Handbook of chemical technology and pollution control martin b b hocking

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Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control by Martin B Hocking • ISBN: 0120887967 • Pub Date: January 2006 • Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxi 25.11.2005 5:56pm PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION The objectives of the second edition have been maintained and updated to 2005 in the current volume where users will find that one third of the references, now totaling more than 1300, are new to this edition At the same time most of the in-depth Further Reading suggestions are new to this volume, and production data of some 30 tables has been updated Thirty percent of the 175 Review Questions are new to this edition All have been tested by students The scope of this book has also been expanded by the addition of two new appendices The first comprises a select list of references relating to soil pollution and remediation methodologies The second covers an organized selection of web sites relevant to the topics covered in the book All of these changes have been achieved in a volume which is only slightly larger than the second edition by summarizing less essential content, and by the deletion of a few outdated technologies with referral of readers to the second edition and other sources for details As with the earlier editions, I invite users of this book to offer their suggestions for improvement Martin B Hocking May 2005 xxi Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxiii 25.11.2005 5:56pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION The objectives which motivated the first edition, a unified treatment of the fields of industrial and environmental chemistry, have been maintained here The result is intended to be of interest to senior students in applied chemistry, science, engineering, and environmental programs in universities and colleges, as well as to professionals and consultants employed in these fields This edition further develops, refines, and updates the earlier material by drawing on progress in these fields, and responds to comments from users of the first edition Sections relating to air and water pollution assessment and theory have been expanded, chapters on petrochemical production and basic polymer theory and practice have been added, and the original material has been supplemented by new data In addition review questions have now been added to each chapter These will be primarily of interest to students but could be of conceptual value to all users The new edition has been assembled to make it easy to use on any or all of three levels Basic principles and theory of each process are discussed initially, followed by more recent refinements and developments of each process, finally supplemented with material which relates to possible process losses and integral and end-of-pipe emission control measures The user’s interest can dictate the level of approach to the material in the book, from a survey of a selection of basic processes to an in-depth referral to one or more particular processes, as appropriate Chemical reactions and quantitative assessment are emphasized throughout, using worked examples to aid understanding Extensive current and retrospective production and consumption data has been maintained and expanded from the first edition to give an idea of the xxiii Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxiv 25.11.2005 5:56pm xxiv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION scale and volume trends of particular processes, and an indication as to regional similarities and differences This material also provides a basis for consideration of technological changes as these relate to changes in chemical processes Specific mention should be made of the difficulties in providing recent information for Germany and the region encompassed by the former U.S.S.R because of their political changes during this period The author would appreciate receiving any suggestions for improvement Martin B Hocking Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxv 25.11.2005 5:56pm PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This text of applied chemistry considers the interface between chemistry and chemical engineering using examples of some of the important process industries Integrated with this is a detailed consideration of measures which may be taken for avoidance or control of potential emissions This