Handbook of chemical industry labeling charles j OConnor, sidney i haber

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HANDBOOK OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY LABELING Edited by Charles J O'Connor Labeling and Hazard Analysis Consultant Greens Farms, Connecticut Sidney Lirtzman Baruch College City University of New York New York, New York NOYES PUBLICATIONS Park Ridge, New Jersey, USA Copyright by Noyes Publications No part o f this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the Publisher Library of Congrerr Catalog Card Number: 83-22108 ISBN 0-8155-09a4 Published in the United States of America b y Noyes Publications Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656 1098765 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Handbook of chemical industry labeling Includes bibliographies and index Chemicals- -Labeling- -Law and legislation- -United States Products liability- -Chemical productsUnited States Chemicals- Labeling- -United States O'Connor, Charles J KF3958.H36 1984 344.73'0424 83-22108 ISBN 081!j6.0966-0 347.304424 - - Contributors Adria C Casey Stauffer Chemical Company Westport, CT Donald G MacKellar Toxigenics, Inc Decatur, IL Harry Fund Labelmaster Chicago, IL Richard Moriarty National Poison Center Children’s Hospital Pittsburgh, PA Anthony J G m o The City College of New York and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine New York, New York Charles J O’Connor Labeling and Hazard Analysis Consultant Greens Farms, CT John E Gillick Kirby, Gillick, Schwartz and Tuohey, P.C Washington, D.C Flo H Ryer U.S Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C Steven D Jellinek Jellinek Associates, Inc Washington, D.C Norma Skolnik International Playtex, Inc Paramus, N.J Sidney I Lirtzman Graduate School and University Center and Baruch College City University of New York New York, NY Robert M Sussman Covington and Burling Washington, DC Jennifer Machlin Orrick, Herrington and Sutcliffe San Francisco, CA James Toupin Covington and Burling Washington, DC xi xii Contributors Jay A Young Consultant Silver Spring, MD David F Zoll Chemical Manufacturers Association Washington, D.C Preface This handbook presents for the first time, in a single volume, a concise treatment of a long negleded subjectChemica1Industry Labeling The necessity for such a volume has long existed and has been highlighted in recent months by news of newly legislated worker and public "Right to Know" obligations in Connecticut, California, New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia as well as the recently published Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard "he need for informative labeling in the workplace, transportation, distribution and disposal operations has been formally recognized in various city, state and Federal statutes and regulations Society at large has demanded increased information on chemical producta for many years; organized labor has long been in the f o r e h n t for an improved hazard label communication program; and the chemical industry published the first label guide for its members in 1938, and has updated its guide to precautionary labeling periodically, culminating in 1976 as the American National Stundurd (2129.1)for the Precautionary Labeling of Hazardous Zndustrial Chemicals It was the need to serve these three major populatiom+labor, industry, and the public that led to publication of this handbook It is designed to provide an in-depth review of, and act as a source for the major elements of a Hazard Label Communication Program Today, labeling is defined as all written, printed and graphic material that accompanies or may accompany a product In some cases it may include advertising and material data sheets It is sometimes referred to as product communication, or product information Typically, a label provides information on what the product is, what it does, how to use it, how not to use it, and how to dispose of it, what to if a fire occurs, or a spill or leak, and first aid when appropriate A chemical label should include the name of the chemical in sufficient detail to permit (1)medical treatment in case of a n accident and (2) appropriate and effective emergency response in case of fire, spill or leak Medical instructions should be written by a n occupational health physician An additional prudent vi Preface step would be to review such instructions with the National Poison Control Center in Pittsburgh This Center run by Richard Moriarity is probably the best single source of information for the emergency treatment of consumer and occupational chemical exposure Operated by physicians, nurses and pharmacists 24 hours a day, every single day of the year, it is available instantly by phone The Center will accept trade secret data on a confidential basis to be used only in case of a medical emergency The true chemical identity of one’s product will only be released to a physician who is treating a medical emergency The cost for this service is very modest For the purpose of emergency response to a major spill, a fire or a leak, at the minimum the Department of Transportation (DOT) nomenclature should be followed; for those chemicals that meet the requirements of any one or more DOT classes a UN or NA number must also be assigned Chemtrec, a 24 hour, every day, all year emergency response center, is available for emergencies by phone Chemtrec will accept product information that would be useful in responding to fire, leak or spill emergency situations This Center, run by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) as a public service is probably the best single source of emergency response information The Chemtrec phone number with a n appropriate statement should