Food protein analysis quantitative effects on processing r k owusu apenten

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FOOD PROTEIN ANALYSIS Quantitative Effects on Processing R K Owusu-Apenten The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Marcel Dekker, Inc New York Basel TM Copyright â 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc All Rights Reserved ISBN: 0-8247-0684-6 This book is printed on acid-free paper Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities For more information, write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above Copyright # 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc All Rights Reserved Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microđlming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Current printing (last digit): 10 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A Series of Monographs, Textbooks, and Reference Books EDITORIAL BOARD Senior Editors Owen R Fennema University of WisconsinMadison Y.H Hui Science Technology System Marcus Karel Rutgers University (emeritus) Pieter Walstra Wageningen University John R Whitaker University of CaliforniaDavis Additives P Michael Davidson University of TennesseeKnoxville Dairy science James L Steele University of WisconsinMadison Flavor chemistry and sensory analysis John H Thorngate III University of CaliforniaDavis Food engineering Daryl B Lund University of WisconsinMadison Food proteins/food chemistry Rickey Y Yada University of Guelph Health and disease Seppo Salminen University of Turku, Finland Nutrition and nutraceuticals Mark Dreher Mead Johnson Nutritionals Phase transition/food microstructure Richard W Hartel University of Wisconsin Madison Processing and preservation Gustavo V Barbosa-Cỏnovas Washington State UniversityPullman Safety and toxicology Sanford Miller University of TexasAustin Flavor Research: Principles and Techniques, R Teranishi, I Hornstein, P Issenberg, and E L Wick Principles of Enzymology for the Food Sciences, John R Whitaker Low-Temperature Preservation of Foods and Living Matter, Owen R Fennema, William D Powrie, and Elmer H Marth Principles of Food Science Part I: Food Chemistry, edited by Owen R Fennema Part II: Physical Methods of Food Preservation, Marcus Karel, Owen R Fennema, and Daryl B Lund Food Emulsions, edited by Stig E Friberg Nutritional and Safety Aspects of Food Processing, edited by Steven R Tannenbaum Flavor Research: Recent Advances, edited by R Teranishi, Robert A Flath, and Hiroshi Sugisawa Computer-Aided Techniques in Food Technology, edited by Israel Saguy Handbook of Tropical Foods, edited by Harvey T Chan 10 Antimicrobials in Foods, edited by Alfred Larry Branen and P Michael Davidson 11 Food Constituents and Food Residues: Their Chromatographic Determination, edited by James F Lawrence 12 Aspartame: Physiology and Biochemistry, edited by Lewis D Stegink and L J Filer, Jr 13 Handbook of Vitamins: Nutritional, Biochemical, and Clinical Aspects, edited by Lawrence J Machlin 14 Starch Conversion Technology, edited by G M A van Beynum and J A Roels 15 Food Chemistry: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Owen R Fennema 16 Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical Methods and Procedures, Michael O'Mahony 17 Alternative Sweeteners, edited by Lyn O'Brien Nabors and Robert C Gelardi 18 Citrus Fruits and Their Products: Analysis and Technology, S V Ting and Russell L Rouseff 19 Engineering Properties of Foods, edited by M A Rao and S S H Rizvi 20 Umami: A Basic Taste, edited by Yojiro Kawamura and Morley R Kare 21 Food Biotechnology, edited by Dietrich Knorr 22 Food Texture: Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, edited by Howard R Moskowitz 23 Seafoods and Fish Oils in Human Health and Disease, John E Kinsella 24 Postharvest Physiology of Vegetables, edited by J Weichmann 25 Handbook of Dietary Fiber: An Applied Approach, Mark L Dreher 26 Food Toxicology, Parts A and B, Jose M Concon 27 Modern Carbohydrate Chemistry, Roger W Binkley 28 Trace Minerals in Foods, edited by Kenneth T Smith 29 Protein Quality and the Effects of Processing, edited by R Dixon Phillips and John W Finley 30 Adulteration of Fruit Juice Beverages, edited by Steven Nagy, John A Attaway, and Martha E Rhodes 31 Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, edited by Michael P Doyle 32 Legumes: Chemistry, Technology, and Human Nutrition, edited by Ruth H Matthews 33 Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods, edited by Keith H Steinkraus 34 International Food Regulation Handbook: Policy ã Science ã Law, edited by Roger D Middlekauff and Philippe Shubik 35 Food Additives, edited by A Larry Branen, P Michael Davidson, and Seppo Salminen 36 Safety of Irradiated Foods, J F Diehl 37 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease, edited by Robert S Lees and Marcus Karel 38 Food Emulsions: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Kồre Larsson and Stig E Friberg 39 Seafood: Effects of Technology on Nutrition, George M Pigott and Barbee W Tucker 40 Handbook of Vitamins: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Lawrence J Machlin 41 Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology, Klaus J Lorenz and Karel Kulp 42 Food Processing Operations and Scale-Up, Kenneth