new emphasis in applied chemistry has been developed through eight years of experience gained from working in industry in research, development and environmental control fields, plus twelve years of teaching here using this approach It is aimed primarily towards science and engineering students as well as environmentalists and practising professionals with responsibilities or an interest in this interface By providing the appropriate process information back to back with emissions and control data, the potential for process fine-tuning is improved for both raw material efficiency and emission control objectives This approach emphasizes integral process changes rather than add-on units for emission control Add-on units have a place when rapid action on an emission problem is required, or when control is not feasible by process integral changes alone Fundamental process changes for emission containment are best conceived at the design stage This approach to control should appeal to industrialists in particular since something more substantial than decreased emissions may be achieved xxv Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxvi 25.11.2005 5:56pm xxvi PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This book provides a general source of information on the details of process chemistry and air and water pollution chemistry Many references are cited in each area to provide easy access to additional background material Article titles are given with the citation for any anonymous material to aid in retrieval and consultation Sources of further information on the subject of each chapter, but generally not cited in the text, are also given in a short Relevant Bibliography list immediately following the text Tradenames have been recognized by capitalization, when known It would be appreciated if any unrecognized tradenames are brought to the author’s attention Martin B Hocking From Modern Chemical Technology and Emission Control Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof page xxvii 25.11.2005 5:56pm ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TO THE THIRD EDITION Again the improvements in this volume owe a lot to the collective use of the second edition by many classes of students, from their comments relating to content, to the reworking of Review Questions to clarify objectives I thank Kristin Hoffmann and Kathleen Nelson who assisted with the retrieval of some difficult to locate reference material Brett Boniface and Brandon Grieve-Heringa provided invaluable assistance combing web data bases for technological updates, and David Flater (NorskeCanada Pulp and Paper), Thor Hægh (Norsk Hydro ASA), Gary Kjersem (Shell Canada Ltd.), Nikolaos Korovessis (Hellenic Saltworks S.A., Athens), Bruce Peachy (New Paradigm Engineering Ltd.), and Kevin Taylor (Taylor Industrial Research) are thanked for providing personal insights Last, but not least, I again most gratefully thank my wife Diana for handling all of the file changes necessitated by the updating of text, tables, and several new figures added to this volume Martin Hocking ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TO THE SECOND EDITION Students using the first edition are thanked for providing useful feedback to improve the presentation in a general way and for testing the concepts of most of the problems My former and present students in polymer chemistry have xxvii Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof xxviii page xxviii 25.11.2005 5:56pm ACKNOWLEDGMENTS read and reviewed in detail the material of the new chapters 19-23 They, several more casual readers, and Diana Hocking who read the whole manuscript, are thanked for their contributions Elizabeth Small, Carol Jenkins, Susanne Reiser, and Diana Hocking completed most of the typing, and Devon Greenway provided bibliographic assistance Ken Josephson and Ole Heggen executed the new graphics for preparation of the final manuscript ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TO THE FIRST EDITION I am grateful to numerous contacts in industry and environmental laboratories who contributed technical information included in this book I would particularly like to thank the following: B.R Buchanan, Dow Chemical Inc.; W Cary, Suncor; R.G.M Cosgrove, Imperial Oil Enterprises Ltd.; F.G Colladay, Morton Salt Co.; J.F.C Dixon, Canadian Industries Ltd.; R.W Ford, Dow Chemical Inc.; T Gibson, B.C Cement Co.; G.J Gurnon, Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd.; D Hill, B.C