Industrial inorganic chemistry, second, completely revised edition by karl heinz büchel, hans heinrich moretto, peter woditsch

669 1 0
  • Loading ...
1/669 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 02/12/2016, 12:45

Karl Heinz Buchel Hans-Heinrich Moretto Peter Woditsch Industrial Inorganic Chemistry Karl Heinz Buchel Hans-Heinrich Moretto Peter Wodit sch Industrial inorganic Chemistrv Second, Completely Revised Edition Translated by David R Terrell BWILEY-VCH Weinheim - New York Chichester - Brisbane Singapore - Toronto Professor Dr Dr h c mult Karl Heinz Buchel Member of the Board of Directors of Bayer AG D-5 I368 Leverkuaen Professor Hans-Heinrich Moretto Bayer AG Central Research D-5 1368 Leverkusen Professor Dr Peter Woditsch Bayer AG CH-BS D-47829 Krefeld This book was carefully produced Nevertheless, authors, translator and publisher not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate First Edition 1989 Second, Completely Revised Edition 2000 First Reprint 2003 Library of Congress Card No.: Applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the Britiah Library Deutsche Bibliothek Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek WILEY-VCH Verlag CmbH D-69469 Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany), 2000 Printed on acid-free and chlorine-free paper All rights reserved (including those of translation in other languages) No part of this book may be reproduced in any form - by fotoprinting, microfilm, or any other means - nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from :he publishers Registered names, trademarks, etc used in this book, even when not hpecifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law Composition: Graphik & Text Studio, D-93 I64 Laaber-Waldetzenberg Printing: Straws Offsetdruck, D-69509 Morlenbach Bookbinding: Buchbinderei J Schlffer, D-67269 Griinstadt Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany Preface to the Second English Edition In the more than 10 years, since the publication of the first edition of the book “Industrial Inorganic Chemistry”, the structure of inorganic industrial chemistry has not changed fundamentally In most sectors the “state of the art” has been expanded and refined This is addressed together with the updating of the economic data in this new edition The pressure for change in the meantime was due in particular to globalization of the World economy and the resulting pressure for cost reduction through new and optimalized processes and to an expanding knowledge of ecological requirements e.g energy saving and new production and development principles such as quality assurance and responsible care To the extent that it is discernible in the products and processes, appropriate aspects have been incorporated in the revision, for example see membrane technology in the chloralkali and hydrochloric acid electrolysis Expansion of the sections on the products of silicon chemistry, silanes, heavy duty ceramics and photovoltaics reflects their increased importance Chapter over the Nuclear Fuel Cycle has been updated as regards technical developments and in particular as regards its societal and political context In inorganic chemistry there have been important changes particularly in inorganic materials such as new composite materials and so-called nano-materials, in the area of photovoltaics and in catalysis Since these have not yet been widely used industrially, they have not been covered in the second edition of this book In the revision of this book numerous colleagues have assisted us, we particularly wish to thank: Dr J Becker, Uranerzbergbau GmbH, Wesseling Dr H.-D Block, Bayer AG Frau G Blum, Bayer AG Dr U Brekau, Bayer AG Dip1.-Ing A Bulan, Bayer AG Dr G Buxbaum, Bayer AG Dr L Puppe, Bayer AG Dr F Gestermann, Bayer AG Dr Ch Holzner, Bayer AG Dr H Lange, Bayer AG Dr J Liicke, CFI GmbH & Co KG, Rodenthal Dr R Miinstedt, Bayer AG Dr W Ohlendorf, Bayer AG Dr K Tagder, Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreslauf e.V., Bonn Frau Dr H Volker, Gottingen Dr G Wagner, Bayer AG Frau M Wiegand, Bayer AG Dr K Wussow, Bayer AG We also thank Wiley-VCH for their patience and understanding in the production of the new edition and its excellent presentation Leverkusen Autumn 1999 The Authors VI Preface Preface to the First English Edition “Industrial Inorganic Chemistry” was first published in German in 1984 The book was well received by students and teachers alike, leading to the publication of a second German edition in 1986 The publishers, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, were convinced that a wide circle of readers would welcome the appearance of our book in the English language, and their encouragement has led to the preparation of the present up-dated and revised edition in English The basic structure of the German Edition has been retained Changes in the industrial importance of some compounds and processes since the appearance of the German edition have been taken into