Philippines She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the Cebu Institute of Technology and a Master’s degree in Environmental–Civil Engineering from the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand She is a registered Professional Environmental Engineer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and was a registered Professional Chemical Engineer in the Philippines She is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Mrs Sincero has practical experiences both in engineering and in governmental regulations She was Senior Chemist/Microbiologist in the Ashburton Filters of © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CFM.fm Page 12 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:51 PM Baltimore City In the State of Maryland, she was Water Resource Engineer in the Water Resources Administration, Department of Natural Resources and Water Resources Engineer in the Office of Environmental Programs, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, before joining her present position in 1988 at MDE At MDE, she is a senior project manager reviewing engineering plans and specifications and inspecting construction of refuse disposal facilities such as landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, and processing facilities Also, she has experiences in modeling of surface waters, groundwaters, and air and statistical evaluation of groundwater and drinking water data using EPA’s Gritstat software © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 795 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM 795 Name Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Unnilennium Unnilhexium Unniloctium Unnilpentium Unnilquadium Unnilseptium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Symbol Atomic Number Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W Une Unh Uno Unp Unq Uns U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 62 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 109 106 108 105 104 107 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Atomic Mass 150.36 44.9559 78.96 28.0855 107.868 22.98977 87.62 32.06 180.9479 (98) 127.60 158.9254 204.383 232.0381 168.9342 118.71 47.88 183.85 (266) (263) (265) (262) (261) (262) 238.029 50.9415 131.29 173.04 88.9059 65.39 91.224 Note: Values in parentheses (isotope atomic masses of longest half-life) are used for radioactive elements where atomic weights cannot be quoted precisely without knowledge of the origin of the elements © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 797 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Saturation Values of Dissolved Oxygen Exposed to Saturated Atmosphere at One Atmosphere Pressure at Given Temperatures Temperature (°C) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Chloride Concentration (mg/L) 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 14.62 14.23 13.84 13.48 13.13 12.80 12.48 12.17 11.87 11.59 11.33 11.08 10.83 10.60 10.37 10.15 9.95 9.74 9.54 9.35 9.17 8.99 8.83 13.79 13.41 13.05 12.72 12.41 12.09 11.79 11.51 11.24 10.97 10.73 10.49 10.28 10.05 9.85 9.65 9.46 9.26 9.07 8.89 8.73 8.57 8.42 12.97 12.61 12.28 11.98 11.69 11.39 11.12 10.85 10.61 10.36 10.13 9.92 9.72 9.52 9.32 9.14 8.96 8.78 8.62 8.45 8.30 8.14 7.99 12.14 11.82 11.52 11.24 10.97 10.70 10.45 10.21 9.98 9.76 9.55 9.35 9.17 8.98 8.80 8.63 8.47 8.30 8.15 8.00 7.86 7.71 7.57 11.32 11.03 10.76 10.50 10.25 10.01 9.78 9.57 9.36 9.17 8.98 8.80 8.62 8.46 8.30 8.14 7.99 7.84 7.70 7.56 7.42 7.28 7.14 © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero Saturated H2O Vapor Pressure (kPa) 0.6108 0.6566 0.7055 0.7575 0.8129 0.8719 0.9347 1.0013 1.0722 1.1474 1.2272 1.3119 1.4017 1.4969 1.5977 1.7054 1.8173 1.9367 2.0630 2.1964 2.3373 2.4861 2.6430 (continued) TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 798 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM 798 Temperature (°C) 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Chloride Concentration (mg/L) 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Saturated H2O Vapor Pressure (kPa) 8.68 8.53 8.38 8.22 8.07 7.92 7.77 7.63 8.27 8.12 7.96 7.81 7.67 7.53 7.39 7.25 7.85 7.71 7.56 7.42 7.28 7.14 7.00 6.86 7.43 7.30 7.15 7.02 6.88 6.75 6.62 6.49 7.00 6.87 6.74 6.61 6.49 6.37 6.25 6.13 2.8086 2.9831 3.1671 3.3608 3.5649 3.7796 4.0055 4.2430 © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 799 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix SDWA Acronyms BAT BTGA CWS DWEL EMSL GAC IOC IPDWR LOAEL LOQ MCL MCLG MDL NOAEL NPDWR NTNCWS PAC PHS POET POUT PQL PTA RFD RIA RMCL RPDWR RSC SDWA SMCL SNARL SOC TNCWS UIC URTH VOC Best available technology Best technology generally available Community water systems Drinking water equivalence level EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (Cincinnati) Granular activated carbon Inorganic chemical Interim primary drinking water regulation Lowest observed adverse effect level Limit of quantitation Maximum contaminant level Maximum contaminant level goal Method detection limit No observed adverse effect level National primary drinking water regulation Non-transient noncommunity water system Powdered activated carbon Public Health Service Point-of-entry technology Point-of-use technology Practical quantitation level Packed tower aeration Reference dose Regulatory impact analysis Recommended maximum contaminant level Revised primary drinking water regulation Relative source contribution Safe drinking water act Secondary maximum contaminant level Suggested no adverse response level Synthetic organic chemical Transient noncommunity water system Underground injection control Unreasonable risk to health Volatile organic chemical © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 801 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Sample Drinking Water VOCs Contaminant MCL (mg/L) BAT Benzene Carbon tetrachloride p-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Dichloroethylene 1,1,1-Trichloromethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Bromobenzene Bromodichloromethane Bromoform Bromomethane Chlorobenzene Chlorodibromomethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane o-Chlorotoluene p-Chlorotoluene Dibromomethane m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloropropane 1,3-Dichloropropane 2,2,-Dichloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropene 1,3-Dichloropropene Ethylbenzene Styrene 0.005–zero 0.005–zero 0.075 0.005–zero 0.007 0.20 0.005–zero 0.002–zero — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA or GAC PTA — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — (continued ) © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 802 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM 802 Contaminant 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1,2,3-Trichloropropane m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero MCL (mg/L) BAT — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 803 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Sample Drinking Water SOCs and IOCs Contaminants SOC: Acrylamide Alachlor Aldicarb Aldicarb sulfone Aldicarb sulfoxide Atrazine Carbofuran Chlordane 2,4-D Dibromochloropropane o-Dichlorobenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 1,2-Dichloropropane Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethylene dibromide (EDB) Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Lindane Methoxychlor Monochlorobenzene PCBs (as decachlorobiphenyls) Pentachlorophenol Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Toxaphene 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Xylene © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero MCL (mg/L) treatment technique 0.002 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.003 0.04 0.002 0.07 0.0002 0.6 0.07 0.1 0.005 treatment technique 0.7 0.00005 0.0004 0.0002 0.0002 0.4 0.1 0.0005 0.2 0.005 0.005 2.0 0.005 0.05 10 (continued ) TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 804 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM 804 Contaminants MCL (mg/L) IOC: Arsenic Asbestos Barium Cadmium Chromium Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Silver © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero 0.05 million fibers/L (longer than 10 µm) 5.0 0.005 0.1 0.002 10 as N as N 0.05 0.05 TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 805 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Secondary MCLs for a Number of Substances Contaminant SMCL (mg/L) Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Hydrogen sulfide Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids Zinc 250 15 color units Non-corrosive 0.5 0.05 0.3 0.05 TON 6.5–8.5 250 500 © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 807 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Some Primary Drinking-Water Criteria Contaminants Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Nitrate as N Selenium Silver Chlorinated hydrocarbon: Endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octohydro-1,4-endo,endo-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene) Lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma isomer) Methoxychlor (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis{p-methoxyphenyl}ethane) Toxaphene (C10H10Cl8-technical chlorinated camphene, 67–69% chlorine) Chlorophenoxys: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 2,4,5-TP (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy propionic acid) Turbidity © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero Concentration (mg/L, unless otherwise noted) 0.05 1.00 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 10.00 0.01 0.05 0.0002 0.004 0.1 0.005 0.1 0.01 Based on monthly average: TU or up to TU if the water supplier can demonstrate that the higher turbidity does not interfere with disinfection (continued ) TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 808 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM 808 Contaminants Microbiological contaminants © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero Concentration (mg/L, unless otherwise noted) Based on average of two consecutive days: TU Membrane filter technique: not to exceed 1/100 mL on monthly basis; not to exceed 4/100 mL of coliforms in more than one sample in fewer than 20 samples per month on an individual sample basis; not to exceed 4/100 mL of coliforms in more than 5% of sample in more than 20 samples per month on an individual basis Fermentation tube method: 10-mL standard portions: coliforms shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions on monthly basis; coliforms shall not be present in three or more portions in more than one sample in fewer than 20 samples per month on an individual basis; coliforms shall not be present in three or more portions in more than 5% of samples in more than 20 samples per month on an individual basis 100-mL standard portions: coliforms shall not be present in more than 60% of the portions on monthly basis; coliforms shall not be present in five portions in more than one sample in fewer than 20 samples per month on an individual basis; coliforms shall not be present in five portions in more than 20% of samples in more than 20 samples per month on an individual basis TX249_Frame_CApp.fm Page 809 Friday, June 14, 2002 4:52 PM Appendix Some Secondary Drinking-Water Criteria Contaminants Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Hydrogen sulfide Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids Zinc © 2003 by A P Sincero and G A Sincero Concentration (mg/L, unless otherwise noted) 250 15 CU (color units) Noncorrosive 0.5 0.05 0.3 0.05
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