Forest Products; J.A McCoubrey, Lambton Industrial Society; R.D McInerney, Canadian Industries Ltd.; R.C Merrett, Canoxy, Canadian Occidental Petroleum; S.E Moschopedis, Alberta Research Council; J.C Mueller, B.C Research; J.A Paquette, Kalium Chemicals; J.N Pitts, Jr., Air Pollution Research Centre, University of California; J.R Prough, Kamyr Inc.; J.G Sanderson, MacMillan-Bloedel Ltd.; A.D Shendrikar, The Oil Shale Corp.; J.G Speight, Exxon; A Stelzig, Environmental Protection Service; H.E Worster, MacMillan-Bloedel Ltd They have been credited wherever possible through references to their own recent publications I also thank all of the following individuals, each of whom read sections of the text in manuscript form, and C.G Carlson who read all of it, for their valuable comments and suggestions: R.D Barer, Metallurgy Division, Defence Research Establishment Pacific G Bonser, Husky Oil Limited R.A Brown, formerly of Shell Canada M.J.R Clark, Environmental Chemistry, Waste Management Branch, B.C Government H Dotti, Mission Hill Vineyards M Kotthuri, Meteorology Section, Waste Management Branch, B.C Government J Leja, Department of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering, University of British Columbia L.J Macaulay, Labatt Breweries of B.C., Ltd D.J MacLaurin, formerly of MacMillan-Bloedel Ltd R.N O’Brien, Department of Chemistry, University of Victoria M.E.D Raymont, Sulphur Development Institute of Canada W.G Wallace, Alcan Smelters and Chemicals, Ltd R.F Wilson, Dow Chemical Canada Inc M.D Winning, Shell Canada Resources Ltd Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_prelims Final Proof ACKNOWLEDGMENTS page xxix 25.11.2005 5:56pm xxix Without the support of the University of Victoria, the Department of Chemistry, and my family to work within, this book would never have been completed I owe a debt of gratitude to the inexhaustible patience of my wife, who handled the whole of the initial inputting of the manuscript into the computer, corrected several drafts, and executed all of the original line drawings Thanks also go to K Hartman who did the photographic work, to B.J Hiscock and L J Proctor, who unfailingly encouraged adoption of the computer for manuscript preparation, and to L.G Charron and M Cormack, who completed the final manuscript Some of the line drawings and one photograph are borrowed courtesy of other publishers and authors, as acknowledged with each of these illustrations To all of these I extend my thanks It would be tempting to blame any final errors on computer programming glitches which may, occasionally, have been the case It would be appreciated if errors from any source were brought to my attention Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app1 Final Proof page 764 21.11.2005 3:04pm 764 INFORMATION RELATED TO SOIL POLLUTION TOPICS G.J Sandelli, J.C Trocciola, and R.J Spiegel, Landfill Gas Pretreatment for Fuel-cell Applications, J Power Sources, 49(1–3), 143–149, Apr (1994) G.P Mueller, Landfill Gas Application Development of the Caterpillar G3600 Spark-ignited Gas Engine, J Eng Gas Turb Power, 117(4), 820–825, Oct (1995) Mercury, Anthropogenic M.H.D Pestana and M.L.L Formoso, Mercury Contamination in Lavras Sul, South Brazil: a Legacy from Past and Recent Gold Mining, Sci Total Environ 307(1–3), 125–140, May 20 (2003) O Lindqvist, K Johansson, and M Aastrup, Mercury in the Swedish Environment––Recent Research on Causes, Consequences and Corrective Methods, Water Air Soil Pollut 55(1–2), R11, Jan (1991) Mercury, Geological L Liang, M Horvat, X.B Feng et al., Reevaluation of Distillation and Comparison with HNO3 Leaching/Solvent Extraction for Isolation of Methylmercury Compounds from Sediment/Soil Samples, Appl Organometal Chem 18(6), 264–270, June (2004) M.S Gustin, Are Mercury Emissions from Geologic Sources Significant? A Status Report, Sci Total Environ 304(1–3), 153–167, Mar 20 (2003) T Tomiyasu, M Okada, R Imura, and H Sakamoto, Vertical Variations in the Concentration of Mercury in Soils Around Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan, Sci Total Environ 304(1–3), 221–230, Mar 20 (2003) M.S Gustin, M.F Coolbaugh, M.A Engle et al., Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Mine Wastes and Surrounding Geologically Enriched Terrains, Environ Geol 43(3), 339–351, Jan (2003) M.F Coolbaugh, M.S Gustin, and J.J Rytuba, Annual Emissions of Mercury to the Atmosphere from Natural Sources in Nevada and California, Environ Geol 42(4), 338–349, July (2002) P.V