account and data relating to the US market have been emphasised Thus the chapter on potassium permanganate has been considerably abridged and that on the membrane process for the manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide expanded We are indebted to Dr Podesta and Dr Heine from Bayer AG for their assistance in the revision of the German edition in addition to the institutions and colleagues mentioned in the preface to the German edition The book was translated by Dr D R Terrell from Agfa-Gevaert N V , to whom we are particularly grateful for the patience and care he devoted to this difficult task We also wish to acknowledge the contribution of VCH Verlagsgesellschaft in producing this edition Leverkusen Autumn 1988 K H Buchel Preface VII Preface to the First German Edition The book “Industrielle Anorganische Chemie” will fill a long term need, which has become even more apparent since the appearance of “Industrielle Organische Chemie” by Wessermel and Arpe* Although there are comprehensive chapters on this branch of chemistry in a number of encyclopedias and handbooks, a single volume text is lacking that describes concisely the current state of industrial inorganic chemistry The authors have been made aware of this need in discussions with students, young chemists, colleagues in neighboring fields, teachers and university lecturers and willingly accepted the suggestion of the publishers to write this text Changes in the supply of raw materials and their markets and economic and ecological requirements are responsible for the continual reshaping of the inorganic chemical industry As a result the treatment of industrial processes in the available textbooks seldom keeps pace with these developments The inorganic chemical industry is an important branch of industry and its structure is particularly diverse: including a large number of finished products (mineral fertilizers, construction materials, glass, enamels and pigments to name but a few) and basic products for the organic chemical industry such as mineral acids, alkalis, oxidizing agents and halogens Modern developments in other branches of industry, such as chips for microelectronics, video cassettes and optical fibers have only been possible due to the continuous development of the inorganic chemical industry This book emphasises the manufacturing processes, economic importance and applications of products In the sections on production the pros and cons are considered in the context of the raw material situation, economic and ecological considerations and energy consumption, the different situations in different countries also being taken into account Processes which are no longer operated are at most briefly mentioned The properties of the products are only considered to the extent that they are relevant for production or applications It was necessary to restrict the material to avoid overextending the brief Metallurgical processes have not been included, except for the manufacture of “chemical” metals (e.g alkali metals) which is briefly described Several borderline areas with organic chemistry are considered (e.g organophosphorus, -silicon and -fluoro products), others are deliberately excluded A whole chapter is devoted to the nuclear fuel cycle, since it involves so much industrial scale inorganic chemistry and is currently so important The layout follows that of its sister book “Industrielle Organische Chemie” with the main text being supplemented by marginal notes These are essentially summaries of the main text and enable the reader to obtain a rapid grasp of the most important facts The equations are printed on a gray background for the same reason At the end of each main section a generally subtitled list of references is provided This should enable the reader to obtain more detailed information on particular matters with the minimum of effort In addition to references to original papers and reviews, readers are referred to the important VIII Prejuce handbooks: Ullmann, Winnacker-Kuchler and Kirk-Othmer The Chemical Economic Handbook of the Stanford Research Institute has frequently been used for economic data The documentation system at Bayer AG was invaluable in gathering the important facts for this book Numerous colleagues have assisted us: Outside Bayer AG our thanks are due to Prof P Eyerer from Stuttgart University, Dr H Grewe from Krupp AG, Essen, Dr Ch Hahn from Hutschenreuther AG, Selb, Dr G Heymer from Hoechst AG, Knapsack Works, Dr P Kleinschmit from Degussa, Dr G Konig from Martin & Pagenstecher GmbH, Krefeld, Dr R, Kroebel from the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Dr G Kuhner from Degussa AG, Prof F W Locher from the Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Dusseldorf, H Schmidt from the Ziegeleiforschungsinstitut, Essen, Dr M Schwarzmann and his colleagues from BASF AG and Dr E Wege from Sigri Elektrographit GmbH, Meitingen, for technical advice and critical perusal of sections of the manuscript Inside Bayer AG our thanks are due to Dr H.