J Valentas, Leon Levine, and J Peter Clark 43 Fish Quality Control by Computer Vision, edited by L F Pau and R Olafsson 44 Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, edited by Henk Maarse 45 Instrumental Methods for Quality Assurance in Foods, edited by Daniel Y C Fung and Richard F Matthews 46 Listeria, Listeriosis, and Food Safety, Elliot T Ryser and Elmer H Marth 47 Acesulfame-K, edited by D G Mayer and F H Kemper 48 Alternative Sweeteners: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Lyn O'Brien Nabors and Robert C Gelardi 49 Food Extrusion Science and Technology, edited by Jozef L Kokini, Chi-Tang Ho, and Mukund V Karwe 50 Surimi Technology, edited by Tyre C Lanier and Chong M Lee 51 Handbook of Food Engineering, edited by Dennis R Heldman and Daryl B Lund 52 Food Analysis by HPLC, edited by Leo M L Nollet 53 Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications, edited by Ching Kuang Chow 54 Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in Foods, edited by Andreas H W Hauschild and Karen L Dodds 55 Cereals in Breadmaking: A Molecular Colloidal Approach, Ann-Charlotte Eliasson and Kồre Larsson 56 Low-Calorie Foods Handbook, edited by Aaron M Altschul 57 Antimicrobials in Foods: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by P Michael Davidson and Alfred Larry Branen 58 Lactic Acid Bacteria, edited by Seppo Salminen and Atte von Wright 59 Rice Science and Technology, edited by Wayne E Marshall and James I Wadsworth 60 Food Biosensor Analysis, edited by Gabriele Wagner and George G Guilbault 61 Principles of Enzymology for the Food Sciences: Second Edition, John R Whitaker 62 Carbohydrate Polyesters as Fat Substitutes, edited by Casimir C Akoh and Barry G Swanson 63 Engineering Properties of Foods: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by M A Rao and S S H Rizvi 64 Handbook of Brewing, edited by William A Hardwick 65 Analyzing Food for Nutrition Labeling and Hazardous Contaminants, edited by Ike J Jeon and William G Ikins 66 Ingredient Interactions: Effects on Food Quality, edited by Anilkumar G Gaonkar 67 Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, edited by Alistair M Stephen 68 Safety of Irradiated Foods: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, J F Diehl 69 Nutrition Labeling Handbook, edited by Ralph Shapiro 70 Handbook of Fruit Science and Technology: Production, Composition, Storage, and Processing, edited by D K Salunkhe and S S Kadam 71 Food Antioxidants: Technological, Toxicological, and Health Perspectives, edited by D L Madhavi, S S Deshpande, and D K Salunkhe 72 Freezing Effects on Food Quality, edited by Lester E Jeremiah 73 Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Keith H Steinkraus 74 Carbohydrates in Food, edited by Ann-Charlotte Eliasson 75 Baked Goods Freshness: Technology, Evaluation, and Inhibition of Staling, edited by Ronald E Hebeda and Henry F Zobel 76 Food Chemistry: Third Edition, edited by Owen R Fennema 77 Handbook of Food Analysis: Volumes and 2, edited by Leo M L Nollet 78 Computerized Control Systems in the Food Industry, edited by Gauri S Mittal 79 Techniques for Analyzing Food Aroma, edited by Ray Marsili 80 Food Proteins and Their Applications, edited by Srinivasan Damodaran and Alain Paraf 81 Food Emulsions: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Stig E Friberg and Kồre Larsson 82 Nonthermal Preservation of Foods, Gustavo V Barbosa-Cỏnovas, Usha R Pothakamury, Enrique Palou, and Barry G Swanson 83 Milk and Dairy Product Technology, Edgar Spreer 84 Applied Dairy Microbiology, edited by Elmer H Marth and James L Steele 85 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiology and Functional Aspects, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Seppo Salminen and Atte von Wright 86 Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology: Production, Composition, Storage, and Processing, edited by D K Salunkhe and S S Kadam 87 Polysaccharide Association Structures in Food, edited by Reginald H Walter 88 Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology, edited by Casimir C Akoh and David B Min 89 Spice Science and Technology, Kenji Hirasa and Mitsuo Takemasa 90 Dairy Technology: Principles of Milk Properties and Processes, P Walstra, T J Geurts, A Noomen, A Jellema, and M A J S van Boekel 91 Coloring of Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, Gisbert Otterstọtter 92 Listeria, Listeriosis, and Food Safety: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Elliot T Ryser and Elmer H Marth 93 Complex Carbohydrates in Foods, edited by Susan Sungsoo Cho, Leon Prosky, and Mark Dreher 94 Handbook of Food Preservation, edited by M Shafiur Rahman 95 International Food Safety Handbook: Science, International Regulation, and Control, edited by Kees van der Heijden, Maged Younes, Lawrence Fishbein, and Sanford Miller 96 Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Ching Kuang Chow 97 Seafood Enzymes: Utilization and Influence on Postharvest Seafood Quality, edited by Norman F Haard and Benjamin K Simpson 98 Safe Handling of Foods, edited by Jeffrey M Farber and Ewen C D Todd 99 Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Karel Kulp and Joseph G Ponte, Jr 100 Food Analysis by HPLC: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Leo