Koval, G.V Kalmychkov, V.F Gelety et al., Correlation of Natural and Technogenic Mercury Sources in the Baikal Polygon, Russia, J Geochem Explor 66(1–2), 277–289, July (1999) W Gu, C.Y Zhou, M.K Wong et al., Orthogonal Array Design (OAD) for the Optimization of Mercury Extraction from Soils by Dilute Acid with Microwave Heating, Talanta 46(5), 1019–1029, Aug (1998) R Ferrara, B Mazzolai, H Edner et al., Atmospheric Mercury Sources in the Mt Amiata Area, Italy, Sci Total Environ 213(1–3), 13–23, June 10 (1998) Reclamation and Remediation R.R Suleimanov and R.N Sitdikov, Reclamation of Oil-contaminated Soils and Grounds Using Industrial Detergent, Neftyanoe Khozyaistvo 12, 115–117, Dec (2003) Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app1 Final Proof page 765 21.11.2005 3:04pm SOIL POLLUTION RELEVANT REFERENCES BY SUBJECT 765 A.K Wanekaya and A.S Omowunmi, Pressurized Extractions for the Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Soil and Sediments, Amer Laboratory, 35(17), 10–16, Aug (2003) G.P Warren, B.J Alloway, N.W Lepp et al., Field Trials to Assess the Uptake of Arsenic by Vegetables from Contaminated Soils and Soil Remediation with Iron Oxides, Sci Total Environ 311(1–3), 19–33, July 20 (2003) L Di Palma, P Ferrantelli, and E Petrucci, Experimental Study of the Remediation of Atrazine Contaminated Soils Through Soil Extraction and Subsequent Peroxidation, J Hazard Mater 99(3), 265–276, May 30 (2003) L Di Palma, Experimental Assessment of a Process for the Remediation of Organophosphorous Pesticides Contaminated Soils Through In situ Soil Flushing and Hydrolysis, Water Air Soil Pollut 143(1–4), 301–314, Feb (2003) B.W Bogan, V Trbovic, and J.R Paterek, Inclusion of Vegetable Oils in Fenton’s Chemistry for Remediation of PAH-contaminated Soils, Chemosphere, 50(1), 15–21, Jan (2003) J Rohrs, G Ludwig, and D Rahner, Electrochemically Induced Reactions in Soils––A New Approach to the In-situ Remediation of Contaminated Soils? Part 2: Remediation Experiments with a Natural Soil Containing Highly Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Electrochim Acta 47(9), 1405–1414, Feb 15 (2002) C.W Lin, Mapping Soil Lead and Remediation Needs in Contaminated Soils, Environ Geochem Health, 24(1), 23–33, Mar (2002) B Alpaslan and M.A Yukselen, Remediation of Lead Contaminated Soils by Stabilization/Solidification, Water Air Soil Pollut 133(1–4), 253–263, Jan (2002) C.L Zhang, R.C Daprato, S.F Nishino et al., Remediation of Dinitrotoluene Contaminated Soils from Former Ammunition Plants: Soil Washing Efficiency and Effective Process Monitoring in Bioslurry Reactors, J Hazard Mater 87(1–3), 139–154, Oct 12 (2001) G.C.C Yang and C.Y Liu, Remediation of TCE Contaminated Soils by In situ EK–Fenton Process, J Hazard Mater 85(3), 317–331, Aug 17 (2001) R.G Burns, Degradation of Xenobiotics: Soil Surfaces and Biofilms and Their Relevance to Bioavailability and Bioremediation, Environ Chem Group Newsletter, Roy Soc Chem 14, 3–8, July (2001) C.N Mulligan, R.N Yong, and B.F Gibbs, Remediation Technologies for Metal-contaminated Soils and Groundwater: An Evaluation, Engin Geol 60(1–4), 193–207, June (2001) J Lynn, Bioremediation of Oil Spills, Hazard Mater Manag 13(1), 24–28, Feb./Mar (2001) L.J Pinto and M.M Moore, Release of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Surfactant and Remediation of this Effluent by Penicillium spp Environ Toxicol Chem 19(7), 1741–1748, June (2000) J Roed, K.G Andersson, C.L Fogh et al., Triple Digging––A Simple Method for Restoration of Radioactively Contaminated Urban Soil Areas, J Environ Radioactivity, 45(2), 173–183 (1999) Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app1 Final Proof page 766 21.11.2005 3:04pm 766 INFORMATION RELATED TO SOIL POLLUTION TOPICS P Zurer, Lasagna: Field-tested Recipe for Soil Cleanup, Chem Eng News, 77(15), 14, Apr (1999) A Davis, S Kamp, G Fennemore et al., A Risk-based Approach to Soil Remediation Modeling, Envir Policy Anal 31(11), 521A–525A (1997) A.M Thayer, Bioremediation: Innovative Technology for Cleaning up Hazardous Waste, Chem Eng News, 69(34), 23–44, Aug 26 (1991) Sampling Technique L Malherbe, Designing a Strategy for Contaminated Soil Sampling Human Health Risk Assessment, Accredit Qual Assur 7(5), 189–194, May (2002) X.J Wang and F Qi, The Effects of Sampling Design on Spatial Structure Analysis of Contaminated Soil, Sci Total Envir 224(1–3), 29–41, Dec 11 (1998) F.P.J Lame and P.R Defize, Sampling of Contaminated Soil––Sampling Error