-P Biermann, Dr G, Franz, Dr P Kiemle, Dr M Mansmann, Dr H H Moretto and Dr H Niederprum, who with many other colleagues have helped with the technical realization of the text In particular we would like to thank Dr Hanna Soll, who with her many years of experience has substantially contributed to the editing of this book We also thank Verlag Chemie, which has assimilated the suggestions of the authors with much understanding and has produced this book in such an excellent form Leverkusen, Spring 1984 K H Buchel Contents Primary Inorganic Materials 1.1 Water 1.1.1 Economic Importance 1.1.2 Production of Potable Water 1.1.2.1 Break-Point Chlorination and Ozonization I 1.2.2 Flocculation and Sedimentation I 2.3 Filtration 1.1.2.4 Removal of Dissolved Inorganic Impurities 1.1.2.5 Activated Charcoal Treatment 1.1.2.6 Safety Chlorination 1.1.2.7 Production of Soft or Deionized Water 1.1.3 Production of Freshwater from Seawater and Brackish Water 10 1.1.3.1 Production by Multistage Flash Evaporation 10 1.1.3.2 Production using Reverse Osmosis 1 References for Chapter 1.1: Water 13 1.2 Hydrogen 14 I 2.1 Economic Importance I4 1.2.2 Hydrogen Manufacture I5 1.2.2 I Petrochemical Processes and Coal Gasification 15 1.2.2.2 Electrolysis of Water 16 I 2.2.3 Other Manufacturing Processes for Hydrogen I7 Production of Hydrogen as a Byproduct 18 I 2.2.4 I 2.3 Hydrogen Applications 18 References for Chapter 1.2: Hydrogen 19 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.I I 1.3.1.2 1.3.1.3 1.3.2 1.3.2.1 1.3.2.2 I 3.2.3 I 3.2.4 I 3.2.5 Hydrogen Peroxide and Inorganic Peroxo Compounds 20 Economic Importance 20 Hydrogen Peroxide 20 Sodium Perborate and Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate 20 Alkali Peroxodisulfates and Sodium Peroxide Production 21 Hydrogen Peroxide 21 Sodium Perborate 24 Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate 25 Alkali Peroxodisulfate 26 Sodium Peroxide 26 Cornpatiy Abbreviations Index 629 Company Abbreviations Index (cont.) Abbreviation Official Name and Headquarters PPG Pray o n SociCtC de Prayon SA Forst-Trooz, Belgium RhAne-Poulenc Societe des Usines Chimiques Rh6ne-Poulenc, Paris France Sap h i kon Saphikon Inc., Hampshire USA Sedema Sedema, Daughter of Dadachem SA Tertre, Belgium Shieldnlloy Shieldalloy Corp., Newfield USA Shell Royal Dutch Shell Group, The Hague The Netherlands Siemens Sicmens AG, Berlin-Munchen Federal Republic of Germany Solvay Solvay & Cie Brussels, Belgium Stamicarbon Stamicarhon BV, Daughter of Nederlandae Staahmijnen, Heerlen, The Netherlands St Gohain Compagnie dea Saint Gohain SA Paris, France Stoppani Stoppani, Milan, Italy Texaco Texaco Inc., New York, USA Textron Inc Textron Inc., Providence USA Thann Fabriques der Produits Chimiques de Thann et de Mulhouse, Thann, France Tokai Carbon Tokai Carbon, Tokio, Japan UBE Industries UBE Industries UCC Union Carbide Corp., New York, USA Uhde Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund, Federal Republic of Germany UKF Unie van Kunstmestfabrieken BV Utrecht The Netherlands VAW Vereinigte Aluminiuinwerke, Berlin-Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany Industrial inorganic Chemistry Karl Heinz Bbchel Hans-Heinrich Moretto & Peter Woditsch copyright0 WlLEY VCH Verldg GmbH, 2MlO 632 Index ammonium nitrate 52, 197 ff importance 197 ff manufacture 200 ff ammonium perchlorate applications 174 - economic importance 166 ff - manufacture 172 ammonium peroxodisulfate - applications 28 - economic importance 21 - production 26 ammonium phosphate - economic importance 79 ff ammonium phosphates 76,79, I92 ff - applications 80 ff - economic importance I89 - liquid fertilizer manufacture 193 ff manufacture 79, I92 ff solid fertilizer manufacture 192 ff ammonium sulfate - economic importance 197 - manufacture 199 ff ammonium thiosulfate 12 ff - applications 122 manufacture 122 ammonium uranyl(V1) carbonate 12 anhydrite, natural 415 ff anhydrite, synthetic 135, 415 ff Anhydrite I, 11,111 17 ff apatite 65 ff., 190 ff asbestos cement 41 asbestos fibers 356 ff - applications 361 ff - deposits 333 - economic importance 356 ff - extraction 3.59 ff - general information 36 - in asbestos textiles and filter materials 364 - in composite materials 362 ff - properties and structure 357 ff -toxic properties 354 ff -types and compositions 357 ff AUC process 12 - economic - - - - - barium - economic importance 242 ff natural deposits 242 barium carbonate 243 ff., 13 - applications 244 ff - economic importance 243 - manufacture 243 ff barium sulfate 245, 544 barium sulfate filler 544 ff barium sulfide 245 barium titanate 464 f basic chromium sulfates 265 ff beryllium - applications 23 - economic importance 23 I - manufacture 23 - oxide 23 1,445, 462) bismuth oxychloride 58 bleaching powder 168 bonding agents 396 bone china 457 boron carbide products 480 boron fibers 386 ff - applications 387 ff - manufacture 387 - properties 386 boron nitride products 48 I boron trifluoride 