appear on the label A closely related service is The Emergency Response Guide published by DOT The Emergency Response Guide, produced by the applied Physics Laboratories of John Hopkins University and reviewed by an industrial chemical advisory group, was published by DOT in 1980 It is currently undergoing revision and a new edition should be available soon This DOT pamphlet is intended to accompany every transport vehicle that moves hazardous chemicals, be available in every fire house, on every fire truck, in every ambulance, police car, police department and emergency response center in the nation The Guide lists by proper shipping name and also by UN/NA number all chemical commodities regulated by DOT with cross-reference to specific instructions on what to in case of fire, spill or leak It is the best single, printed source of emergency response information available today There are a number of different ways of supplying sufficient information about a product, so that users, transporters and workers can be assured of adequate information in case of accidental exposure There is evidence from the social sciences that simplified identification coupled with expert instruction is superior to reliance on chemical nomenclature to convey hazard information When one has selected some combination of chemical nomenclature, generic name, and first aid and emergency response instruction, one should next consider the selection of a signal word and a set of hazard statements Historically, “Danger”, ‘warning”, “Caution” have served as the three indicators of potential hazard “Danger” indicates the highest level, “Caution” the lowest and ‘warning” is intermediate In many standards, these words are further defined in terms of LCso, LDso, flash point, skin corrosion and physical properties such as explosivity and radioactivil$ Studies have shown that workers perceive a significant difference between “Danger”, and ‘warning” or “Caution” However, little if any difference is perceived between ‘Warning” and Preface vii “Caution.” This seems to indicate that employers should instruct workers in the meaning of these terms The selection of a signal word for certain chronic effects, i.e cancer, teratology and mutation is a controversial subject When the chemical also possesses acute hazards, this fact may determine one’s choice If, for example, following the ANSI Appendix, the product is extremely flammable and a carcinogen, the signal word “Danger” is selected based on the flammability hazard “he controversy centers about the fact that many practitioners feel the signal word “Danger” should be reserved for those hazards which are immediate and life-threatening The probability of human harm is virtually certain with overexposure to acutely hazardous chemicals, but highly uncertain with overexposure to chemicals that possess chronic hazards This concept is referred to as ‘Zabeling Under Uncertainty” This probabilistic property as applied to carcinogens, is further defined as follows: (1)known human carcinogen, (2) known animal and probably human carcinogen, (3)known animal carcinogen and (4) known mutagens Much of our knowledge seems to indicate that some mutagens are probably carcinogens Anthony G a m discusses this relationship in Part II Some feel that action should be taken on this information and others prefer to at least obtain mammalian data before including any statement on a label An appendix to the CMA label proposal establishes a selection system which appears reasonable for most long-linked chronic hazards, i.e., cancer, mutagens and teratogens Although some effects as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are often treated as chronic effects, at times the onset of symptoms may be rapid, and when this is true, such effects should be handled as part of acute toxicity Statement of hazards should be simple, direct, and concise, but the stress should be on “simple” The use of what have become standard phrases is encouraged A list of these phrases is contained in the LAPUANSI Guide discussed by Jay Young in Part IV This book is organized into four parts: Label Communication; Science and Labels; Product Liability, Regulations and Labels; and Industry Standards and Practice Part I is devoted to the perceptual and graphic elements of hazard label communication and the underlying science base which supports their practical use In Chapter 1of this section Sidney Lirtzman reports on a radical and revolutionary Hazard Label Communication Research Program conducted by O’Connor and Lirtzman, and the conclusions to which their research has led The research program utilized specially modified infra-red eye scan equipment The basic equipment was provided by the Applied Science Laboratories as a working grant to the research team Norma Skolnik, in the second c h a p ter, provided a review and suggested program for utilizing both manual and machine based data services, as a source of label information Harry Fund, in the last chapter of Part I deals with the graphic and production arts required to print and manufacture labels, placards and tags In Part 11 Adria Casey, Donald MacKellar, Anthony Garro and Richard Moriarity discuss the applied science that underlies much of labeling Anthony Garro of Mt Sinai School of Medicine and Donald MacKellar of Toxigenics, vuz Preface Inc exp!ore the biological basis for chronic and acute toxicity, while Adria Casey explicates physical and chemical test parameters; and classification based on physical, chemical and biological data Labeling, Product Liability and Government Regulations form the major elements of Part 111.David Zoll of the Chemical Manufacturers Association leads off with a discussion of product liability, the “prudent man” and case law