in Relation to Sample Size and Segregation, Environ Sci Technol 27(10), 2035–2044, Oct (1993) Salinity, Salinization, and Fertility J Akhter, R Murray, K Mahmood et al., Improvement of Degraded Physical Properties of a Saline–Sodic Soil by Reclamation with Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca), Plant Soil, 258(1), 207–216, Jan (2004) M.J Mohammad and N Mazahreh, Changes in Soil Fertility Parameters in Response to Irrigation of Forage Crops with Secondary Treated Wastewater, Communic Soil Sci Plant Anal 34(9–10), 1281–1294 (2003) D.P Patil, M.V Kulkarni, V.L Maheshwari et al., A Sustainable Agro–Biotechnology for Bioremediation of Saline Soil, J Sci Ind Res 61(7), 517–528, July (2002) B Zenjari and A Nejmeddine, Impact of Spreading Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Characteristics: Laboratory Experiments, Agronomie 21(8), 749– 755, Dec (2001) R.P Courtemanche, M.W Hester, and I.A Mendelssohn, Recovery of a Louisiana Barrier Island Marsh Plant Community Following Extensive Hurricane-induced Overwash, J Coastal Res 15(4), 872–883, Fall (1999) G Singh, H Singh, and P.P Bhojvaid, Amelioration of Sodic Soils by Trees for Wheat and Oat Production, Land Degrad Devel 9(5), 453–462, Sept.– Oct (1998) J Albaladejo, M Stocking, E Diaz, et al., Land rehabilitation by urban refuse amendments in a semiarid environment - effect on soil chemicalproperties, Soil Technol 7(3), 249–260, Oct (1994) K.E Elsiddig and P Ludders, Interactive Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition and Salinity on Reproductive Growth of Apple Trees, Gartenbauwissenschaft 59(3), 127–131, May–June (1994) D.W James and J.J Jurinak, Irrigation Resources in Utah––Water-quality Versus Soil–Salinity, Soil Fertility, and the Environment, Utah Agric Exper Station Res Bull 514, 1–41, Dec (1986) T.G Selassie and R.J Wagenet, Interactive Effects of Soil–Salinity, Fertility, and Irrigation on Field Corn, Irrig Sci 2(2), 67–78 (1981) Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 767 23.11.2005 12:29pm RELEVANT TECHNICAL WEBSITES BY TOPIC Aircraft Builders Airbus Industries, Toulouse/Hamburg: http://www.airbus.com/dynamic/ about/index_h.asp Freq Asked Questions: http://www.airbus.com/about/faq.asp Boeing Aircraft: http://www.boeing.com/flash.html Bombardier Aerospace http://www.aerospace.bombardier.com/index General Builder Listing: http://www.landings.com/_landings/pages/aircraft-manuf.html Air Quality Related AMA Council on Scientific Affairs: http://www.asma.org/Publication/ tips.html Aerospace Medical Association: http://www.asma.org/Publication/tips html Publications: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airclean.html Respiratory Reviews: http://www.respiratoryreviews.com/archives.html Applied Research Agencies Alberta Research Council: http://www.arc.ab.ca/ B.C Research Council: http://bcresearch.com/default.htm Arctic Information, Studies http://www.uarctic.org/ Brewing 101 Beer Links: http://www.iwantadrink.com/directory/bartools/101beer-links.htm Master Brewers Association of America: http://www.mbaa.com/ 767 Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 768 23.11.2005 12:29pm 768 RELEVANT TECHNICAL WEBSITES BY TOPIC Chemicals Structure, nomenclature, toxicology (National Library of Medicine): http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/ (University of Hamburg): http://lb.chemie.uni-hamburg.de/static/data2/ 42_12xrc3np.html Chemical Company Information General: http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s http://finance.yahoo.com/ http://www.hoovers.com/ http://webbolt.ecnext.com/ Oil and Gas Companies: http://www.infield.com/links.htm Specific Companies: BASF: http://www.corporate.basf.com/en/?id ¼ V00-1nt- 168tjbcp*1R Bayer: http://www.bayer.com/ Dow: http://www.dow.com/Homepage/index.html Du Pont: http://www1.dupont.com/NASApp/dupontglobal/corp/index jsp Hoechst: http://www.hoechst.com/homepage/homepage.htm ICI: http://www.ici.com/ICIPLC/home/index.jsp Nova Chemicals: http://www.novachemicals.com Total: http://www.total.com/fr/home_page Chemical Structures: http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com/ Chemical Technology and Related Books: http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/guides/chemistry.htm Chemistry Resources Latest Fundamental Physical Constants: http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/ Constants/index.html NIST Databases (see chemistry Web book): http://www.nist.gov/srd/ online.htm Virtual Kinetics Laboratory: http://vklab.hec.utah.edu/ Cleaner Production Platforms: Switzerland (opened Nov 2002): http://www.cpplatform.ch Company Profiles General: http://gale.ecnext.com/ http://gale.ecnext.com/coms2/dbcomp_0000551188 Currency Conversion, Historical and Present OANDA.com: http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory Dictionaries, Language English: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ French (& other) < > English: http://www.freedict.com/onldict/fre.html German < > English, Chemical: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/swain/ beilstein/bedict1.html General: http://www.iee.et.tu-dresden.de/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/wernerr/search.sh IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology: http://www.chemsoc.org/ chembytes/goldbook/index.htm Dictionaries, Technical Chemical dictionary: http://www.chemnet.com/dict/ Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 769 23.11.2005 12:29pm APPENDIX II 769 Chemical engineering dictionary, encyclopedia listing: http://www.library gatech.edu/research_help/subject/chemeng_dictionaries.htm Chem-cyclopedia: http://www.mediabrains.com/client/chemcyclop/BG1/ search.asp Chemical technology references: http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/ guides/chemistry.htm Chemindustry.com Website directory: http://www.chemindustry.com/ chem2ask.asp?cmd ¼ search&id ¼ IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology: http://www.chemsoc.org/chembytes/goldbook/index.htm Electrochemistry Resources Electrochemical Science and Technology Information Resource (ESTIR): http://electrochem.cwru.edu/estir/ Impedance-Research Solutions and Resources: http://www.consultrsr.com/ Fuel Cell Resources Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Canada: http://www.port-h2.com/ Electronic Journal Access Science Articles: http://www.scirus.com/ Element Cycles: The ‘‘matter cycles’’ and their pollution problems due to human interference: http://www.lenntech.com/matter-cycles.htm http://www.lenntech.com/matter-cycles-pollution.htm Environmental Law A gateway into, operated jointly by FAO, IUCN, and UNEP: http:// www.ecolex.org/ecolex/index.php Environmental Regulations Canada: http://www.qc.ec.gc.ca/dpe/Anglais/dpe_liens_en.asp?dpe_related_ links Environmentally Related Sites Springer-Verlag: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0698/index.htm U.S Environmental Protection Agency Public Archive: http://www.epa gov/eims/ Worldwatch site: http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/signposts/2002/ Facts and Figures U.S.A (plus some other countries), chemical industry: http://pubs.acs.org/ cen/index.html World: http://www.worldfactsandfigures.com/ Fertilizers International Fertilizer Industry Association: http://www.fertilizer.org/ifa/ Filters Airtesters filters: http://www.airtesters.com/HEPA_filters.cfm Global Warming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001: http://www climatehotmap.org/ ‘‘An increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system.’’ Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 770 23.11.2005 12:29pm 770 RELEVANT TECHNICAL WEBSITES BY TOPIC EPA Website: http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ Climate.html Greenhouse Gas Online: http://www.ghgonline.org Handbooks Knovel Critical Tables: http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/crc_handbook.jsp International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology: http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/Toc.jsp?BookID ¼ 735 Handbook of Environmental Chemistry (Springer-Verlag): http://194.94.42 12/licensed_materials/0698/tocs.htm http://www.springerlink.com/app/home/ journal.asp?wasp ¼ 570cd1wylg2yyl4lmv56& referrer ¼ parent&backto ¼ searchpublicationsresults,1,2; Health Related Canada Communicable Disease Report: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/01vol27/27s2/ index.html Health Canada: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/publicat/info/infflu_e html Journal of the American Medical Assoc’n: http://jama.ama-assn.org/ Respiratory Reviews: http://www.respiratoryreviews.com/main.html http://www.respiratoryreviews.com/archives.html Indoor Air Quality US EPA: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airclean.html Industrial Hygiene WHMIS: http://ohs.uvic.ca/training/whmis/whmiscourse.pdf United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations Division for Sustainable Development: http://www.un