142 ff brackish water 10 bromates, alkali I79 ff bromides 178 ff bromine I75 ff - applications I79 ff economic importance 175 ff, - natural deposits 175 bromine manufacture 176 ff - from bromide-enriched starting materials 177 - from seawater 177 ff - - cadmium pigments 573 f cadmium yellow pigments 574 caesium 13 calcium 237 ff - inanufacture 238 - natural deposits 237 calcium carbide 240 ff - applications 241 - economic importance 240 - manufacture 24 I calcium carbonate 238 ff - applications 238 ff - economic importance 238 - mining and manufacture 238 calcium carbonate filler 538 calcium chloride 240 - applications 240 Index - economic importance 240 240 calcium cyanamide 24 I calcium fluoride 127 ff calcium hydrogen sulfite 12 calcium hydroxide 239 - applications 6, 239 - economic importance 239 - manufacture 239 calcium hypochlorite - applications I74 - economic importance 166 - manufacture 167 calcium oxide 239, 398 ff - applications 239, 402 ff - economic importance 239 - manufacture 239, 398 ff calcium phosphates - applications 77 economic importance 77 manufacture 80 calcium sulfate 15 ff - economic importance I5 ff - manufacture 68 ff., 135, IS ff modifications 416 ff formation 417 ff - properties 17 carbon, synthetic 505 ff carbon black I7 f carbon black manufacture 18 f carbon disulfide 126 carbon felt 38 carbon fibers 377 ff - applications 380 ff - economic importance 377 ff - manufacture 380 ff - properties 378 ff carbon manufacture 528 f carbon wool 38 cement compositions 404 economic importance 403 ff ceramic fibers 388 ff - non oxide fibers 39 ff - oxide fibers 389 ff - whiskers 394 ff ceramics 443 ff ceramic stains 55 1, 574 CERPHOS process 423 chloralkali electrolysis 147 ff - manufacture ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - economic importance 146 ff - diaphragm process I54 ff - evaluation of the processes I58 ff, - membrane process I57 ff - mercury process 152 ff - starting materials 148 ff chlorinated trisodium phosphate I69 chlorine 149 ff - applications ff., 8, 159 ff., 285 - economic importance 146 ff - manufacture 15 I ff., 164 ff chlorine dioxide - applications I74 - economic importance 166 - manufacture I73 ff (ch1oro)methylphenysilanes297 ff (ch1oro)methylsilanes 296 ff (ch1oro)phenylsilanes 297 ff chlorosulfonic acid I20 chromate pigments 543 ff chrome-tanning agents 265 ff chromic acid see chromium (V1)oxide chromite 257 ff chromium 266 ff - economic importance 266 - manufacture - - chemical reduction 267 - - electrochemical reduction 267 ff chromium boride 493 f chromium carbide 489 chromium compounds 255 ff - economic importance 255 ff - manufacture 258 ff - raw material 257 ff chromium manufacture 266 chromium (111)oxide 264 ff - applications 266 ff chromium(II1) oxide pigments 567 chromium(V1) oxide 262 ff - applications 266 - manufacture 262 ff - - by electrolysis 263 ff - - with sulfuric acid 262 ff clay ceramics see silicare cerumics coarse ceramic products 424 ff - expanded products 425 ff coloring carbon blacks 17 COMURHEX process 607 concrete 397 - construction materials 396 ff 633 634 Index- - cement 403 ff, ceramic products 424 ff - lime 397 ff - gypsum 41 ff corrosion protection pigments 578 cristobalite 509, 14 cryolite see sodium uhninLln? hexafluor-ide 140 ff - dental ceramics 457 dialkyl phosphites 98 diamond 496 ff (dichloro)dimethylsilane 298 ff -hydrolysis 309 ff - methanolysis 1 ff disulfur dichloride I I8 dolomite bricks 472 f electro-ceramics 464 electrochemical fluorination of organic compounds 144 ff enamel 432 ff - applications 440 - application on sheet steel 436, 439 ff - - dry processes 440 ff - - wet processes 439 ff - classification 433 - - coloring and opacifying systems 435 ff - - layer arrangement 433 ff - - manufacture 437 ff - enameling procedure 436 - firing 441 general information 432 EXER process 608 expandable clays 403 expanded products 425 ff expanded products (foam glass) - from glasses 430 expanded products from clays and shales 425 ff - gas-forming reaction 428 - manufacture 429 ff ~ feldspar 445 ferrites 465 ferrochrome 267 ferrocyanate pigments 575 f ferrophosphorus 84 fibers, inorganic 35 ff fillers 535 ff ff economic importance 536 -general information 535 ff - properties 545 ff fillers, natural 536 ff - beneficiation 537 ff - silicas and silicon dioxide 536 ff - silicates 536 ff fillers, synthetic 439 - pyrogenic silicas 53Y - wet processes 540 ff - posttreatment 541 fine earthenware 455 f fluorapatite I30 fluorination, electrochemical 144 ff, fluorine I30 ff - applications I32 - economic importance 132 fluorine manufacture 130 ff fluorosulfonic acid I20 fluorspar 127 ff - applications 129 - extraction 128 foamed carbon 15 forsterite bricks 472 frit manufacture 437 if furnace acid 74 ff - applications 545 - glass 327 ff - applications 338 ff 542 - compositions 326 ff - economic importance 325 - manufacture 329 ff - - chemical decoloration 330 ff - - container glass 335 ff - - flat glass 335 - - float glass 335 - - melting