M L Nollet 101 Surimi and Surimi Seafood, edited by Jae W Park 102 Drug Residues in Foods: Pharmacology, Food Safety, and Analysis, Nickos A Botsoglou and Dimitrios J Fletouris 103 Seafood and Freshwater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology, and Detection, edited by Luis M Botana 104 Handbook of Nutrition and Diet, Babasaheb B Desai 105 Nondestructive Food Evaluation: Techniques to Analyze Properties and Quality, edited by Sundaram Gunasekaran 106 Green Tea: Health Benefits and Applications, Yukihiko Hara 107 Food Processing Operations Modeling: Design and Analysis, edited by Joseph Irudayaraj 108 Wine Microbiology: Science and Technology, Claudio Delfini and Joseph V Formica 109 Handbook of Microwave Technology for Food Applications, edited by Ashim K Datta and Ramaswamy C Anantheswaran 110 Applied Dairy Microbiology: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Elmer H Marth and James L Steele 111 Transport Properties of Foods, George D Saravacos and Zacharias B Maroulis 112 Alternative Sweeteners: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Lyn OBrien Nabors 113 Handbook of Dietary Fiber, edited by Susan Sungsoo Cho and Mark L Dreher 114 Control of Foodborne Microorganisms, edited by Vijay K Juneja and John N Sofos 115 Flavor, Fragrance, and Odor Analysis, edited by Ray Marsili 116 Food Additives: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by A Larry Branen, P Michael Davidson, Seppo Salminen, and John H Thorngate, III 117 Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Casimir C Akoh and David B Min 118 Food Protein Analysis: Quantitative Effects on Processing, R K OwusuApenten 119 Handbook of Food Toxicology, S S Deshpande 120 Food Plant Sanitation, edited by Y H Hui, Bernard L Bruinsma, J Richard Gorham, Wai-Kit Nip, Phillip S Tong, and Phil Ventresca 121 Physical Chemistry of Foods, Pieter Walstra 122 Handbook of Food Enzymology, edited by John R Whitaker, Alphons G J Voragen, and Dominic W S Wong 123 Postharvest Physiology and Pathology of Vegetables: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Jerry A Bartz and Jeffrey K Brecht 124 Characterization of Cereals and Flours: Properties, Analysis, and Applications, edited by Gửnỹl Kaletunỗ and Kenneth J Breslauer 125 International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens, edited by Marianne D Miliotis and Jeffrey W Bier Additional Volumes in Preparation Handbook of Dough Fermentations, edited by Karel Kulp and Klaus Lorenz Extraction Optimization in Food Engineering, edited by Constantina Tzia and George Liadakis Physical Principles of Food Preservation: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marcus Karel and Daryl B Lund Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing, edited by Y H Hui, Sue Ghazala, Dee M Graham, K D Murrell, and Wai-Kit Nip Food Process Design, Zacharias B Maroulis and George D Saravacos For Mum and Dad, Elizabeth, James, Richard, Candida, and Ađa Index Baker's asthma, 312 Barley biuret assay, 55 Dumas assay, 36 dye binding assay, 153 Kjeldahl analysis, protein analysis, 7, rapid assays for analysis, Udy assay, 152 BCA assay, 99122 algae protein, 121 animal carcass protein, 119121 automated, 113 calibration features, 109 copper analysis, 100 ow injection analysis, 114116 interferences, 110111 lysine and, 119 mechanisms, 105 metal ion catalyzed oxidation, 107 method, 104 microwell plate format, 113115 phenolic compounds effects, 118 reducing compounds and, 106 sample pretreatment for, 112 serum copper, 102 solid phase assay, 117 sugars and, 103 TCA-DOC precipitation and, 112 BCA, derivatives, 101 BE antigen (boiling and ethanol resistant antigen), 236, 239, 240, 260 Bean protein, Bradford assay, 213 Beans, PDCAAS value, 437 Beef analysis, ORBIT, 237 croquettes, soy protein detection in, 304 protein, dye binding assay, 157 Beer Bradford assay, 190, 204206 celiac disease and, 312 Dumas analysis, 30, 36 Kjeldahl analysis, 8, 14 Lowry assay, 88 449 b-Lactoglobulin, 149, 182, digestibility, 309 dye binding, 149 Binding constant, protein-CBBG, 177 Binding sites, dyes, 140 Binding, T-azo-R, 177181 Bioassay, 387, 388 chick, 354 human, 341 protein quality and, 346354 rat 348353 Biological value (BV), 342 Bio-Rad LTD, 207 Biotin-streptavidin detection, 261262 2,2H -Biqinoline, Lowry assay and, 76 Birds nest soup, allergy, 305 Bitter, Bradford assay, 207 Biuret assay, 47 barley analysis, 55 casein determination, 49 cereal proteins, 57 protein solubility determinations by, 63 Biuret, structure, 47 Boiling and ethanol resistant antigen, 236, 239, 240, 260 Bone meal, 271 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see BSE agent) Bradford assay advantages, 169 beer protein, 204205 beverages and, 190 bread crumb, 212 calibration features, 201 carotenoids and, 189 Chardonnay wine, 211 compatible solutes, 186, 187 effect of SDS, 187 interferences, 186 legumes, 213 lipids and, 191 mechanisms, 172 microassay format, 196 modiđed, 196 450 [Bradford assay] monosaccharides and, 190 mungbean our, 213 mushrooms, 216 pinot noir, 211 polypeptide selectivity, 171 polyphenols and, 209210 polysaccharides and, 186, 191, 199 reagent pH, 172 sensitivity, 202203 solid phase, 185 standard method, 196 wavelength of, 173175 Bran protein, 55 Bread crumb, Bradford assay and, 212 Bread making quality, 212213 Bread mix, gluten free, 321 Bread wheat, 57 Brest milk, 318 Brewing grains, Dumas assay, 30, 33, 36 British beers, Bradford assay, 208 BSA binding, CBBG, 185 BSE agent, 271273 bone meal and, 271 immunological detection, 272 test kits for, 271273 Buckwheat, celiacs and, 320 Buffalo, antigen, 238 Buffer effects, Lowry assay, 81 Butter milk, dye binding assay, 148 BV (see Biological value) Cake our, gluten free, 321 Calibration, 37 ammonia analysis and, 19, 20, 23 BCA assay and, 109110, 113 biuret assay for rice, 5859 Bradford assay and, 201 deđnitions, Dumas assay and, 35 dye binding assay, 129, 131, 154, 155 ELISA format and, 270 gliadin ELISA, 323 gluten ELISA, 323 horse meat ELISA, 267 Index [Calibration] Lowry assay, 72, 7780 meat ELISA, 253 pork ELISA, 257, 267 soy ELISA, 284 Udy assay, 154 Camel, ELISA, 252, 254, 255, 260 Canned baby foods, ELISA and, 262 Canned đsh, ELISA, 268269 Canned foods digestibility, 370 Kjeldahl analysis, 16 Canned milk, 150 Canned tuna, 268 Carbethoxylation, đsh meal, 363 Carbohydrates available lysine determination and, 359, 362, 366 Lowry assay and, 81 Carbonyl-amine reaction, (see also Maillard Reaction), 416418 Caroteinoids, Bradford assay and, 189 Casein biuret assay, 49 digestibility, 370 dye binding assay, 126 PER value, 349 protein quality, 344 Udy assay, 138, 149 Catalysts, Kjeldahl assay and, CBBC sources, Bradford assay and, 197198 CBBG, bi-ionic form, 172 Celiac disease, 312313 Celiac Society of Great Britain, 322 Celiac-negative cereals, 323 Cereal products Bradford assay, 212 PNV, 398401 Cereal proteins, classiđcation, 314 Cereals allergens, 312329 biuret assay, 57 Lowry assay, 88 Udy assay, 151 Index Cerelac, 397 Chardonnay wine, Bradford assay, 211 Cheddar cheese, dye binding, 150 Cheese, 151 Chemical deterioration, proteins, 416420 Chemical score, 429431 egg protein and, 354 Chemistry biuret assay, 50 Lowry assay, 77 Udy assay, 133147 Chick bioassay, protein quality, 353354 Chick pea, Udy assay, 153 Chicken antigen for, 238 determination amino acid analysis, 27 dye binding assay, 157, 159 immunodiffusion assay, 240 Chlorophyll, Lowry assay and, 8182 Chocolate bars, ELISA, 310 gluten ELISA and, 320, 321 milk, dye binding assay, 148 peanut allergens in, 310311 Chromatographic determination, available lysine, 360361 Circular dichroism, 317 Citations off, Lowry assay, 71 CNS tissue in feed, 272 Cod đllet, dye binding assay, 157 Codex Alimentarius Commission, allergens, 298 Collaborative testing Bradford assay, 205206 Dumas assay, 30, 34, 36 gluten ELISA, 322 ice cream analysis dye binding, 150 PNV, 390 soya protein ELISA, 282 three-enzyme assay for digestibility, 370 Collagen Lowry assay, 93 PDCAAS value, 436437 451 [Collagen] quantitative amino acid analysis, 2728 Colorimetric assay, ammonia, 1823 Colorimetric Kjeldahl analysis, 1825 Combustion analysis, milk products, 37 Combustion nitrogen analyzer (see Dumas assay) Commodities, Udy assay, 128 Compatible solutes, Bradford assay, 186, 187 Compton-Jones scheme, CBBG, 172173 ComputedéPER index (see c-PER) Conarachin, 306 Condensed milk, 151 Confectionary, gluten ELISA, 322 Confectionary products, ELISA, 311 Conformational stability, 425 Conglycinin, 285289, 292 renaturing efđciency, 288 Conversion factor, Kjeldahl assay, 10, 12 Cooked beef, ELISA, 260 Cooked meat antigens for, 236, 238 immunoassay, 239, 247, 260, 268 soy allergens and, 303 Cooked poultry, ELISA, 261, 262 Cooking oil, peanut allergens and, 310 Cooking, gluten analysis and, 326 Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250, 169 Copper analysis, BCA assay and, 101 Copper complex, Biuret assay, 5052 Copper concentration, Lowry assay and, 82 Copper hydroxide, biuret assay, 48 Corn our, gluten detection in, 322 Corn meal, BCA assay, 117 Corn protein, Bradford assay, 212, 213 Correlation coefđcient, deđnition, Cortecs, 262, 271 gluten ELISA kit, 319 peanut ELISA kit, 311 452 [Cortecs] pork ELISA kit, 271 Costs Dumas assay, 32 PNV tests, 429 Cottage cheese, dye binding, 150 Cottonseed, available lysine, 360 Cowpea, Udy assay, 154155 c-PER, 433 Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, 271 Cross reactivity (see Speciđcity) Cross-linking, 418419 Crystal violet, protein binding and, 172 Crystalline-amorphous transition, 425 Cyoprotectants, Lowry assay and, 82 Cysteine, racemization, 418 Dairy products Dumas assay, 30 dye binding, 147 Dairy proteins, Biuret assay, 63 DBC (see Dye binding capacity) d DBC, differential dye-binding capacity available lysine determination and, 362365 legumes and, 364 soybean meal and, 363 total lysine and, 364 Deer analysis, DRIFT, 237 Defatting, meat, 61 Degree of hydrolysis, 373 Dehulling, PNV and 395 Dehydrogenation, Lowry assay, 75 Denaturation, 414419 meat antigens, 263265 peanut allergens, 308309 processing and, 415 Denaturation temperature (TD), soy proteins, 286287 Denaturation-renaturation, soy antigens, 284 Denaturing agents, 414 Dent CO251 (see also Maize), 435 Design, Lowry assay, 69 Index Detergent effect, Bradford assay, 187188 Dialysis assay, digestibility, 373 Differential dye-binding capacity (d DBC), 362365 Differential scanning calorimetry (see DSC) Difđculties, Udy assay, 130 Digestibility deđnitions of, 367368 peanut allergens, 309310 three enzyme method for, 369372 Dimethyl sulfoxide and Lowry assay, 82 Diphtheria toxin, 231 Disulđde bonding gluten and, 315 in soybean protein, 285, 288 Donkey, ELISA, 256, 262 Double immunodiffusion, 230 Dried milk, 344 Kjeldahl assay, 13 PNV for, 382384 DRIFT, 235 DSC, soy protein, 286 DSC2, Tg measurements, 422 Dumas assay, 29 Advantages of, 31, 36 atmospheric error and, 33 beer protein, 30, 36 feedstuffs, 34 instrumentation, 3133 ketchup, 30 malt, 30 materials, 32 milk products, 37 oilseed protein, 33 semolina, 38 Dye binding assay beef protein, 157 calibration with Kjeldahl, 150, 152155 chicken meat, 157, 159 cod đllet, 157 Dye binding lysine, 362 Dye equivalent weight, 129 Index Dye purity, Bradford assay and, 197198, 200 Effect of dye volume, Bradford, 201 Egg albumin, 344 biuret assay, 48, 63 Bradford assay, 217 Egg allergens, 305, 309 Egg products, dye binding assay, 159 Egg protein, 290, 292, 346, 347, 392 Udy assay, 159 Egg ratio, 354 Egg white allergens, 300 Egg yolk, Bradford assay and, 201 Egyptian legumes, PNV, 394 Electrophoresis (see also SDS-PAGE) CBBG, 170 samples, Bradford assay, 198, 199 ELISA aatoxins, 251 bacterial toxins, 25 boiling resistant antigen, 260 BSE agent, 271273 buffalo, 256 meat, 260 cattle, 256 commercial, 282 competitive, 248 confectionary products, 311 cooked beef, 262 meat, 260265 pork, 262 poultry, 262 enzyme substrates, 254 format, 248250, 255 game meat, 260 gliadin, 317329 gluten, 317329 horse meat, 252256, 258, 260263, 266268 muscle antigen for, 257260 Ochratoxin, 251 performance characteristics, 270 peroxidase assay and, 254 pork, 260 453 [ELISA] analysis, 256, 257 pyruvate kinase as antigen, 258 raw meat, 252, 255 red snapper, 270 reviews, 250 rock shrimp, 269270 sardine, 268 sea food, 268270 sheep, 256 soy protein, 281296 ELISA test kit BSE, 273 deer meat, 262 gluten, 323 meat, 262 allergens, 310 peanut, 311 pork, 262 soybean, 283284 tuna, 268 working range, 254, 320 Emulsion proteins, Lowry assay, 90 End-point temperature, meat ELISA, 265 End-point temperatures, Biuret assay, 62 Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (see ELISA) Enzyme, protein digestibility and, 366 Equations, Udy assay, 141142 Equilibrium, Udy assay, 138, 156 Errors chemical score, 355 PER determination, 350 Essential amino acids, 355 Ethyl vinyl sulfone (EVS), 356 Evaporated milk, protein analysis, 149 FAO/WHO/UNU, 433 Fatalities, peanut allergy, 306 FDA, 298 FDNB, 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene assay, 356 454 [FDNB] available lysine determination, 356359 correction factor, 359 Fecal nitrogen, 367, 368 Feed supplements, 386 Feedstuffs and concentrates, 386393 Feedstuffs, 387 Dumas assay, 30, 33, 34, 35 dye binding assay, 156, 390 Kjeldahl analysis, 16 Orange G binding, 388390 PNV evaluation, 346, 387393 Udy assay, 156 Fermented soybean products, allergenicity, 304 Fertilizer, Dumas assay, 30 FIA, BCA assay using, 114 Ficol, Lowry assay, 82, 83 Fish, allergens, 298 Fish and seafood identiđcation, 268271 Fish gelatin, 311 Fish meal, 387, 388, 390 Acid Orange 12 binding, 390 DBC, 389 Kjeldahl analysis and, 15 Udy assay, 138, 156 Fish protein, Tg, 423 Fish protein concentrate, 268 Fish sausages, soy protein detection in, 304 Flint CO255 (see Maize), 435 Flow injection analysis (see FIA) Flower bud protein, quantitative amino acid analysis, 27 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (see FDNB) Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 71 Food allergy, 297 intolerance, 297 matrix, protein quality and, 420425 Foods, Dumas assay, 30 Freeze dried proteins, 425 Fringe-micelle model, 421 Frozen dessert, 151 Index Fruit juice, Bradford assay, 211 Game meat, ELISA, 260 Gel immunodiffusion assay, cooked meat, 239241 Gelatin BCA assay, 105 Biuret assay, 49, 56 complexes with Amido Black 10B, 147 feedstuffs and, 156 Lowry assay, 93 Gelatin granules, 126 Gel-đltration, beer, 206 Glass transition temperature (see also Tg), 420425 Gliadin, 314317 in human milk, 318 Tg value for, 424 Gluten, 315 available lysine, 360 confectionary products and, 322 ELISA, 317329 home test, 323324 preparation, 315 standards for ELISA, 321 Tg value for, 421 Gluten-free foods, 313, 318, 322, 323 Gly m Bd 30k, as soybean allergen, 301304 Glycation, Bradford assay, 190 Glycinin, 285289 Gordon-Taylor equation, 422425 GPV (Gross protein value), 342 Grain and cereal, Kjeldahl assay, 13 Grains, Dumas assay, 33 Grape juice, Bradford assay, 210 Graphical analysis, Udy assay, 144145 Gross protein value (see GPV) Ground rice, biuret assay, 59 Half and half milk, protein assay, 149 Hamburger, meat identiđcation and, 235 Heat effects, soy antigens, 287 Heat resistance, conglycinin, 288 Histidine, dye binding and, 135, 139 Index Home test, gluten, 323324 Honey Bradford assay, 217 Kjeldahl analysis, 217 Horse antigen production using, 231 ELISA, 267 immunoassay, 234 immunodiffusion assay, 239 meat, 252256, 258, 260263, 266268 meat protein, immunoassay, 252256, 258, 260263, 266268 muscle antigen, identity, 258, 261 muscle protease, biuret assay and, 62 protein assay, 235 Horseradish peroxidase, 253254 Human milk, gliadin detection in, 318 Hybridoma, 229 Hydrogen peroxide Biuret assay, 55 Kjeldahl assay and, Hypoallergenic bread, 316 Ice cream dye binding, 148 protein, 150157 Udy assay, 148, 150151 Immunization schedule, 