org/esa/sustdev/ Johannesburg Plan of Implementation: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/ POIToc.htm Journals, Relevant American Chemical Society Journals: http://pubs.acs.org/ Chemical and Engineering News: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/ AIChE (American Inst of Chemical Engineers) Journal: http://www.aiche org/aichejournal/ Archives of Internal Medicine: http://archinte.ama-assn.org/ Blackwell Synergy: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/ Canadian Chemical News: http://www.accn.ca/ Environmental Journals Chemical and Engineering News: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/index.html Elsevier, Environmental Journals: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/ homepage.cws_home Environmental Health Journal: http://www.ehj-online.com/currentissue html Environmental Science and Technology: http://pubs.acs.org/journals/ esthag/index.html Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 771 23.11.2005 12:29pm APPENDIX II 771 Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate: http://www.munksgaard.dk/indoorair Journal of Environmental Health Research: http://www.jehr-online.org/volume2/issue1/index.asp Reviews on Environmental Health: http://www.angelfire.com/il/freund/ Royal Society of Chemistry Journals: library@rsc.org or www.rsc.org/ library Springer-Verlag: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0698/index.htm Libraries, Document Access CISTI: http://doc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/CISTI/ http://cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cisti_e.shtml Royal Society of Chemistry: library@rsc.org or, www.rsc.org/library IngentaConnect: Academic and Professional Publications www.ingenta com (only subscribers?) Lifecycle Analysis Institute for Lifecycle Energy Analysis (Seattle): www.ilea.org/lcas/hocking 1994.html Material Safety Information Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) Website: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/whmis/index.htm Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, MSDS: http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/msds/search.html (payment req’d ?) Materials Information MatWeb material property data: http://www.matweb.com/index.asp? ckck ¼ Meetings, Scientific: http://www.science-events.com/ Mercury Management Environmental Impact Statement (etc.): http://www.mercuryeis.com Newspapers Canada.com: tp://www.canada.com/national/index.html Canadian Newspaper Association: http://www.cna-acj.ca/client/cna/ ult.nsf/CnaSearch Internet Public Library: http://www.ipl.org/div/news/browse/CA/ Organic Chemistry Outlined: http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/intro1.htm# contnt Patent Databases Generic: http://www.orbit.com/index.htm Canadian Patents: http://patents1.ic.gc.ca/intro-e.html European Patents: http://ep.espacenet.com/ UK Patents (and European, EP prefix): ttp://www.patent.gov.uk/ US Patents: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/-download TIFF viewer from http://www.alternatiff.com/ World Patents: via Chemical Abstracts Service: http://www.cas.org/ via Derwent: http://www.derwent.com Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 772 23.11.2005 12:29pm 772 RELEVANT TECHNICAL WEBSITES BY TOPIC Periodic table Interactive: http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm With this periodic chart you can click on the respective elements and it will show physical and chemical data of each element, plus health and environmental data Pharmacological Information Elsevier/MDL site: http://www.mdl.com Plastics Production The Society of the Plastics Industry (U.S.A.): http://www.socplas.org/ Europe, Association of Plastics Manufacturers in (APME): http://www apme.org/ Polymer Background http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/polymers.htm#polmr3 Glossary, Polymer Doctor: http://www.polymerdoctor.com/fine/plsql/ terminology_main_new Production Data OECD Countries: http://www.sourceoecd.org/content/html/index.htm Petroleum: http://www.hubbertpeak.com/ http://www.oilempire.us/peakoil.html Publishers, Technical Academic Press, via Elsevier’s Website at: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/ find/homepage.cws_home Beuth Verlag GmbH: http://www.beuth.de/index_en.php Springer-Verlag GmbH: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/ Pulp and Paper Australian: http://www.apic.asn.au/statistics/archive/stat9394.htm Canadian PP Association: http://www.cppa.org/english/ U.K.: http://www.ppic.org.uk/ Radiation National Radiation Protection Board, U.K.: http://www.nrpb.org/ Recycling Global Recycling Network: http://grn.com/grn/ Used oil recycling in Canada: http://www.usedoilrecycling.com/index.cfm U.S.A.: http://www.42explore.com/recycle.htm Remote Sensing Canada Centre for Remote Sensing: www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca Francais: www.cct.rncan.gc.ca Safety, Chemicals Chemical and Engineering News: www.pubs.acs.org/cen/safety/index.html Salt, The Salt Institute http://www.saltinstitute.org/ Science, General Science Treasure Troves (Weisstein’s): http://www.treasure-troves.com Scientific Societies American Chemical Society: http://www.chemcenter.org/portal/Chemistry http://chemistry.org/education/DGRweb Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 773 23.11.2005 12:29pm APPENDIX II 773 American Institute of Physics: http://www.aip.org/history/ American Vacuum Society: http://www.avs.org/ The Electrochemical Society: http://www.electrochem.org/ International Society of Electrochemistry: http://www.ise-online.org/ Canadian Association of Physicists: http://www.cap.ca/ Canadian Institute of Chemistry: http://www.cheminst.ca/ http://www.chemistry.ca Royal Society of Chemistry: http://www.rsc.org/ Student Contact: http://www.rsc.org/lap/educatio/studentzone.htm Space Information NASA: http://search.nasa.gov/nasasearch/search/search.jsp http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html?skipIntro ¼ Man-Systems Integration Standards Information: http://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/ sections/section05.asp Statistics, Relevant Statistics Canada: www.statcan.ca Surface Science Resources Royston Paynter’s list of Surface Science sites: http://goliath.inrs-ener uquebec.ca/surfsci/links.html (A surface science tutorial) Surface Science Division of CIC/CAP: http://goliath.inrs-ener.uquebec.ca/ surfsci/ Tradenames Plastics http://www.plastics.com/tradenames.php?l ¼ d Toxicology, Toxicity information Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox): http://www.epa.gov/ nheerl/dsstox/ National Library of Medicine Website: http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/# RTECHS Data Base: http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety) Unit Conversions Via Knoevel Website: http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/crc_handbook.jsp Universities, Colleges: http://gateway.uvic.ca/erf/education.html Water Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), and a water glossary: http://www.lenntech.com/Water-Glossary.htm http://www.lenntech.com/Water-FAQ.htm Water Quality International Joint Commission, Canadian Office, Home Page: http:// www.ijc.org Water Treatment Systems American Water Works Association: http://www.awwa.org Aquasmart Technologies Inc., Burnaby, BC: http://www.aquasmart.com/products.html Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation: http://www.ultraviolet.com/water/ water01.htm Victoria Reservoir, treatment data: http://www.crd.bc.ca/water/ Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app2 Final Proof page 774 23.11.2005 12:29pm 774 RELEVANT TECHNICAL WEBSITES BY TOPIC Xinix Disinfection Technologies (ClO2 ): http://www.xinix.com/ Zenon (membrane technologies): http://www.zenon.com/markets/markets shtml Winemaking and Related Selection of hundreds of relevant Websites: http://www.ryerson.ca/~ dtudor/wine.htm California Wine Institute: http://www.wineinstitute.org/ Statistics: http://www.wineinstitute.org/communications/statistics/index htm World wine production by country: http://www.wineinstitute.org/commu nications/statistics/keyfacts_worldwineproduction02.htm World per capita wine consumption by country: http://www.wineinstitute org/communications/statistics/keyfacts_worldpercapitaconsumption02 htm World Facts and Figures: http://www.worldfactsandfigures.com/ Hocking: Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control 0120887967_app3 Final Proof page 775 21.11.2005 3:07pm CONSTANTS, SI UNITS, AND MULTIPLES AND FORMULAS CONSTANTS Speed of light in a vacuum, c Faraday’s constant, F Avogadro’s number Ice pont 2:99793 Â 1010 cm/sec Ideal gas constant, R: 9:6487 Â 104 C/g equiv wt 6:02252 Â 1023 molecules/mole 273.15 K, 08C Molar gas volume 8:2056 Â 10À2 L atm/K mole 8.3143 J/K mole 1.9872 cal/K mole 22.4136 L/mole (at 08C, atm) Seawater is about 3.5 wt % dissolved solids Potable water contains
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