furnaces 332 ff - - melting process 33 ff - - molding 334 ff - - raw materials 329 ff - - tank furnaces 13 ff - properties 336 ff - structure 325 ff glass-ceramics 328 ff glass fiber see textile gla.c s,fiher,s glass fillers 542 glass wool 372 ff glassy carbon 15 graphite 500 ff Index graphite, natural 500 graphite, synthetic 505 graphite foils and membranes I6 graphite manufacture 506 ff graphitization of synthetic carbon 509 Guillini process 423 gypsum 15 ff - economic importance 15 ff - byproduct 420 ff - natural I8 ff - - from flue gas desulfurization 421 - - from organic acid manufacture 420 - - from phosphoric acid production 42 ff hafnium carbide 488 hafnium nitride 492 heavy water 597 ff heraklith 12 hexafluorosilicates I42 ff hexafluorosilicic acid 134 ff., 142 HM carbon fibers -applications 378 ff - general information 375 ff - manuhcture 378 ff HT carbon fibers - applications 378 ff - general information 375 ff - manufacture 378 ff hydrazine 43 ff -applications 48 ff - economic importance 43 hydrazine manufacture 44 ff - Bayer process 46 ff - H,O, process 47 ff - Raschig process 44 ff - urea process a45 hydrochloric acid 162 ff - economic importance 163 - electrolysis I63 ff hydrogen I4 ff - applications 18 ff - as by product 18 ff - - by chloralkali electrolysis 152 ff - economic importance 14 ff - manufacture 15 ff - - catalytic decomposition of ammonia 18 ff - - coal gasification I6 ff - - electrolysis of water I6 ff - - petrochemical processes 15 ff - - thermal decomposition of water 17 ff - storage as hydrides Y ff - transport 19 ff hydrogen bromide I78 ff - applications I80 hydrogen chloride I62 ff - applications 120, 163 ff., 285 - economic importance 16.7 - manufacture 162 hydrogen fluoride 132 ff - applications 136 ff - economic importance 132, I37 hydrogen fluoride manufacture 132 ff - Bayer process I34 ff - Buss process 135 - Du Pont process 135 hydrogen iodide 183 hydrogen peroxide 20 ff., - applications 27 - economic importance 20 - production I ff - - anthraquinone process 23 ff - - electrochemical process 22 f f - - isopropanol oxidation process 22 hydrogen sulfide 2Y hydroxylamine SO ff - applications 50 - economic importance 50 hydroxylamine manufacture 50 ff - nitrate reduction process 52 ff - nitric oxide reduction process I ff - Raschig process I hypophosphites 89 IDR process 12 inorganic fibers 35 ff - economic importance 352 - general information 3.5 - insulalion niatei-ials 372 ff -properties 352 ff - physiological aspects 354 ff - reinforcement sector 369 ff inorganic peroxo compounds 20 ff interference pigments 58 I iodates, alkali I84 iodides applications 184 R iodine - applications I84 ff - - economic importance I8 I natural deposits 18 I ff 635 636 Itidex iodine manufacture - from brines 182 from niter residual solutions 183 iron(I1)sulfate iron oxide pigments 56 iron oxide pigments, synthetic 563 - 235 importance 235 - manufacture 235 magnesium sulfate 237 - applications 237 - economic importance 237 manufacture 237 magnetic pigments 582 ff magneto-ceramics 464 manganese - electrochemical manufacture 292 ff - importance and applications 292 ff manganese compounds economic importance 282 ff - manufacture 284 ff raw materials 283 ff manganese(I1) carbonate - applications 292 - manufacture 286 manganese chloride 285 manganese nitrate 288 manganese(I1) oxide - applications 292 - manufacture 284 manganese(I1) sulfate - applications 292 - economic importance 282 manufacture 285 managanese(I1,III) oxide applications 292 -manufacture 286 manganese(II1) oxide - applications 292 - manufacture 286 manganese(1V) oxide applications 292 - economic importance 282 - manufacture 286 ff - - activation of manganese(1V) oxide minerals 287 ff - - electrolytic manganese(1V) oxide (EMD) 289 - - oxidation of manganese(I1) carbonate 288 ff - - thermal decomposition of manganese nitrate 288 melt phosphates 190 Merck process 172 metal borides 493 metal fibers 384 ff -boron fibers 386 ff steel fibers 384 ff - applications - economic - kaolin 445 f Knauf process 422 lead glass 328 LECA process 425 light bricks 424 lime 397 ff - applications 402 ff importance 397 ff materials 398 ff lime hydrate see calcium hydroxide lithium 213 ff - applications 14 - economic importance 214 occurrence I3 lithium bromide 180 lithium carbonate 14 ff lithium chloride 215 ff lithium hydride 215 lithium hydroxide 215 lithium hypochlorite 169 lithopone pigments 559 luminescent pigments 58 lustrous pigments 580 - economic - raw - magnesia bricks 469 magnesia cement 41 magnesium - applications 233 - economic importance 232 - manufacture 232 ff natural deposits 23 magnesium carbonate 234 ff., 543 applications 234, 538 - economic importance 234 - manufacture 234 -natural deposits 234 magnesium chloride 236 - applications 236 - economic importance 236 - manufacture 236 magnesium nitrate 62 magnesium oxide 235,463 - - - - - - - - Index tungsten fibers 382 ff metallic hard materials 484 ff metallic pigments 580 metal nitrides 492 f metal