James Toupin of Covington & Burling follows with a chapter on trade secrets, patents and trademarks Steven Jellinek discusses the label requirement for the sale and use of pesticides under FIFRA TSCA and RCRA labeling regulations with specific case examples are explored by Robert Sussman and Jennifer Machlin Robert Sussman also covers consumer product labeling in his chapter on the Consumer Product Safety Commission John Gillick of the law firm of Kirby, Gillick, Schwartz and Tuohey reviews labeling in transportation He details DOT label and placard regulations for air, water, road and rail movements for packages as well as for bulk containers Flo Ryer, former Director of Health Standards for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), details the label requirements of OSHA’sHealth Standards and reviews OSHA’s latest label standard proposal This controversial standard has been in development for more than eight years OSHA’slatest draft includes provisions for container and reactor labels, area placarding, a material safety data sheet in the workplace, worker training and a provision for maintaining trade secrets Overall this standard is performanced-based, apparently permitting many existing systems to meet OSHA requirements In Part IV,the last section, Jay Young and Charles O’Connor discuss current and proposed industry standards The Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) sponsored ANSI Guide to Precautionary Labeling of Hazardous Chemicals and the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Identification of Fire Hazards of Materials are the two oldest standards The ANSI Standard owes its beginnings to the original Labels and Precautionary Information Committee (LAPI) Guide published by CMA in 1938, while the NFPA System was first explicated in 1952 Jay Young outlines the basic requirement of the CMA sponsored ANSI Standard and the specific elements required to compose an appropriate “Hazard Label” He brings special insight to this task, having served as the CMA executive responsible for the labeling activities of the association The two systems are complementary NFPA uses a color keyed symbol system with high recognition value This permits an observer to quickly assess the hazardous nature of a tank or area ANSI, relying primarily upon text to convey its message, is better suited for container labeling Intelligent application of both systems significantly improves label hazard communication The current use and development of material safety data sheets are also discussed as a part of a hazard communication program An example of such a combined system is offered by the NIOSH Identification System for Occupationally Hazardous Materials This identification system uses color-keyed symbols with numerical “degree of hazard” indicators for placards The system adds precautionary text and hazard statements for la- Preface ix bels, and requires the availability of a material safety data sheet in the workplace The authors also include a discussion of the current ASTM Z 535.2 proposal for Safety Signs This system combines three elements: color, shape, and signal words to create three distinctive levels of hazard alert signs ASTM uses the traditional signal words: “Danger”, (‘Warning,” “Caution” These words are not independent elements, but are always combined with specific colors and specific shapes “Danger” always appears with a combination of white, red and black on an oval shape; ‘Warning” is used with a combination of orange and black on a truncated diamond; and ‘(Caution”always appears on a rounded-corner rectangle, colored yellow and black Jay Young and Charles O’Connor present the National Paint and Coatings Association (NCPA) Label Guide and in-plant Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) HMIS is a complete hazard communication system It utilizes labels, tags, wallet cards, wall posters, employee handouts, placards, symbols for personal protection, an audio visual program, and a rating system for health, reactivity, and flammability This system will accommodate both acute and chronic health effects As in the NFPA System, blue, red and yellow are used to highlight health, flammability, and reactivity Rating or ranking for each hazard class runs from one (1)to five (5), with five (5)the most hazardous The HMIS Manual also includes a glossary, information on how to assign hazard ratings, industrial hygiene, and raw material sheets NPCA, under the guidance of Larry Thomas, Executive Director, has produced an integrated workable and highly valuable system I would like to express my thanks to Corrine Hessel for her help in preparing and reviewing the manuscript in development and through the galleys This book would have been impossible without her professional help I hope that this handbook will provide a comprehensive library source, and be useful for the health, safety, and legal decisions which must be made by chemical manufacturers, attorneys, safety equipment producers, toxicologists, industrial safety engineers, waste disposal operators, health care professionals, and the many others who may have contact with or interest in the Chemical Industry due to their own or third party exposure Greens Farms, Connecticut December, 1983 Charles J O’Connor Contents PREFACE CONTRIBUTORS v xi PART I LABEL COMMUNICATION LABELS, PERCEPTION AND PSYCHOMETRICS Sidney Z Lirtzman Functions of Labeling Background Definition Purpose of Labeling Views About Labeling Hazard Labeling Perceptual Issues in Labeling 10 Perception 10 Perceptual Representation 10 Attention Processes 12 Form 13 Color 13 Color Preferences 14 Color and Emotion 16 Color Visibility 18 Color and Hazard Labeling 18 Legibility 19 Symbols and Labeling 20 Advantages of Graphic Symbols in Labeling 23 Disadvantages of Graphic Symbols 23 Reading Level of Label 25 Estimating Reading Level 26 Evaluating the Impact of Labeling 27 Evaluation Criteria 27 xiii Acronyms ACGIH American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists ACS ADR ANPR American Chemical Society European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ANSI American National Standards Institute ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BIOS BRS Biological Information Service CAS CEFIC CFWC F.R Bibliographic Retrieval Services Chemical Abstracts Service European Council of Commercial Manufacturers Code of Federal Regulations CMA CPR International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail Chemical Manufacturers Association Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation CPSA Consumer Product Safety Act CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission CSIN DHEWMEW DOD DOT EDF Chemical Substances Information Network Department of Health, Education and Welfare Department of Defense Department of Transportation Environmental Defense Fund CIM 73 474 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling EEC Council of the European Economic Community EP Extraction Procedure EPA Environmental Protection Agency EUP FDA Environmental Use Permit FFDCA Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act FHSA Federal Hazardous Substances Act FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Freedom of Information Act FOIA FFUFed Reg Food and Drug Administration Federal Register FTC Federal Trade Commission GPO Government Printing Office HMAC Hazardous Materials Advisory Council HMIS Hazardous Materials Identification System IAEA International Atomic Energy Authority IATA International Air Transport Association ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICC IMCO Interstate Commerce Commissiodnternational Chamber of Commerce Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMDG International Dangerous Goods Code IMO International Maritime Organization IRLG Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group LAP1 MSDS Labels and Precautionary Information Material Safety Data Sheet NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers NFPA National Fire Protection Association NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NLM N0Sh.o.s NPCA NTIS National Library of Medicine Not Otherwise Specified National Paint and Coating Association National Technical Information Service OCTI OECD OMB Central Office for International Railway Transport Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Office of Management and Budget Office of Pesticide and Toxic Substances OPTS Acronyms ORM Other Regulated Materials OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PCB PEL RAR RCRA Polychlorinated biphenyls RID RPAR RQ RTECS Permissible Exposure Level Restricted Articles Regulations Resource Conservation and Recovery Act International Regulations Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration Reportable Quantity Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances List SIC Systems Development Corp Standard Industrial Classification SOLAS SSIE International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea Smithsonian Science Information Exchange TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act SDS 475 TSDF Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility UNEP USDA United Nations Environment Program U S Department of Agriculture Index Absolute pressure, 95 Acetaldehyde, 419 Acetone, 361 2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) 195 low dose study, 203-206 Acetylene, 419 Acid chloride, 95 Acids, 95, 444 Acrolein, 419 Acrylamide, 201 Acrylic acid, 361 Acrylonitrile, 392 Activated charcoal, 136 Acute exposure, 138 definition, 142 Acute toxicity tests, 141-167 Advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR), 335,339 Aerosols, 144 Aflatoxin B1, 195, 202 AICE Code of Ethics, 265 Air carriers, 355, 360 Air transportation, 366, 367 Alcohol, 94,102, 360 Alcoholic beverages, 199 Allergic reactions, 136-137 Aluminum, 419 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 227,228 American Conference on Chemi- cal Labeling (ACCL), 409, 415 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 268,269, 301, 302,386, 387,403, 416,428 adjunct systems, 444-445 Guide to Precautionary Labeling, 407-415 Standard 2129.1-1976, 10, 410,414,428,444 System, 404 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 416 Proposal 5 , Tests D-93-79, 106 D-323, D-3278-78, 106 E-487-74, Ames assay, 187, 188, 193, 194,195 4-Amino-biphenyl, 181 Aminopterin, 201 Ammonia, 408 anhydrous, 386 Ammonium nitrite, 360 Amyl trichlorosilane, 360 Animal husbandry, 146-147 Animal selection for acute toxicity testing, 145-146 476 Index for chronic toxicity testing, 181 Antidotes, 139,289 APILIT/APIPAT, 51 Apomorphine, 135 Aroclor 1254,189 Arsenic case involving, 234 sign and label requirements, 389-390 Arsenic trisulfide, 419 Asbestos, 195, 198, 227-229, 247,335 sign and label requirements, 387-388 Atomic Energy Act, 105 Atropine, 139 Bambury Report #6,9 Bases, 95,444 Belmont House Conservation Foundation Conference Report, 25 Benzene, 334 case concerning, 238 sign and label requirements, 390-391 Benzidine, 202 Benzoyl azide, 92 Beryllium, 195,419 Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS), 54 Bicarbonate solutions, 136 Bilateral retina blastoma, 185 BIOSIS Previews, 51, 54,61 Blasting agents, 78 DOT definition, 92 placarding for, 374 Bleaches, 325 Borax, 447,448-450 Bromine trifluoride, 419 Bronchitis, 196 Bureau of Explosives, 92,95,96 Butyl hydroperoxide (tertiary) 420 Cadmium, 195 Calcium carbide, 419 CANCER HAZARD, 390-393, 411,413 CANCERLFI', 58,61 CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT, 388-389,411 477 Caprylyl chloride, 372 Carbon monoxide, 231 Carbon tetrachloride, 100, 102, 194,335,419 Carcinogenesis, 179-184,27 bioassay, animal models, 181 definition, 179 initiators, 194 promotors, 180,194 quantitative risk estimates, 201-202 short term tests, 180, 193 thresholds, 202-203 validation of rodent bioassays, 195,199-201 Carcinogens, 35, 180-184,189, 193206,398,403,404,420 OSHA Cancer Policy, 392-394 sign and label requirements, 388-389,411,412 Cardiac arrest definition, 132 Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 132-133,137 Cargo tank, 363,367,369-371, 372,375 definition, 378 CA Search, 50 CA Selects, 50 CAUTION on label, 289,331,387, 388, 404,412 on sign, 427,428 Central nervous system depression, 135 Certification marks, 272 Charcoal, 334 Chem-Alertm system, 445 CHEMDEX, 50,61 Chemical Abstracts (CA), 50,52, 61 Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), 50 numbers, 389,397 ONLINE computerized system, 50 Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), 394,403,409, 425 Chemical Substances Information Network (CSIN), 58-61 CHEMLINE, 54 CHEMNAME, 51,52,61 478 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling CHEMSIS, 52 Child hazard warning, 288, 289, 294 Chlorine, 76, 374 labeling requirement, 365 marking requirement, 371 Chlornaphazine, 202 Chlorofluorocarbon propellant, 346 Chloroform, 100, 419 Chloropicrin, 419 Chromosomal aberrations, 184, 185,191 Chronic toxic effects carcinogenic, 179, 180 labeling for, 411-414 mutagenic, 179, 184-196 neurotoxic, 179, 198 reproductive, 197 teratogenesis, 179, 197 Cigarette smoking, 198, 202 Cirrhosis, 196 Clean Air Act, 300 Clean Waste Act, 357 Clean Water Act, 101, Cloze Procedure, 26 Coast Guard, 353, 372 Cocarcinogen, 180 Codes of Federal Regulations (CFR), 41-44, 352!355 CFR 500, 287 CFR 1115.12(c), 350 16 CFR 1115.4, 349 CFR 0 , CFR 1500.12, 334 16 CFR 1500.3,167 CFR 1500.3(c), 326, 328 16 CFR 1500.4, 328 CFR 1500.40,159 CFR 1500.41,176 CFR 1500.42,169 CFR 1500.43,328 16 CFR 1500.44,328 CFR 1500.48-.53, 338 CFR 1500.5, 329 CFR , 3 CFR 5 , 3 CFR 1508-1511,338 16 CFR 1600.14,334 29 CFR , 29 CFR 1915.57,451 29 CFR 1915.97,269 29 CFR 1990, 392 37 37 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 CFR 2.56, 271 CFR 202.l(a), 279 CFR 1 , 1 CFR 122.22(a), 320 CFR 162-180,121 CFR 162.10, 282, 285-299 CFR 165,294 CFR , CFR 172.6, 282, 298 CFR 261,103, 294 CFR 261.2, 104,317 CFR 261.31, 106 CFR 261.32,106 CFR 261.33(e), 106, 111, 120,121 40 CFR 261.33(f), 106, 111 40 CFR 261.4(a), 104, 40 CFR 261.4( b), 40 CFR 262,101, 318-319 40 CFR 262.10(f), 321 40 CFR 262.32, 2 , 40 CFR 262.34,320 40 CFR 263,319 40 CFR 263.10(c), 321 40 CFR , , 40 CFR 265,319, 320 40 CFR 267, 320 40 CFR 761.20,312,313,314 40 CFR 761.44, 313 42 CFR 72.3, 97 Title 49, 90, 174 49 CFR 170-189, 295 49 CFR 171.2,321 49 CFR , , 49 CFR 172.101, 64, 83, 90, 91,96,101 49 CFR 172.101(b)(l), 90 49 CFR 172.102,64 49 CFR 172.200-172.205, 360 49 CFR 172.304,72,321,322 49 CFR 172.308,72,322 49 CFR 172.504,83, 322 49 CFR 172.519,74 49 CFR 172.8, 101 49 CFR 173.114a(b), 92 49 CFR 173.114a(d), 49 CFR 173.115,93 49 CFR 173.150,94 49 CFR 173.151,94 49 CFR 173.151a, 94 49 CFR 173.2(a), 102 49 CFR 173.21,91 49 CFR 173.240(a), 94 Index 49 CFR 173.300,93 49 CFR 173.300(a), 95 49 CFR 173.343(a),97,152, 162 49 CFR 173.343(b),97 49 CFR 173.43a3,156 49 CFR 173.50(a), 92 49 CFR 173.51,92-93 49 CFR 173.86(a), 92 49 CFR 173.86(b),92 49 CFR 173.88(g), 92 Coke oven emissions, 391 Coleman Formulae, 26 Collective marks, 273 Combustible CPSC definition, 328 on label, 331 Combustible liquid, 94,103, 359 364 DOT definition, 93 Compressed Gas Institute, 409 Conservation Foundation Report of the Belmont House Conference, 23 Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA), 324,338-350 amendments, 335-336,339 Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), 180,216, 308,334, 336,395,408, 409 carcinogenicity bioassays, 181 labeling requirements, 324-351 test for acute dermal toxicity, 159 test for acute inhalation toxicity, 167 test for acute oral toxicity, 154 test for eye irritation, 167 test for skin irritation, 176 Contracts (employer-employee), 266 Contributory negligence, 221 Copyright, 279 Corrosion metals, 95 skin, 95 Corrosive, 332 characteristic of,113 FHSA definition, 327 on MSDS, 447 on placard, 373, 374 Corrosive material, 77,364 DOT definition, 94 liquid, 102,359 solid, 102, 359 in testing, 91 Cotton dust, 391-392 Cresyl phosphate, 201 Cyanide first aid kit, 139 Cyanogen, 419 Cycasin, 183 Cystic fibrosis, 185 Dale-Chall Formula, 26 DANGER, 344, 387,412,427, 428 on hazardous substance label, 331,404 on pesticide label, 288-289 Dangerous, on placard, 373, 374 DDE, 194 DDT, 194,254,274 Decontamination eye, 137 skin, 137 Defoliants, 295 Demulcents, 136 Department of Defense (DOD), 363 Department of Health and Human Services, 365 list of etiologic agents, 97 Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW), 333 Flamm Subcommittee Report, 184,192 research in labeling, 31-32 Department of Transportation (DOT), 63,64,71,72,90, 97, 101,104,113,122,300, 308,316,403,428 diamond labels, 215-216 hazard classes, order of precedence, 102 hazard classification, DOT rules, 10 hazardous materials transportation regulatory program, 352-380 labeling requirements, 33,318323 specification for placard construction, 73 symbols, 14,21 test for acute dermal toxicity, 156 479 480 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling test for acute inhalation toxicity, 162 test for acute oral toxicity, 152 test for eye irritation, 167 test for skin irritation, 174 DES, 194-195, 202, 223-225 Detergents, 325 DIALOG Information Retrieval Service, 51, 52, 53 ,4-Diamino-anisole, 183 Dibenzoyl peroxide, 417,419, 420 l12-Dibromo-3-chloropropane , 196 sign and label requirements, 392 Dibutylnitrosamine, 183 Dieldrin, 194 Diethylamine, 419 Diethyl zinc, 419 Dilauroyl peroxide, 419 Dimethylnitrosamine, 181 Dimethyl sulfate, 419 Dimethyl sulfoxide, 143 Dinitrotoluene, 102 Directions for Use, 292-294 DNA damage, 184-185, 187,189, 193 DNA repair-dependent assays in carcinogen testing, 193 in mutagen testing, 189 Dominant lethal test, 191, 192 Dose response, 146,180 from chemical carcinogens, 182 comparative data, 202-203 curve, 145,148-151,186,202206 definition, 142 Down’s syndrome, 185 Drugs, 32 abuse, 138 contraindications, 139 for management of exposures, 139 Duty to warn, common law, 220, 225-226, 232-241 checklist, 241-244 Dynamite, c8ses concerning, 237239 EDSO,145 definition, 142 Egg whites, 134,136 Emergency rooms, 138 Emphysema, 196 Empty containers, 120 Enterprise liability, 222 ENVIROLINE, 52,61 Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 314 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 58, 59, 61, 71, 72,89, 103, 152,180, 196, 198, 216, 256, 268, 278, 281-299, 300315, 316-323, 357, 395, 409 acute dermal toxicity study, 157 carcinogenicity bioassays, 181 eye irritation study, 167 guidelines on chronic toxicity testing, 196-197 pesticide product identification, 286 registration of pesticides, 282285 skin irritation study, 175 test for acute inhalation toxicity, 162 test for acute oral toxicity, 152 test for pH, 113 Environmental spill, 138 EPA (see Environmental Protection Agency) EPA Scientific Advisory Panel, 285 EP toxicity, 216 Estimated maximum tolerated dose (EMTD), 182 Ethene, 419 Ether, 94 Ethylamine, 419 Ethylene glycol, 334 Ethyl ether, 419 Ethyl hydroperoxide, 92 Ethyl nitrite, 420 Etiologic agents, 373, 359 DOT definition, 97 labeling requirement, 365 Excerpta Medica, 52 Experimental use permits (EUP), 284,298 Explosives, 75, 119, 359, 361, 362, 369-371,373, 376 DOT definition, 92 Eye contamination, 136,137,138 Index Eye irritation standards, 299 testing, 145, 148,167-174 Farm worker safety, 294, 299 Federal Aviation Agency, 353 Federal Caustic Poison Act, 408,409 Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), 6,8, 324, 325-338,409,428 Federal Index Data Base, 44 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 6,8,90,121- 122,216,256, 278, 300, 409 labeling under, 281-299 Federal Nutrition Service, 395 Federal Register (FR), 41-42, 44,52, 103, 298, 301, 308, 335,394,395,396,400 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 8,276 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 300 Fireworks, 93,334 First aid, 331 definition, 128 for inhalation, 137 order of statements, 137-138 for pesticides, 132 for poison ingestion, 133-136 statements, 133-140,289 Flammability, 418-419,420, 442,444 Flammable, 418 CPSC definition, 328 on label, 291-292,331 Flammable Fabrics Act, 324 Flammable gas, 359 DOT definition, 95 Flammable liquid, 94,102, 103, 359, 362, 364,367,410, 444 DOT definition, 93 Flammable solid, 102, 359, 362, 364, 373,374 DOT definition, 94 Flash point, 418,419 Flesh Formulae for Reading Ease and Human Interest, 26 Food and Drug Administration 481 (FDA), 8, 152,180,216, 224, 256,325,333,395,408 Good Laboratory Practices Regulations, 147 research on food labeling, 31- 32 Food, Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 256,282,300,333,335 Forbidden material, 92 DOT definition, 91 Foreign patent protection, 260 Formica, 276 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 267,309,310 Freight container, 363,364, 373, 375 definition, 379 Fry’s Readability Graph, 26 Fuel oil, 94,370 Fumigants, 299 Fungicides, 295 Furylfuramide, 194 Gas, 87,91, 359, 363,364, 370 compressed in solution, 96 flammable, 76, 102, 374 ignitable compressed, 113 inhalation of, 144 liquified compressed, 96,367 non-flammable, 102, 365, 374 non-liquified compressed, 96 poison, 73,76, 369-371,376 Gasoline, 94,370 Gastric lavage, 135 Gavage, 142 Gene mutations, 184 General Use, 293 Government Printing Office (GPO), 41, 44,45 Gunnings FOG Index, 26 Hair dye, 183, 194 Hazard classes (NFPA), 417 Hazard Communication, 396-397, 400-401 Hazard evaluation sources, 47 Hazard identification, 396,400, 447 Hazard Information System, 353- 354 Hazard labeling, 268-271,444 Hazardous chemicals, 407,444 ANSI Guide to Precautionary 482 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling Labeling of, 403-404 NFPA 704 system for identification of, 417-420 Hazardous materials, 89-127, 362 DOT definition, 90, 379 placarding, 372-373 regulated by DOT, 91, 352 Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS), 404-405, 409, 416, 429-443 Hazardous Materials Regulations Board, 353, 355 Hazardous Materials Regulatory Program, 358-376 Hazardous Materials Table (DOT), 90, 91, 96, 100, 101, 102, 103, 358, 360, 361, 367, 369,370 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, 291, 353, 354, 377 Hazardous substance, 102, 334, 357 banned, 334-336 DOT definition, 101, 379 FHSA definition, 325-326, 328-330 marking requirements, 369 misbranded, 331-332 Hazardous waste, 90, 105, 318323 DOT definition, 101, 379 marking requirements, 368 RCRA definition, 317 RCRA listed nonspecific sources, 107 specific sources, 108-110 RCRA requirements for labeling, 320-323 transportation of, 357 Herbicide, 236, 295 Heritable translocation test, 191, 192 n-Hexane, 201 Hexanitroethane, 92 House mark, 271 Huntington chorea, 185 Hydrazine, 419 Hydrogen, 386 Hydrogen fluoride, 419 Hydrogen sulfide, 419 Hydroxylamine, 419 Hypotension, definition, 132 Identification numbers, 356, 366 "If" clause, 329, 330, 333, 334 Ignitability, characteristic of, 106, 113 Incentive t o deterrence, 220 Industrial exposure, 138 Information sources and systems, 44-61 Infringement copyright, 279 patent, 260-263 trademark, 275-279 Ingestion, 418 management advice of acute, 133-136, 138 Ingredients, listing of, 268 Inhalation exposure, 137, 418 acute, 162-167 in testing, 143 Injection accidental, 137 in testing, 145 Insecticide, case involving, 234, 235 Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG), 22,152, 395 epidemiological studies, 199-200 report on chemical carcinogens, 180-182, 201 test for acute dermal toxicity, 160 test for acute oral toxicity, 154 test for eye irritation, 171 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 66, Internationalization of regulations, 63-66 International Maritime Organization (IMO), 66, 72, 73 requirement 7.2.2, 71 Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 63, 353 Ipecac, syrup of, 134-135, 136 Irritant, 97, 332, 359 FHSA definition, 327, 330 Isoniazid, 201 Joint liability, 222-223 Kepone, 201 Index Label Improvement Program, 298-299 Labeling color in, 10-18 definition of, form in, 13 hazard, 9-10,33-36 legibility in, 19-20 medical considerations, 128- 139 perceptual issues, 10-18 purpose of, 6-8 readability measures, 139 symbols in, 20-25 transportation, 63-85,361-366 views about, 8-9 Labels, 404 color tolerance charts for, 65-69 construction material for, 79-81 defined, 407 licenses, 260-261 paper, 66 precautionary, 407 printing of, 81-83 for transportation, 361, 362 vinyl, 66 warning on, 232-244 for the workplace, 385-401 Labels and Precautionary Information (LAPI) Committee, 409, 425,428 Manual, 409-410 Lanham Trademark Act, 272-274, 276, 277 LQo, 146,148,420 definition, 142 in inhalation toxicity, 144 pesticide toxicity, 290 for toxic chemical, 410 LDso, 121, 141, 143, 145,149, 151,410,420 in acute dermal toxicity, 157- 158 in acute inhalation toxicity, 162-163,166 in acute oral toxicity, 153-156 definition, 142 pesticide toxicity, 290 for toxic chemical, 410 LD Lo, definition, 142 Lead, sign and label requirements for, 390 Legal Date System, 44 Leptophos, 201 Lethality, 149 LEXIS Data System, 44,46 Lighter fluid, 94 Limit tests, 143 definition, 142 Lithium, 417 Lockheed DIALOG Service (see DIALOG Information Retrieval Service) Magnesium peroxide, 419 Maleic anhydride, 419 Mammalian cell cultures in carcinogen assays, 193-194 in mutagen assays, 188 Marking, 366-372 definition, 379 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), 6,270,385,395- 398,400,404,408,425, 429, 446-451 Materials Transportation Bureau, 90,94 McCall-Crabbs Standard Test Lessons in Reading, 26 McGlaughlin’s SMOG Formula, 26 MEDLARS Data Bases, 54-58 MEDLINE, 54,57,60 Metal alkyl solutions, 94 Methacrylic acid, 419 Methyl alcohol, 334 Methylazoxymethanol, 183 Methyl n-butyl ketone, 201 Methyl parathion, 419 Methyl trichlorosilane, 417 Microorganisms patenting of, 256-257 use of depositories, 258-259 Milk, 133,136 Milk of magnesia, 136 Motor carrier, placarding, 372, 373,375 Multi-unit tank car tanks, 363, 367,369-371 Mutagenesis, 179, 184 application to carcinogen assays, 193 definition, 179 DNA-repair assays, 189 insect assays, 190 mammalian assays, 190-192 483 484 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling mammalian cell culture tests, 188,193 microbial tests, 186-188 Mutagens, 180, 184, 189, 190, 194, 398,404,420 tests for, 186-193 NACE Standard Test Methods TM-01-69, 100, 113 TM-02-69, 95 2-Naphthylamine, 181, 198 National Academy of Sciences carcinogen dose response comparisons, 202 mutagen studies, 184 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 58, 61, 180, 183, 193,201 National Electric Code (NEC), 386 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 386, 409, 428,430,445 704 identification system, 215, 403-405, 416-420 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 180 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 44,57,428,430 documents, 45-46,385 searches, 46-47 System, 404, 416, 420-427 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Publication 78.23, 146 National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 266-267 National Library of Medicine, 54 National Paint and Coating Association (NPCA), 405 Hazardous Materials Identification System, 429-430 Labeling Guide, 404, 409, 410, 416, 428-429 National Poison Center Network, 130,140 National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 44, 45 Negligence, definition, 219-220 Neurotoxic effects, 198 Neutralizers, 136 Nickel, 195, 419 Nitrofuradantoin, 201 Nitrogen tetroxide, 360 Nitrosamides, 184 Nitrosamines, 195 Normal equivalent deviation (NED), 149 Not otherwise specified (n.o.s.), 360, 372 NQT (not quenched and tempered steel), 370 Occular lesions, grades for, 174 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 22, 61, 180, 216, 300, 301, 308, 377,409 carcinogenic bioassays, 181 Form 20, 269, 447, 448-450, labeling hazardous substances, 268-271 labeling in the workplace, 385401 1983 Standards, 452 Office of Hazardous Materials Operations (OHMO), 65,67 color tolerance charts, 68-71 Office of Pesticide and Toxic Substances (OPTS), 300 Official Gazette, 52 Oil corn, 143 in management of acute ingestion, 136 Optional Hazardous Materials Table, 367,369, 371 Organic peroxide, 77, 91, 359, 364, 374,386 DOT definition, 94 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 152,198 OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Other Regulated Materials (ORM), 100,355,368,373 ORM-A, 100,102,103, 355, 359,360,363 ORM-B, 100,103,355, 359, 360,363 ORM-C, 101,356,360, 363 ORM-D, 101,356,360,363 ORM-E, 94,101,102,103,359, 363 Index Oxidizer, 102, 113, 359, 362, 364, 366, 374,444 DOT definition, 94 label identification, 417 Oxygen, 75, 137, 386 in acute inhalation testing, 164 label identification, 417 labeling requirements, 365 placarding requirements, 374 Package inserts, 32 Paint, 335 case concerning, 238 sprayers, 137 Paraformaldehyde, 419 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 260 Patent marking, 261 misuse, 262 pending, 263 Patent Act, 253-263 Patent Cooperation Treaty, 260 PCB, 216, 301 labeling for, 311-3J4 as symbol, 23 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), 390 Pesticides, 32, 262, 268, 274, 319 classification of, by EPA, 121 first aid, 132 labeling under FIFRA, 281-299 legal case, 234 in mutagen testing, 188 organophosphate, 136 registration of, 121 safety evaluation of, 191 Petroleum distillate, 334 ingestion of, 135 Philadelphia Area Project on Occupational Safety and Health (PHILAPOSH), 394 Phosphorus pentasulfide, 17 Phosphorus (red), 419 Physician’s note, 133, 139 Picric acid, 420 Placards, 63, 72-78,85, 404 color tolerance charts for, 68-69 NFPA 704,417 transportation, 372-376 Pneumoconiosis, 196 Point mutations, 184, 187 Poison, 77, 91, 359 485 centers, 138 first aid for, 133-134 as hazard, 35 on label, 289, 290, 323, 362, 365 on placard, 374 Poison A, 102, 358, 359, 373 DOT definition, 96 Poison B, 97,216, 362 DOT definition, 96 Poison Prevention Packaging Act, 324, A28 Polyvinyl chloride, 389 Portable tank, 363, 364, 367, 369371,372,375 definition, 380 Potassium permanganate, 417 Potassium peroxide, 417 Potassium persulfate, 417 Practical treatment, statement on label, 289-290 Precautionary measures, 331, 412 Precautionary statements, 290-291 environmental hazard, 291 human hazard, 290 physical or chemical hazard, 290, 29 Pressure-generating substance, CPSC definition, 328 Probit units, 149 Product liability, 217-251 cost, 226 Product Liability Risk Retention Act of 1981, 246 Propanil, 254, 262,274 Proper shipping name, 103 Propionic anhydride, 419 Public Citizen Health Research Group, 394 Pupilometer, 27, 30 Pyrophosphoric liquids, DOT definition, 94 QT (quenched and tempered steel), 370 Radioactive material, 99-100, 102, 363,377,387 DOT definition, 99 labeling requirement, 365-366 marking requirements, 368-371 in order of hazards, 359 placarding requirements, 373-376 Radioactivity, 73, 77, 87, 100, 189,417 486 Handbook of Chemical Industry Labeling Rail carriers, 355,372,373,375 Reactivity, 442,444,447 characteristic of, 119 definition, 418 degrees of hazard, 419-420 Readability formulae, 26 Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR), 284 Refrigerator Safety Act, 324 Reportable quantity (RQ), 101, 102,357 Reproductive toxicants, 412 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 89, 90, 103-104,106,111, 114, 120, 122,216,294,300,357,409 exemptions, 120 labeling under, 316-323 Respiratory arrest, definition, 132 Restricted use, 293 Risk allocation, 220 RTECS, 54,57,60,61,395 Saccharin, 188,194 Saf-T-Datam System, 444 SCISEARCH, 52-53,54 Service marks, 278 definition, 272 Sevin, 188 Shell Oil Company study, 31 Sickle cell anemia, 185 Skin absorption, 136-137,418 Skin contamination, 136, 138,418 Skin irritation, testing, 145, 148, 174-177 Sludge, 121 Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE), 53,61 Sodium, 444 Sodium hydride, 417,419 Sodium hydrosulfite, 419 Sodium hydroxide, 419 Sodium nitrate, 188 Solid waste definition, 104-105 RCRA definition, 316-317 Special Registration Program (EPA), 284 Spontaneous combustion, 94,231 SSIE Current Research, 53 Standards Advisory Committee on Hazardous Materials Labeling, 385, 394,400 Stannic chloride, 419 Statute of limitations, 221 Strong sensitizer, FHSA definition, 327-328 Sulfur, 101 Sulfuric acid, 419 case involving, 237 Super Docket, 356-358 Superfund, 377 System Development Corp (SDC), 50-51,60 Tachistoscope, 27,29 Tank car, 363,364,367,369-371, 372,375 Tay-Sacks disease, 185 Teflon, trademark for, 272, 275 Teratogenesis assay systems, 197 definition, 179 Teratogens, 420 Termiticides, 299 Tetraethyl lead, 361 Thalidomide, 196, 201 Titanium tetrachloride, 95 Toluidine (ortho), 419 Toxicity acute, 141-178,288, 332 categories (FIFRA),121-122, 288-289 chronic, 179-213 dermal, 97, 122, 143,145, 156- 157 FHSA definition, 326 inhalation, 96-97,122, 144 ocular, 145 oral, 96,122,152 of solid waste, by extractive procedure, 119-120 studies, 132 systemic, 145 Toxicological information, 47 on label, 243 Toxicology Data Bank (TDB), 57 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 6,8,58, 61,152, 256, 258,395,409 acute dermal toxicity study, 157 acute inhalation toxicity study, 162 labeling under, 300-315 primary dermal irritation study, Index 175-176 test for acute oral toxicity, 153 TOXLINE, 54,57,60,61 Trademarks, 271-279,287 definition, 271 registering, 276-278 Trade name, 269,273 Trade secrets, 263-271,395, 396, 398-399,400 definition, 309-310 Trade Secrets Act, 267-268 Transport Canada, 85 Transportation Act, 409 Transportation modes, 64 Treatment storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs), 319 Trichloroethylene, 195 Trinitrobenzene, 420 Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 93 Tris-B-P, 194 TSCA Initial Inventory, 53-54 Turpentine, 334 UN Committee of Experts, 85 United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), 64 United Nations Labeling System, 354 UN Orange Source Book, 66 Unreasonable risk, 309,310,311, 487 337,342 definition, 302-306 Uranium hexafluoride, 373 Urethane, 188 USDA, 285 U.S Patent and Trademark Office, 254, 256, 258, 259, 260, 272-277 Vinegar, 136 Vinyl chloride, 198,202, 335, 393 sign and label requirements, 389 Vomiting contraindications, 135 induction of, 134-135 Warning, 232-241,288-293,427, 428 on label, 289, 331,404,412 Water carriers, 355,360,371-372 Water-reactive materials, 94,417 WESTLAW Data System, 44,46 World Patents Index (WPI/WPIL), 51 Xylene, 419 case concerning, 239-241 Zirconium tetrachloride, 419
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