231, 233 Immunoabsorption, 232 Immunoassay, principles, 226 Immunoblotting, 299300, 307 Immunodiffusion assay chicken meat, 240 meat, 230 Immunological assays, disadvantages, 250 Immunology, 228 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), 169 In vitro digestibility, 368374 protein stability and, 413 protein structure and, 413 Incidental additives, 298 Indanetrione assay, Kjeldahl assay, 23 Indophenol reagent, Kjeldahl assay, 18 Infant formula, 384386 amino acid supplementation, 386 455 [Infant formula] Dumas assay, 3738 peanut protein detection in, 306 PER, 350 PNV bioassay, 385 rat bioassay, 385 Infrared analysis, cereal proteins, Insect protein, Bradford assay, 199 Insoluble protein, Bradford assay, 217 Instant breakfasts, Kjeldahl assay analysis, Interferences available lysine, 362, 363, 366 BCA assay list for, 111 biuret assay, 5355 Bradford assay, 186191 d DBC, 363 Lowry assay, 80 ninhydrin assay, 23 plant dyes as, 57, 58, 59 Udy assay, 147 Isobestic point, 140, 172 IVPD (see In vitro digestibility) Kangaroo meat, immunoassay, 234, 235 Ketchup, Dumas assay, 30 Kinetics, 395 Lowry assay, 77 proteolysis, 412414 Kiwi fruit juice, Bradford assay, 211, 212 Kjeldahl analysis, 1, 725, 344 barley, beer, 8, 14 catalysts, colorimetric, acetylacetone and, 22 comparison with dye binding assay, 150, 152, 153 honey, 217 gliadin, 327 Kjeldahl factor and, 10, 12 nitrogen-protein conversion factor, 10, 12 PER values and, 349 PNV determination, 349 456 [Kjeldahl analysis] reactions of, reliability, sausages, 17 Kjel-foss, Instrument, 15 Labeling, food allergens, 297 Lactalbumin, PER value, 349 Lactose, protein quality and, 382, 385 Larger, Bradford assay, 208 Leaf protein, Lowry assay, 88, 90 LECO FP-2000, Dumas assay, 31 LECO FP-228, Dumas assay, 33 LECO FP-428, Dumas assay, 3132 Legumes available lysine, 394395 baking and PNV of, 395 Bradford assay, 213 dehulling and PNV, 395 dye biding, 153156 ELISA and, 312 Lowry assay, 88 PNV, 393398 roasting and PNV, 396 sprouting and PNV, 395 steaming and hydrothermal treatment, 395 Lesions, celiac disease, 312313 Linear dynamic range, Linear free energy relations, amino acids, 418 Linearity, Bradford assay, 201 Lipid Bradford assay and, 191, 200 interferences by, 84 Lower limit of detection (LLD) deđnition, 3, ELISA, 265 gluten ELISA, 320, 324 soy bean ELISA, 284, 290 Udy assay, 152 Lowry assay buffers and, 81 carbohydrates and, 81 Index [Lowry assay] cereals, 88 chlorophyll and, 8182 citations of, 71 cryoprotectants and, 82 design, 69 emulsion proteins, 90 leaf protein, 90 legumes, 88 mechanisms of, 77 nondairy creamers, 90 sample pretreatments for, 8687 single cell protein, 91 Lysine BCA assay and, 119 bioassay and, 344 CBBG binding and, 171 determination, 356366 dye binding and, 135, 138 glycation and Bradford assay, 190 loss, Arrhenius plot 385 Maillard reaction, 382, 416418 available lysine, 366 pH and, 417 Maize available lysine, 360 cultivars, 435 Dumas analysis, 29 PNV, 399 Malt Dumas assay, 30, 36 dye biding, 152 Materials, Dumas assay, 32 Matrix effects, protein deterioration and, 420 Mean residue weight, tables of values, 27 Meat, 247281, 284, 303 analysis for soybean, 285 antigenic components, 232, 251 BCA assay and, 119121 biuret assay, 6163 Dumas analysis, 29 dye binding assay, 157 gel immunodiffusion assay, 230 Index [Meat] quantitative amino acid analysis, 27 sample pretreatment for ELISA, 284 soy protein detection in, 303 Udy assay, 156157 Meat analogue, Kjeldahl analysis, 16 Meat and bone meal, PNV, 393 Meat and meat products, Kjeldahl analysis, 15 Meat antigen, 231 Meat rendering plants, 272 Meat speciation, 247280 Meatballs, soy protein detection in, 304 Mechanism biuret assay, 50 Lowry assay, 73, 77 Udy assay, 133147 Melanoma, 229 Metachromasia, Crystal violet, 174 Metal ion catalyzed oxidation, Lowry assay, 73 Michaelis-Menten kinetics, 414 Microassay, Bradford, 196 Microbiuret assay, 56 Micro-Kjeldahl analysis, 21, 13 Microwave heating, 396 Microwell plate, BCA assay using, 113 Milk, 282 allergens, 298, 300 ELISA, 282 powder, 381 powder, PER, 350 prices and protein content, 125 products, Dumas assay, 37 protein, dye binding assay, 147, 148 protein, ELISA plate coating, 248, 272 protein, Udy assay, 147151 soymilk detection in, 281 Millet PNV, 399400 protein, biuret assay, 60 Mince, soy protein detection in, 284 Model wine solution, Bradford assay, 211 457 Moist heating, allergen stability and, 308 Moisture food deterioration and, 416 peanut allergens and, 308 PER values and, 350 PNV and, 383384 rapeseed heat damage and, 392 Moisture-temperature-time relations, 411 Molten globule and digestibility, 412415 Monoclonal antibodies development for ELISA, 265268 gluten ELISA and, 325327 meat analysis and, 265267 pork ELISA and, 267 soy bean ELISA and, 290292 turkey analysis, 266 Monosaccharides, Bradford assay and, 190 Multiple processing, legumes, 397 Mungbean, Bradford assay, 213 PNV, 394 Muscle lactate dehydrogenase, ELISA, 264, 265 Mushrooms Bradford assay, 216 Kjeldahl analysis, 160 quantitative amino acid analysis, 27 Udy assay, 160 Myoglobin, thermostable antigen and, 238, 239 Naphthylamine brown, 126 NB, nitrogen balance, 342, 346347, 367 NDI, nitrogen digestibility index, 373 Nessler's reagent, Kjeldahl method and, 21 Net protein utilization (NPU), 342 Ninhydrin reagent, Kjeldahl method and, 2324 Nitrogen balance (NB), 342, 346347, 367 Nitrogen digestibility index (NDI), 373 458 Nondairy creamers, Lowry assay, 90 Nonanimal protein ingredients, 281 Nonfat milk, 149 NPU, net protein utilization, 342 Nucleic acid, Bradford assay and, 191 Nuts allergens and, 300301 ELISA, 310312 Oats Ac Hill, 436 Ac Lotta, 436 Ac Percy 436 biuret assay, 60 PDCAAS value, 436 Oilseeds, Dumas assay, 30, 33 OPA (see o-Phthaldehyde) o-Phthaldehyde, 356 Orange G binding, PNV, feedstuffs, 389390 structure of, 136 Udy assay using, 130 ORBIT, 235 Ovalbumin, 182 pAb, for detection of donkey muscle protein, 256, 262 PAGE, 81, 402 Pavalbumin, allegen and, 300 PDCAAS, 411, 427, 429, 433438 applications, 434439 beans, 437 beneđts, 434 calculation, 434 collagen, 436437 maize, 434 oats, 436 rice, 434 Vigna, 434 PDR index (see Pepsin, digest residue index) Pea globulin, ELISA, 290, 291 Peanut allergens, 300, 306308 cooking oil and, 310 preparation, 307 Index Peanut allergy, 305312 average fatalities, 306 in infants, 306 in pregnancy, 306 Peanut protein, in confectionary, 311 Peanuts, chemical score, 429 Pepsin digest dialysate index (PDD index), 432 digest residue index (PDR index), 432 pancreatin digestion index (PPD index), 432 Peptide antigens gluten ELISA and, 324327 soybean ELISA and, 290 Peptidyl sites, digestibility and, 414 PER (Protein efđciency ratio), 342, 348351 AOAC guidelines, 351 complex foods and, 350 rat acclimation period, 350 sweetened foods and, 350 Perilla, 396 Peterson's Lowry assay, 72 Phenol red, 125 Phenol Bradford assay and, 188 BCA assay and, 119 Phospholipids, Lowry assay, 84 Phosphothreonine, racemization, 418 Pierce Warriner LTD, 207 Pinot Noir, Bradford assay, 211 Pioneer 3953 (see Maize), 435 Plant colors, Biuret assay and, 55 Plant metabolites, Bradford assay, 188189 Plant proteins, 221 Amido Black 10B binding, 130 Plasticizer, water as, 420 PNV (protein nutrient value), 341380, 411 amino acid losses and, 344345 animal tests, 348354 assessment by PDCAAS, 434 bioassays, 346354 Index [PNV (protein nutrient value)] consumer factors and, 343 factors affecting, 343 food labeling and, 344 human assays and, 346348 hygiene and, 343 indicators for, 342 infant formulas and, 384 insect infestation and, 400 Kjeldahl analysis and, 349 legumes, 393398 literature, 345, 348349 meat and bone meal, 393 pregnant and lactating women and, 344 processing and, 381402 quality control and, 344 rat bioassay, 348 soaking and, 395 Polyacrylamide gels, CBBG stain, 170 Polyamino acids, dye binding and, 171, 181, 183 Polyclonal antibody production, 232 Polyethylene glycol, 132 Polymer chemistry, 420 Polymer science approach, 424 Polymerase chain reaction, 224 Polyols, 133 Polypeptide selectivity, Bradford assay and, 171 Polyphenols, Bradford assay and, 209210 Polysaccharide interference, Bradford assay, 186, 191, 199 Polyvalent antigen, 229 Porcine rind protein, 27 Pork analysis, PRIME, 237 dye binding assay, 157 ELISA, 267268 thermostable antigen, 238 Potato protein Bradford assay, 214216 chemical score, 429 Kjeldahl analysis, 13 459 [Potato protein] Lowry assay, 88 Poultry analysis, PROFIT, 237 Poultry, ELISA for, 266267, 268 PPPD index, 432 Precision, protein assays and, Preservatives, milk, 148 Prionics AG, 273 Procedure biuret assay, 49 Bradford assay, 195 Lowry assay, 70 PDCAAS and, 433434 soy protein antigen preparation, 284 Udy assay, 128 Processed foods, digestibility, 370371 gluten detection in, 310, 320 interferences in, 80 Kjeldahl analysis, 16 PROFIT, 235 Pro-meter instrument, Udy assay, 153 Propionic anhydride, acylation, 363 Protein analysis, signiđcance, assay, characteristics, binding, CBBG, 173, 175, 177 binding, dyes, 135 concentrates, 386393 digestibility, 366, 411 digestibility corrected amino acid score, (see PDCAAS) efđciency ratio (see PER) haze, 209 immunoassay, 225 M, shrimp antigen, 269 molecular weights, 57 nutrient value (see PNV) precipitation, Bradford assay, 199 carbonyl-amine reaction and, 417418 factors inuencing, 343 milk, 381 segmental mobility, digestibility and, 413 460 [Protein] stain, CBBR, 170 Protein-protein-variation, BCA assay, 105 Bradford assay, 197, 201, 212 Protein-quinone interactions, 210 Proteolysis, Lowry assay, 9091 Puriđcation, Coomassie Brilliant Blue, 200 QPM (see Maize), 435 QSDS-PAGE, Quantitative amino acid analysis, pork rind, 27 Quantitative sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (see QSDSPAGE) Racemization amino acids and, 418419 cysteine, 418 factors controlling, 418419 rate prediction, 418 Radcliff Inđrmary, 322 Radioallergo absorbent test (see RAST) Rapeseed heat damage, 392 meal, PNV, 390392 protein, Udy assay, 154155 RAST, 299 Rat bioassay, 411 Raw meat, ELISA, 252, 255 R-Biopharm, ELISA test kit, gluten, 320 Reactive lysine (see also Available lysine), 356 Red snapper, 270 Red wheat, Udy assay, 153 Relative nutritive value (see RNV) Relative protein value (see RPV) Reliability Kjeldahl assay, Udy assay, 152 Renaturing buffer, 284 Index Reverse phase high pressure chromatography (see RP-HPLC) Reviews celiac disease, 313 dye binding, 126127 peanut allergy, 306 protein quality, 345 Rice, 402, 435 beans, protein, 395 protein biuret assay, 59 Udy assay, 153 PDCAAS value, 435 PNV and, 399 RNV, 342 Rock shrimp, 260270 RP-HPLC available lysine, 361 gliadin analysis, 327 RPV, 342 Salt effects, Bradford assay, 201 Sample calibration, 4, Sample pelleting, Dumas assay, 33 Sample pretreatment beer, Bradford assay, 205 cereals, 55 corn meal, BCA assay 117 Lowry assay and, 8687 meat, 261 Biuret analysis, 61 ELISA, 285 Plasma, 49 soy bean product, 284 Sardine, 268 Sausages dye binding, 159 gluten and, 313, 321 Immunodiffusion assay, 239 Kjeldahl analysis, 17 soy protein, 284, 289, 290 Udy assay, 159 Scenario, dye binding, 141143 Schecter and Berger scheme, 414 Screening, high-lysine cereals, 401402 Index SDS, Bradford assay, 187 SDS-PAGE, 300, 307, 309 antigen analysis, 237 peanut allergens, 309 wheat allergen, 315317 Seal meat, immunodiffusion, 239 Secondary structure, Gliadin, 317 Seed globulins, ELISA and, 291 Seharawi, celiac disease and, 312 Semolina, Dumas assay, 38 Sensitivity, 1, BCA assay of copper, 102 biuret assay, 55, 56 Bradford assay, 177, 179, 183185, 197, 201204 colorimetric Kjeldahl assay, 18 dye binding, 131,132, 133 gluten ELISA, 329 immunoassay, 227 Lowry assay for wheat protein, 89 meat ELISA, 260 protein analysis, 1, 2, 56 Udy assay, 137 Serine, racemization, 418 Sesame our, Udy assay, 155 Sheep antigen, 231 Sheep, ELISA, 249, 252, 255256, 257, 260, 261, 262, 268 Sheep serum albumin (SSA), 253 Shrimps, 269, 300, 301 Single cell protein, Lowry assay, 91 Skimmed milk dye binding assay, 151 Kjeldahl factor for 12 Slope assay, protein quality, 347 Small animal bioassay, 348 Soaking, PNV and, 395 Sodium borohydride, available lysine, 365366 Sodium dodecyl sulfate (see SDS) Solid phase assay Bradford assay, 185 Udy assay, 131133, 143 Solubility relations, Udy assay, 143 Soluble complexes, Udy assay, 138140 461 Sorghum, 399400 biuret assay, 60 Soup, gluten detection in, 322 Soy bean allergens, analysis, 303305 ELISA cooking and, 283 speciđcity, 283, 291 our, Udy assay, 153 products, ELISA, 289 protein, 285286 in sausages, 289 thermal denaturation, 286287 protein antigen, 284, 285 Soybean ELISA, 281296 7S protein, 285289 Udy assay, 138 Soybean meal, Orange G binding, 389 Soybean protein, available lysine, 360 Soymilk, 282 Species identiđcation đeld test (see SIFTS), 235 Speciđcity deđnition, gluten, ELISA, 318, 325, 326 meat ELISA, 256, 263 peanut ELISA, 311 soya bean ELISA, 283 Spray dried milk, 382383 dye binding, 129, 130,147 PNV, 382 Udy assay, 129 Sprouted cereals, protein quality, 345 St Bartholomew's Hospital, 322 St James University Hospital, 322 Standard assay, Bradford, 196 Starch interferences, 55 Statistical principles, Steaming, PNV and, 395 Stiffness parameter, 423 Stout, Bradford assay 207 Structure Acid Orange 12 dye, 136 Acid Red 1, 135 462 [Structure] Amido Black 10B, 137 bicinchoninic acid, 100 biuret, 47 CBBG, 170 CBBR, 170 copper-biuret complex, 47 dehydropeptide, 75 iminopeptide, 75 Orange G, 136 T-azo-R, 135 Sudanese legumes, PNV, 394 Sulfhydryl compounds BCA assay and, 118 Lowry assay and, 8485 Sulfhydryl group, dye binding, 126 Sulfhydryl-disulđde exchange, 317, 415 Symptoms celiac disease, 312313 food allergy, 298 peanut allergy, 305 T-azo-R, 134 TCA-DOC precipitation Bradford assay and, 118, 195, 199200 Lowry assay and, 72 TDC (total digestibility coefđcient), 342 Tectator heating block, 21 Test kits, species identiđcation and, 235236 Tg (glass transition temperature), 420425 đsh protein hydrolysate, 423 gluten, 421 moisture and, 422 protein quality and, 420425 proteins and peptides, 421 Theory (see Mechanism) Thermal conductivity detectors, 30 denaturation, peanut allergen, 308309 stability, meat antigens, 263265 Thermostable antigen, 238 meat and, 261 Index [Thermostable antigen] soybean and, 289292 Three enzyme assay, in vitro digestibility, 369372 TNBS assay, 119, 356, 361362, 365, 369 Tomato protein, Dumas assay, 30 Tomato seed, Lowry assay, 88 Tortillas, 399 Total digestibility co-efđcient (see TDC) TPD (see True protein digestibility) Trace allergens, 297 Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic acid, (see TNBS) Troponin, meat antigens and, 236, 238239 Troponin T, ELISA antigens and, 261 True protein digestibility, 367, 433 Trypsin inhibitors, protein digestibility, 372 Tuna, 268 PER value for, 352 soy protein in, 305 Turkey sausages, 239 Two-state denaturation, 412, 414415, 425 Tyrosinase, copper detection in, 99 Udy assay, 125126, 138 barley, 152 cereal proteins, 151 difđculties, 130 dye-protein solubility and, 143 equations for, 141142 đsh meal, 138, 156 mechanisms of, 133137 milk protein, 147151 reliability, 152 sausages, 159 various commodities, 128 UHT milk, protein quality and, 382 Ultrađltration, 211 Uncooked meat, ELISA, 254257 immunoassay, 234 Index Water ammonia determination in, 1920 PER and, 350, 352 Water activity, 383384 Maillard reaction and, 383384, 417 Water holding, 281 Water supply, Kjel-Foss instrument and, 15 Weaning foods, PNV, 397398 Western transfer, 273 Whale meal, 387 Wheat, 345 allergens of, 314317 allergy, 312313 463 [Wheat] biuret assay, 53, 5760 dye binding assay, 151 reliability of analysis, Udy assay, 151 Whey protein, Bradford assay, 217 Whole milk, dye binding, 149 William-Landel-Ferry kinetics, 420 Wine, Bradford assay, 190, 209212 Yeast protein, Lowry assay, 6364, 91 Zein, biuret assay, 49
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