silicides 494 mineral fibers 35 ff mineral fiber insulating materials 372 ff - applications 377 - economic importance 372 ff - fiber manufacture 373 - general information 372 ff - manufacture 373 ff - - blowing process 374 - - centrifugal process 375 ff - - melt manufacture 375 - - processing of fibers into insulating materials 376 - - raw matrials 374 - - two-step centrifugal jet process 376 mixed metal oxide pigments 57 f molybdate pigments 570 f molybdenum disilicide 494 nitrophosphates manufacture I95 ff - nacreous pigments 58 niobium carbide 488 niobium nitride 492 nitric acid, highly concentrated 59 ff - direct processes 60 ff - indirect extractive distillation processes 62 ff nitric acid ff - applications 64 ff., 200 ff - economic importance 53 nitric acid manufacture 53 ff - catalysts 55, 57 -highly concentrated nitric acid 59 ff - - Conia-process - - direct process 60 ff - - magnesium nitrate process 62 - - Sabar process I - - sulfuric acid process 62 - - oxidation of ammonia 54 ff - - oxidation of nitric oxide 5 ff nitric oxides, conversion to nitric acid 56 - plant types 57 ff tail gases 62 nitric oxide 55 ff nitrogen-containingfertilizers 196 ff economic importance 196 ff nitrophosphates - economic importance 189 ~ ~ ~ 637 - carbonitric process 195 - sulfonitric process 195 ff nonoxide ceramics 479 ff nuclear energy importance 587 ff nuclear fuel - manufacture 599 ff - - fuel elements 14 ff - - uranium metal 13 - - uranium-plutonium mixed oxides 613 ff - manufacture from uranium ore concentrates 600 ff nuclear fuel cycle 587 ff - general information 591 ff nuclear fuel reprocessing I7 ff - PUREX process I8 separation of uranium and plutonium 619 - working up of uranium and plutonium 620 ff nuclear reactor types 594 ff Candu 594 - fast breeder reactors 598 ff - general information 594 - graphite-moderated reactors 595 ff - - advanced gas-cooled reactors (ACR) 595 ff - - gas-cooled reactors 5953 ff - - high temperature reactor (HTR) 596 - - light water-cooled reactors 597 - heavy water reactors 597 ff - light water reactors 594 ff - - boiling water reactors 594 ff - - pressurized water reactors 595 - Magnox 595 ff nuclear waste disposal I5 ff - concrete encasement 622 ff - conditioning of radioactive waste 62 I - direct permanent storage of irradiated fuel elements 624 - gaseous radioactive products 623 - general information I5 ff - interim storage of irradiated fuel elements 61 - liquid radioactive waste treatment 62 I ff - permanent storage 623 ff reprocessing of spent fuel elements I7 ff vitrification 621 ff - economic ~ ~ ~ ~ optical glass 328, 337 oxide ceramics 458 oxide pigments 548 638 Index pentasodium triphosphate 75 perchloric acid economic importance 66 from Merck process 172 ff perlite I0 phosphates (non fertilizers) - ammonium phosphates 79 ff - calcium phosphates 80 - sodium phosphates 75 ff - tetrapotassium diphosphate 80 phosphinic acid 89 phosphonic acids 99 ff - applications 100 ff phosphoric acid 67 ff - applications 67 ff - economic importance 67 ff - from white phosphorus 74 ff phosphoric acid manufacture 68 ff - hemihydrate processes 69, 72 - impurity removal 73 ff wet-process acid by dihydrate process 69 ff phosphoric acid triesters - applications 93 ff - economic importance 93 ff - manufacture ff phosphorous acid 89 phosphorous acid esters - applications 98 ff - dialkylphosphites 98 - trialkylphosphites 97 - triarylphosphites 97 phosphoric acid esters 91 ff - diarylalkylphosphates ff - dithiophosphoric ester acids 94 ff - - applications 95 - - economic importance 95 - dithiophosphoric acid diesters 95 ff - phosphoric ester acids 94 - - applications - - economic importance 94 - - manufacture 94 thiophosphoric acid triesters 96 - - appljcatjons 96 ff - trialkylphosphates 92 - - applications 93 ff - - economic importance 93 ff - - manufacture 92 triarylphosphates 91 ff - - applications 93 ff - - economic importance 93 ff - - - - - - - manufacture - tris(chloroalky1)phosphate 92 ff applications 93 - - economic importance 93 - - manufacture 92 ff phosphorus 80 ff - applications - economic importance 80 ff - manufacture 82 ff - phosphorus manufacture - - red phosphorus 84 - - white phosphorus 82 ff raw materials 65 ff phosphorus compounds 65 ff - inorganic 65 ff - organic ff - raw materials 65 ff phosphorus-containing fertilizers I87 ff - economic importance 187 ff - manufacture 190 ff phosphorus oxychloride 87 phosphorus pentachloride 87 ff phosphorus pentasulfide 86 phosphorus pentoxide 85 phosphorus raw materials manufacture 65 ff phosphorus sulfochloride 88 phosphorus trichloride 86 ff plasters 17 ff plaster setting processes 423 ff plutonium 598,615 plutonium(1V) oxide 13,6 I9 poly(organosiloxanes), branched I4 ff poly(organosiloxanes), linear 307 ff polyphosphates I I , 78 porcelain 456 f Portland cement 405 ff - applications 409 - clinker compositions 405 - manufacture 405 t'f - - dry processes 407 ff - - half-dry process 407 ff - - half-wet process 407 ff - - wet process 407 ff - raw materials 405 Portland cement solidification processes 12 ff posttreatment of silicas 13 potassium 227 fl - general information 227 potassium bromide 180 - - - Index potassium carbonate 229 ff manufacture 228 ff potassium chlorate applications 174 - economic importance 166 - manufacture 170 potassium chloride 208 ff -extraction 210 ff potassium-containing fertilizers 205 ff - economic importance 206 ff - manufacture 208 ff - raw materials 205 ff potassium dichromate - applications 266 manufacture 262 potassium hydrogen fluoride 14 I potassium hydroxide 230 - applications 228 - economic importance 230 - manufacture 228 potassium nitrate 210 ff potassium perchlorate - manufacture 172 potassium permanganate - applications 292 - economic importance 285 potassium peroxodisulfate - applications 28 economic importance 21 production 26 potassium permanganate manufacture 289 ff - single-step liquid phase process 291 - two-step roasting processes 290 potassium salts - extraction 10 ff occurrence 205 ff potassium silicates - applications 340 - economic importance 338 - general information 338 - manufacture 337 potassium sulfate I0 pozzolan cements I0 PUREX process 617 ff pyrogenic silicas 539 ff pyrolytic carbon 513 pyrolytic graphite 13 - applications quartz glass 327 quicklime T P P r a l c I M or;& ~ - - - - - quartz 445 rapidly fired porcelain 4.57 red phosphorus 80 ff., 85 refractory ceramics 469 reinforcing carbon fibers see HT U I I H~ M carbon ,fiher.s reverse osmosis see wuter drsulinution rock wool 372 ff roofing materials 397, 424 ff rubidium 13 Saffil fiber 390 sand-line bricks 402 seawater 10 silanes manufacture 296 ff silicon carbide 475 ff silicon carbide fibers 388 ff - general information 388 ff - manufacture 39 ff silicon carbide products 411 silicone products, industrial - silicone copolymers 323 ff - silicone greases 17 - silicone rubbers 17 ff - - hot vulcanizing 320 ff - - properties 322 - - room temperature vulcanizing 17 ff - silicone oils 307 ff - silicone oil emulsions 16 ff silicon compounds, organic 295 ff - acyloxysilanes 300 - aminosilanes 298 - aminoxysilanes 300 ff - nomenclature 295 organoalkoxysilanes 299 - organofunctional silanes 302 ff - - alkenylsilanes 302 ff - - halo-organosilanes 303 - - organoaminosilanes 303 ff - - organomercaptosilanes 304 - organohalosilanes 296 ff - organohydrogensilanes 30 ff - oximosilanes 300 - silazames 30 I - siliconfunctional organosilanes 298 ff silicones 305 ff - economic importance 306 ff - - 639 640 Index manufacture 307 ff - cycliration I0 - - hydrolysis 307 ff - - methanolysis 309 ff - - polycondensation 12 ff - - polymerization 10 ff - - polysiloxanes, branched 14 ff - - polysiloxanes, linear 307 ff - - starting materials (silanes) 307 - nomenclature 305 ff - properties 305 ff - structure 305 ff silicon nitride products 478 ff sinter phosphates 189 slag cement 409 ff slag fibers 372 ff slaked lime scc culcium hydrmide sodium 17 ff - applications 217 ff., 598 - economic importance 17 - general information 216 ff - manufacture I7 sodium aluminate 254 ff sodium aluminum hexafluoride 136, 140 ff sodium horates 225 ff- - applications 226 ff - extraction 226 natural deposits and economic importance 225 ff sodium bromate 179 ff sodium bromide 178 ff sodium carbonate ff - applications 221 ff - economic importance I - general information 18 - manufacture of synthetic 220 ff production from natural deposits 219 ff - applications 266 - manufacture 258 ff - sodium dichromate dihydrate manufacture - carbon dioxide process 26 I - sulfuric acid process 260 ff sodium disulfite I2 I sodium dithionite I22 ff - applications I23 - production I22 ff sodium fluoride I4 sodium hydrogen carhonate 222 ff - applications 222 ff - economic importance 222 - manufacture 222 natural deposits 222 sodium hydrogen sulfate 225 sodium hydrogen sulfide 125 sodium hydrogen sulfite 12 sodium hydroxide 45, I46 ff., 13 - applications 12 I , 160 ff 250, 254 economic importance 146 ff manufacture I5 I ff sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate I22 ff applications I24 - manufacture I23 ff sodium hypochlorite I66 ff, - applications 174 - economic importance I66 - manufacture I67 ff sodium hypophosphite 89 ff sodium metasilicate 339 sodium perborate - applications 27 ff - economic importance 20 - production 24 ff sodium percarbonate sre sodium c,urhot,ute ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ sodium carbonate perhydrate - applications 27 R - economic importance 20 - production 25 ff sodium chlorate I70 applications I74 economic importance 166 manufacture 170 ff sodium chloride 150 ff., 224 ff - applications 173 ff - economic importance 148 ff sodium chlorite 166, I70 sodium dichromate ~ ~ ~ perhwirutP sodium perchlorate manufacture 172 sodium peroxide applications 28 - economic importance I - production 26 ff sodium peroxodisulfate - applications 28 economic importance I production 26 ff sodium phosphates 75 ff - applications 75 ff - economic importance 75 ff ~ ~ ~ ~ Index - manufacture 77 sodium silicates - applications 340 - economic importance 338 - general information 338 - manufacture 337 sodium sulfate 223 ff - applications 224 - economic importance 223 - from natural deposits 223 ff - general information 223 - manufacture 223 ff sodium sulfide 124 ff sodium sulfite 12 I sodium tetrahydroborate I28 sodium thiosulfate 121 ff - applications 122 - manufacture 122 sol-gel process 390 sore1 cement 12 stoneware 456 strontium 242 - applications 242 - natural deposits 242 strontium carbonate 242 sulfur 101 ff - applications I04 - economic importance 104 - manufacture 102 ff - - Claus process 102 ff - - Outukumpu process 103 - occunence 101 ff sulfur dichloride 18 sulfur dioxide I06 ff., I 16 ff - applications 17 - from flue gas desulfurization 16 - manufacture 106 ff., 16 ff sulfur hexafluoride 143 ff sulfuric acid 104 ff - applications I I5 - economic importance 104 - from sulfur dioxide 105 ff - - contact process I 10 ff - - double absorption process 11 ff - - tluidiLed bed process 112 - - moist gas catalysis process 112 ff - - nitrous process I I3 - - sulfur trioxide absorption I I - - tailgas treatment I 12 - from waste sulfuric acid I 13 ff 641 Bayer Bertrams process I 15 Plinke process I 15 sulfur trioxide 17 ff - applications 17 - manufacture I0 ff., I 17 sulfuryl chloride I I9 ff superphosphate - economic importance I88 - manufacture I90 ff - - - - talc 537 ff tantalum carbide 488 tantalum nitride 492 tetrafluoroboric acid 142 ff tetrapotassium diphosphate 77 ff - manufacture 80 textile glass fibers - applications 369 ff - classification 365 - economic importance 364 ff - general information 364 ff - inanufacture 366 ff - - direct melt process 367 - - marble melt process 367 - - rod drawing process 367 - raw materials 366 textile glass mats 368 ff thermal and basic slag phosphates - economic importance and manufacture I89 ff thionyl chloride 123 - applications 123 - manufacture 123 thiophosphoric acid derivatives 94 ff Thomas phosphates I90 ff thorium carbide 49 I thorium(1V) oxide 462 titanates 464 titanium carbide 487 titanium diboride 493 titanium dioxide 553 ff titanium dioxide pigments 553 ff titanium nitride 492 f trialkyl phospites 97 triaryl phosphites 97 triple superphosphate - economic importance I88 - manufacture I91 ff tungsten carbide 489 f ultramarine pigments 577 642 Index uranium - economic importance 592 ff - occurrence 592 ff., 600 ff uranium 235 enrichment 609 ff - gas centrifuge process 10 - gas diffusion process 609 ff - laser isotope separation 610 - nozzle separation process 10 uranium carbide 49 uranium hexafluoride 142, 607 ff - conversion into nuclear fuel 610 ff uranium hexafluoride from uranium concentrates 607 ff - dry process 609 - general information 607 - wet process 607 ff uranium(IV) oxide 594 ff., 599,610 ff., 462 - pellet manufacture 12 ff uranium(1V) oxide from uranium hexafluoride 610 ff - dry process 12 - general information 10 ff -wet processes 61 ff uranium production - from phosphates 605 ff - from seawater 606 ff uranium production from ores 600 ff - leaching processes 600 ff - separation from leaching solutions 602 ff urea 45 - economic importance 198 ff urea manufacture 20 ff - solution recycling process 202 ff - stripping process 204 ff vanadium carbide 487 vanadium(V) oxide 84, 10 water ff - chlorination ff., - deionized - desalination 2, 8, I0 ff - economic importance ff - nitrate removal - ozonization ff - potable water - production 10 ff from sea and brackish water 10 ff by destillation ff - - by reverse osmosis 1 ff - purification ff - removal of inorganic impurities ff - removal of organic impurities ff - usage water glass 338 - - - wet chemically manufactured silicas 540 ff wet chemically manufactured silicates 540 ff wet process acid 68 ff whiskers 394 ff white cement I white phosphorus - manufacture 82 ff white pigments 552 ff woodstone 12 woven carbon 38 yellow cake 600,603 ff yttrium oxide 462 zeolites 340 ff - applications - 347 ff - ion exchangers 347 - - adsorption agents 347 ff - - separation processes 348 ff - - catalysts 349 -characteristics 343 - dehydration 347 - economic importance 340 ff - manufacture 344 ff - - by cation exchange 346 - - from natural rilw materials 344 - - from synthetic raw materials 344 ff - natural types 344 - pelletization 346 ff - structure 34 ff - types 34 zinc bromide 180 zinc oxide white pigments 560 f zinc sulfide pigments 559 f zirconium carbide 488 zirconium nitride 492 zirconium(1V) oxide 46 I zirkaloy 14
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Industrial inorganic chemistry, second, completely revised edition by karl heinz büchel, hans heinrich moretto, peter woditsch , Industrial inorganic chemistry, second, completely revised edition by karl heinz büchel, hans heinrich moretto, peter woditsch , Industrial inorganic chemistry, second, completely revised edition by karl heinz büchel, hans heinrich moretto, peter woditsch

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập