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Khóa học Internet Marketing thực hành hướng dẫn bạn sử dụng những công cụ TÌM KIẾM KHÁCH HÀNG hiệu quả nhất, dành cho cá nhân và doanh nghiệp đang kinh doanh online.Chương trình Internet Marketing Passport được thiết kế đặc biệt dành cho cá nhân và doanh nghiệp đang kinh doanh online, giúp bạn kinh doanh hiệu quả hơn, có nhiều khách hàng, và doanh số tăng lên.Phương pháp đào tạo Ứng dụng là số 1 lý thuyết cô đọng, tập trung vào thực hành nhằm đạt mục tiêu xây dựng hệ thống bền vững, bán hàng hiệu quả, gia tăng khách hàng, gia tăng thu nhập nhờ Internet . HUMAN DIET 35 HUMAN DIET READING COMPREHENSION Because the human diet is typically diverse, human beings are classified as omnivores rather than as herbivores (plant eaters) or carnivores (meat eaters) Certain groups of people derive most of their food from animal sources while other people practice vegetarianism By far the majority of humankind, however, eats a wide range of foods of both animal and vegetable origin Prehistoric humans were hunter-gatherers who fed on animals, insects, berries, roots, and leaves The range of dietary choices was extended when humans learned how to use fire for cooking and when they developed weapons for hunting and trapping 10 larger game; most importantly, they eventually learned how to rear animals for their own use and how to cultivate crops Today some isolated groups are still hunter-gatherers, but most human diets derive from agriculture and animal husbandry Asian-style noodles Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 36 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Italian-style pasta 15 Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on what people eat, on how they prepare food, on their feeding practices, and on the foods they prefer Throughout history, different societies have exhibited great variations in diet But during the 20th century, greatly increased world trade and improved communications 20 have resulted in major changes in the variety of foods eaten in many countries Asian cuisines have become popular in Europe and North America, and Western "fast foods" are increasingly available in developing countries In general, the staple food in most countries has not changed 25 Throughout history, as long as the food supply was sufficient the traditional diets of most cultures have provided all the essential nutrients These are divided into macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) In general, humans obtain most of their food energy from carbohydrates (perhaps 65% worldwide); 30 lesser amounts come from fat (about 20%) and protein (about 15%), mainly from meat and fish The major cause of undernutrition and nutritional-deficiency diseases has seldom been traditional food habits The usual cause has been a lack of adequate food due to poverty or consumption of too limited a variety of 35 food Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to malnutrition in children Protein-energy malnutrition is generally due to consumption of too little food, and micronutrient deficiencies such as anemia, iodine deficiency disorders, and pellagra are due to diets inadequate in specific minerals and vitamins 40 Advances in agriculture and food-processing techniques have afforded the potential of increased food supply and a nutritionally enriched diet, but modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had deleterious effects For example, at the turn of the 20th century new rice milling techniques caused an outbreak of beriberi (a thiamine-deficiency 45 disease) in Asia, resulting in millions of deaths The substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries has been responsible for a great deal of malnutrition and diarrhea, as well as infant deaths Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 37 Increasingly, changes in diets in the developing countries due to 50 Westernization and greater affluence has led to an increase in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain cancers These diseases are already major causes of mortality in the industrialized countries Much of this is related to high intakes of foods of animal origin and a greater percentage of food energy coming from fats, oils, and sugar and less coming from complex carbohydrates Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) Why are human beings classified as omnivores? 2) When was the range of dietary choices extended? 3) What has the major cause of undernutrition and nutritionaldeficiency diseases been? 4) What is the harmful effect of the substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries? 5) What have changes in diets in the developing countries resulted in? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ The major cause of nutritional-deficiency diseases has been traditional food habits 2) _ Most groups of people derive most of their food from animal sources 3) _ Today no groups are still hunter-gatherers 4) _ Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on their feeding practices 5) _ Modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had harmful effects VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box reared hypertension malnutrition mortality bottle-feeding feed deficiency vegetarian staple diet breast-feeding 1) If you …………… your dog on cakes and biscuits, it's not surprising he's so fat 2) A clean water supply played a large part in reducing the …………… rate 3) A well-balanced …………… diet can be a lot healthier for you than the average meat-eater's diet because it contains less fat and more fiber 4) The scientists tracked one lot of infected meat back to the farms where the animals had been …………… 5) Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to …………… in children Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 38 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 6) …………… is extremely beneficial to the health of newborn babies 7) Pregnant women often suffer from iron …………… 8) We are conducting extensive research into treatments for ………… and heart disease 9) Bamboo is the panda's …………… 10) She started …………… her baby when she went back to work WORD STUDY A WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Some common adjective endings are -al, -able, -ful, -less, -t, and -ous Look at the words in the list below Notice the endings on the adjectives See how the adjectives are related to the other words 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) adjective experimental natural preventable suitable believable successful violent different religious useful, useless verb experiment — prevent suit believe succeed — differ — use noun experiment nature prevention — belief success violence difference religion use Exercise: Choose the best word to complete each sentence Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on 1) Scientists have planted jojoba and euphorbia crops on …………… farms in several countries 2) The ancient Egyptians used plants as ……………………medicine to treat diseases 3) Many common diseases of the 19th century are …………………… now People no longer get sick from these diseases 4) There are many wild plants in the woods, but not all of them are ……………………for humans to eat 5) I don’t ……………………your story about meeting people from Mars I don’t think it’s true 6) The first experiment with the new crop did not ………………… The plants died, and the scientists had to begin again 7) Some people think that television is too …………………… There are too many programs that show people fighting and killing each other 8) It can be very cold in parts of the United States during the winter, but it is almost never cold in Australia The …………………… in Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 39 weather is very great in these two areas of the world 9) Helen goes to church every day and often reads the Bible She is very …………………… 10) The jojoba is a very …………………… plant It can be used to soothe burns, to make hair shiny, and to make a drink similar to coffee B WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Adjectives have only one form They can never be plural Look at these examples: We have a two-week vacation from school in March It is a four-hour flight from Chicago to Los Angeles Exercise: Change the words in bold print to hyphenated adjectives and rewrite the sentences The first one is done for you 1) A flight from Los Angeles to London is ten hours It is a ten-hour flight from Los Angeles to London 2) High school students in California have a summer vacation for three months ……………………………………………………………………… 3) It is a long drive from Toronto to Winnipeg It takes four days ……………………………………………………………………… 4) It is a short trip from New York to Boston It is only 200 kilometers ……………………………………………………………………… C WORD FORMS Look at the list of verbs, nouns, and adjectives below Notice how they are related to each other 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Verb — — persuade protect continue — enjoy suggest solve organize Noun scene, scenery science, scientist persuasion protection continuation history, historian enjoyment suggestion solution organization Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn Adjective scenic scientific persuasive protective continuous historical enjoyable suggestive — organized 40 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Choose the correct word for each sentence Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on 1) Kei brought a book of photographs of Japan to class last week Japan has very beautiful ……………………… We saw pictures of mountains, lakes, and lovely cherry trees 2) Chemistry and biology are two kinds of ………………………… 3) Bill could persuade you to almost anything He is a very ………………………… person He talked me into going camping in Yellowstone National Park 4) Some of the huge redwood trees in California are under the ………………………… of the National Park Service The service keeps the trees safe and healthy 5) Workers can become very tired of the ……………………… noise in a factory The noise never stops 6) Most countries have a ……………………… museum that explains the history of the country in pictures, films, and art 7) People of all ages like to go to national parks A visit to a national park is …………………… for the whole family 8) I would like to make a ……………………… for your trip Take a train ride across Canada I did it last year The scenery is beautiful 9) Many countries are trying to ……………………… the problem of the growth of the deserts 10) The United Nations is an international ………………………… STRUCTURE STUDY REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses are often reduced or contracted as follows: The man who is talking to John is from Korea The man talking to John is from Korea English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting The ideas presented in that book are interesting Half of the people who had been invited to the party didn t turn up Half of the people invited to the party didn t turn up Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 41 Exercise: Reduce (contract) the underline part of the following sentences: 1) An agreement has been signed to protect the forests which are being cut down all over the world 2) Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page 3) Companies that already use computers have found that the number of staff that is needed for stock-control can be substantially reduced 4) Did you get the message that concerned the special meeting? 5) Do you know the woman who is coming toward us? 6) Her books, which are read by people all over the world, are still immensely popular 7) I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country 8) I haven’t yet had an opportunity to think over the proposals that were made at the last meeting 9) The children who attend that school receive a good education 10) The experiment which was conducted at the University of Chicago was successful 11) The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood 12) The firm’s latest product, which was launched only six months ago, has already captured a significant share of the market 13) The head office has now moved to new premises which overlook the Thames 14) The Indians who lived in Peru before the discovery of the New World by Europeans belonged to the Incan culture 15) The new hostel, which accommodates 200 students, will be opened next month 16) The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all over the age of 60 17) The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet 18) The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries 19) The scientists who are searching the causes of cancer are making progress 20) Their letter, which explained why they had not paid promptly, arrived a few days later 21) They live in a house that was built in 1890 22) They sent us an invoice that gave details of all the goods that had been ordered 23) We can deliver within three days any articles that are ordered from stock 24) We have an apartment which overlooks the park 25) We received your Giro slip today, which informed us that you had paid £126.00 into your account Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 42 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES FOOD POISONING READING COMPREHENSION Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites Such contamination usually arises from improper handling, preparation or storage of food Foodborne illness can also be caused by adding pesticides or medicines to food, or by accidentally consuming naturally poisonous substances like poisonous mushrooms or reef fish Contact between food and pests, especially flies, rodents and cockroaches, is a further cause of contamination of food Although most mushrooms are edible, several species can cause serious poisoning Some common diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the 10 water vector, even though they are usually transmitted by other routes These include infections caused by Shigella, Hepatitis A, and the parasites Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION DEFINITION Foodborne illnesses are defined by the World Health Organization as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food Every person is at risk of foodborne illness Preventing Bacterial Food Poisoning Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 43 The prevention is mainly the role of the state, through the definition of 15 strict rules of hygiene and a public service of veterinary survey of the food chain, from farming to the transformation industry and the delivery (shops and restaurants) This regulation includes: • traceability: in a final product, it must be possible to know the origin of the ingredients (originating farm, identification of the 20 harvesting or of the animal) and where and when it was processed; the origin of the illness can thus be tracked and solved (and possibly penalized), and the final products can be removed from the sale if a problem is detected; • respect of hygiene procedures like HACCP and the "cold chain"; 25 • power of control and of law enforcement of the veterinarians At home, the prevention mainly consists of: • the respect of the food storage and food preservation methods (especially refrigeration), and checking the expiration date; • washing the hands before preparing the meal and before eating; 30 • washing the fresh vegetables with clear water, especially when not cooked (e.g fruits, salads); • washing the dishes after use; • keeping the kitchen clean Spray washing of harvested tomatoes prior to processing Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow The presence, 35 or absence, of oxygen, salt, sugar and acidity are also important factors for growth In the right conditions, one bacterium can multiply using binary fission to become four million in eight hours Since bacteria can be neither smelled nor seen, the best way to ensure that food is safe is to follow principles of good food hygiene This includes not allowing raw 40 or partially cooked food to touch dishes, utensils, hands or work surfaces previously used to handle even properly cooked or ready to eat food High salt, high sugar or high acid levels keep bacteria from growing, Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 44 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES which is why salted meats, jam, and pickled vegetables are traditional 45 preserved foods The most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness are crosscontamination and inadequate temperature control Therefore control of these two matters is especially important Thoroughly cooking food until it is piping hot, i.e above 70°C will 50 quickly kill virtually all bacteria, parasites or viruses, except for Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, which produces a heat-resistant spore that survives temperatures up to 100°C Once cooked, hot foods should be kept hot – above 63°C stops microbial growth 55 Cold foods should be kept cold, below 5°C (41°F) However, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica can both grow at refrigerator temperatures Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is food poisoning according to the WHO? How are foodborne diseases are transmitted? What regulations should be observed to avoid food poisoning? What must be done at home to avoid poisoning? What are the most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ Contact between food and pests is also a cause of contamination of food 2) _ All diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the water vector 3) _ The prevention against bacterial food poisoning is mainly the role of the state 4) _ Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow 5) _ Cooking food until above 70°C will kill all bacteria, parasites or viruses Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 60 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Genetically Modified Products: Benefits and Controversies Benefits • Crops o Enhanced taste and quality o Reduced maturation time o Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance o Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides o New products and growing techniques • Animals o Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency o Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk o Improved animal health and diagnostic methods • Environment o “Friendly” bioherbicides and bioinsecticides o Conservation of soil, water, and energy o Bioprocessing for forestry products o Better natural waste management o More efficient processing • Society o Increased food security for growing populations Controversies • Safety o Potential human health impact: allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects o Potential environmental impact: unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity • Access and Intellectual Property o Domination of world food production by a few companies o Increasing dependence on Industrialized nations by developing countries o Biopiracy – foreign exploitation of natural resources • Ethics o Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values o Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species o Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa o Stress for animal • Labeling o Not mandatory in some countries (e.g United States) o Mixing GM crops with non-GM confounds labeling attempts • Society o New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) What is a genetically modified food? What is biotechnology? Give some examples of genetically modified products What you think the greatest benefits of genetically modified food are? 5) What are some controversies surrounding genetically modified foods? Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 61 True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ 2) _ 3) _ 4) _ 5) _ Recombinant DNA technology refers to the combination of genes from different organisms Wheat with increased iron and vitamins may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries We have known all the risks posed by technologies for genetically modifying foods Genetically modified bananas can produce human vaccines against infectious diseases Genetically modified plants can produce new plastics with unique properties VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box makeup enzyme exponential mandatory biotechnology genome intrinsic crops genetically allergen 1) If a plant or animal is …………… engineered, some of its genes have been changed artificially 2) Genetic modification is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic …………… of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria 3) …………… is the use of living cells and bacteria in industrial and scientific processes 4) There has been an …………… increase in world population this century 5) The human …………… project is an attempt to produce a map of all the genetic information in the human body 6) An …………… is a substance which can cause an allergy, but which is harmless to most people 7) It is immoral to treat animals as if they had no …………… value 8) Athletes must undergo a …………… drugs test before competing in the championship 9) The main …………… grown for export are coffee and rice 10) An …………… in the saliva of the mouth starts the process of breaking down the food Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 62 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES WORD STUDY A WORD FORMS Exercise: Study the list of verbs, nouns, and adjectives Notice how they are related to each other Then choose the correct word for each sentence Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on Make the nouns plural if necessary 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) verb compete refrigerate announce poison unite decide store — embarrass add noun competition refrigerator announcement poison union decision storage chemical / chemist embarrassment addition adjective competitive refrigerated poison / poisonous united decisive storage chemical / chemist embarrassed additional 1) Tom is very ……………………… He enters every competition he can, and he always wants to be the winner 2) You cannot keep milk in the cupboard You must ………………… it, or it will turn bad 3) The president of the international student organization made an important ………… ……… at the meeting last night She announced that there will be a big party next Saturday 4) Some plants are suitable for humans to eat Other plants are ………………………… If you eat them, you might die 5) UN stands for the …………………………Nations 6) Kiki made an important ………………………… She decided to stay in the United States and go to college After college, she will return to her country to work 7) If you don’t have enough room to keep your bicycle in your apartment, you can ………………………… it in the basement 8) Scientists say tears contain ………………………… that your body needs to get rid of They say it’s good to cry sometimes 9) I hope the teacher doesn’t ask me a question in class today, because I didn’t finish my homework last night If she calls on me, I will be very ………………………… because I won’t know the answer 10) This lemonade is not sweet enough If we ………………………… a little more sugar, it will taste better Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 63 B -Y, -ITY, -TY In English you can often change an adjective to a noun by adding -y, ty, or -ity Look at the adjectives in the chart Add the correct suffix to each one to make a noun adjective difficult certain safe special -y noun ……………… -ty ……………… ……………… ……………… adjective ability electric equal popular human similar -ity noun ability ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… Exercise: Choose the best noun from the chart for each sentence 1) Amnesty International is trying to improve the lives of all ……… This organization tries to make life better and more peaceful for all people in the world 2) In many countries, people of different races and religions not have equal rights in society People are still fighting for ………… 3) Factories should provide better equipment for the workers to help improve ………………… and prevent accidents 4) Third World countries have ……………………… providing food, housing and medical care for all people It is difficult for these countries because their governments have very little money 5) My brother studied engineering at the university He has a ……………………… in chemical engineering because he studied in a special program for it, 6) Name one ……………………… between life in Canada and life in the United States These two countries are not very different 7) If you study English for several years, you will be able to speak it well This ………………… can help you find a good job C -Y In English we can add -y to some nouns to make adjectives Look at the example: noun + -y = adjective syrup + -y = syrupy The mixture is heated until it becomes a syrupy liquid Spelling notes: 1) If a noun ends in silent e, drop the e before adding y 2) If a noun ends in consonant-vowel-consonant and is a onesyllable word, double the final consonant before adding y Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 64 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Here are two examples: lace (drop the e) fun (double the n) lacy funny Exercise: Add -y to each noun to make an adjective Remember to follow the spelling rules Then choose the best adjective for each sentence sun wind juice rain …………………… …………………… …………………… …………………… snow cloud ice …………………… …………………… …………………… 1) Last night the wind started to blow and it started to rain It never stopped It has been ………………… and …………………… all day today, too 2) In summer, the weather is usually warm and …………………… In fact, the sun shines almost every day 3) Be careful if you drive a car in winter Sometimes water on the roads ‘freezes and the roads become ……………………… 4) Oranges and lemons are two fruits with lots of juice A banana is different It is not …………………… 5) Sometimes in winter it is difficult to see far away because the sky is full of snow and covered with clouds But I like ……………… and ………………… days because everything looks very white and peaceful D -EVER Several words in English end in the suffix -ever Look at these words and their meanings Then choose the best word for each sentence whatever whoever = anything = anyone whenever wherever = any time = any place 1) We can leave the party ……………………… you like I don’t care what time we go home 2) I lent my book to someone in class, but I forget who Would ……………………… has it please return it to me? 3) Tonight is my birthday, and I am taking you out to dinner You can order …………………… you like I’m having spaghetti 4) You can go ……………………… you like on vacation if you have a lot of money Some places are very expensive Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 65 STRUCTURE STUDY REDUCTION ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (2) • Past participle in place of the passive: As he was loved by all who knew him, he devoted his life to others Loved by all who knew him, he devoted his life to others Although it was intended to be a nice surprise, the party was not whet I wanted at all Although intended to be a nice surprise, the party was not what I wanted at all If I am accepted for the job, I ll have to start at the beginning of next month If accepted for the job, I ll have to start at the beginning of next month After the manuscript had been lost for many years, it suddenly turned up again Lost for many year, the manuscript suddenly turned up again Once the brain is deprived of oxygen, it dies Once deprived of the oxygen, the brain dies • Being + past participle following after, before, when, since, while, on, by: After it was cleaned the bike looked as good as new After being cleaned, the bike looked as good as new Since the government was elected, it has had one crisis after another Since being elected, the government has had one crisis after another He did military service before he was admitted into university He did military service before being admitted into university When he was being questioned, he suddenly burst into tears When being questioned, he suddenly burst into tears The message got across to people because it was repeated over and over again The message got across to people by being repeated over and over again Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 66 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Reduce (contract) the underlined part of the following sentences 1) Because I was exhausted through lack of sleep, I fell asleep at my desk 2) Although it was written many years ago, the book is still relevant today 3) Since I was promoted, I’ve had no time to go out 4) After he was released from prison, Andy could not find a job anywhere 5) When he was caught, he confessed everything 6) When it is seen from the outside, the building looks a mess, but it is lovely inside 7) If we are elected, we will increase the value of pensions 8) Although he was ridiculed by everybody, he continued to pursue his bizarre projects 9) Unless it is destroyed, this material could have damaging consequences 10) Jennifer had been shoplifting for many years before she was found out 11) When British people are introduced, they often shake hands 12) After the concert had been delayed for an hour, it started at nine o’clock 13) When we were informed the flight would be delayed, we made other arrangements 14) Although it was built years ago, it was in good condition 15) If you are accepted for the job, you will be informed soon 16) When the poem is read aloud it is very effective 17) If the picture is seen from this angle, it looks rather good 18) Because he has been promised a reward, he hopes he’ll get one 19) Unless it is changed, this law will make life difficult for farmers 20) When it was viewed from a distance, the island of Nepenthe looked like a cloud Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD INDUSTRY 67 10 FOOD INDUSTRY READING COMPREHENSION The food industry comprises all business operations that are involved in producing a raw food material, processing it, and distributing it to sales outlets The entire complex of the industry includes: farms and ranches; producers of raw materials, such as phosphates, for agricultural use; water-supply systems; food-processing plants; manufacturers of packaging materials and food-processing and transportation equipment; transportation systems; and retail stores and food-service operations such as restaurants, institutional feeding commissaries, and vendingmachine services 10 HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY The organized trading and transport of salt, spices, grain, olive oil, fermented beverages, and other foods have probably been practiced almost since the time of the first agricultural surpluses Inventories of livestock and foodstuffs are among the first written records However, 15 until modern preservation methods were developed, the kinds of foods that could be traded were limited to those which did not spoil quickly Most food-processing operations seem to have begun as extensions of kitchen preparation techniques, scaled up to furnish enough surplus product to be bartered or sold outside the household Enlargement of a 20 business entailed simply building more or larger processing equipment – oil presses, baking ovens, or wine vats Gradual improvements in design were made to increase yields or improve quality This was the general pattern until the Industrial Revolution, when major qualitative changes began to be made in food processing and distribution operations Not Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 68 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 25 only were factories greatly enlarged and much of the manual labor replaced by machinery, but entirely new principles of processing, such as canning and spray drying, were invented Channels of distribution became much more complex and extended, and special techniques for retaining quality were used, for example, shipping by means of 30 refrigerated railroad cars The present-day industry slowly took shape as it responded to ever-growing agricultural surpluses, to advances in transportation, and to the enormous changes made possible by the growth in processing technologies Beef calves are often sent to feedlots DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS 35 Farmers, ranchers, other producers of agricultural raw materials, and feedlot operators usually sell their output to collection points, such as grain terminals or stockyards The terminal or stockyard supplies the processing companies, which select needed raw materials from the available stock and process them either into finished foodstuffs – cuts of 40 meat, for example – or into food ingredients, such as flour Flow of goods in the food industry From the final processor, finished food products are moved by truck or Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD INDUSTRY 69 rail to warehouses, usually located near a city Most modern warehouses have storage areas for frozen and refrigerated food and are equipped to control temperature and humidity within a narrow range Warehouses 45 can assemble full truckloads of products originating from many different suppliers for shipment to one large retailer or to a number of smaller outlets in a given region, allowing a great reduction in unit transportation costs as compared to shipping a small quantity of one item directly from the producer to the retailer If the retail outlet is large 50 enough to accept complete truckloads directly from the manufacturer, direct shipments from the factory are sometimes made Processors of perishable foods (dairies, ice-cream manufacturers, wholesale bread bakeries, and meat-packers) usually maintain their own fleets of trucks for carrying fresh products directly to their retailer 55 customers Truck drivers from bakeries and dairies may also service retail outlets by rotating stock and picking up stale products and returning them to the factory Restaurants and institutional commissaries purchase staples and nonperishable foods from the warehouses of specialized distributors, but they also receive direct shipment from 60 dairies, bakeries, and meat-packers Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) What does the food industry consist of? 2) When did the organized trading and transport of salt, spices, grain, olive oil, fermented beverages, and other foods begin? 3) What the processing companies terminals or stockyards supply do? 4) When can direct shipments from the factory to retailers be made? 5) Where restaurants and institutional commissaries buy staples and nonperishable foods? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ 2) _ 3) _ 4) _ 5) _ Most food-processing operations seem to have begun as extensions of kitchen preparation techniques Farmers, ranchers, and other producers of agricultural raw materials seldom sell their output to grain terminals or stockyards In the past, the kinds of foods that could be traded were limited to those which did not spoil quickly Processors of perishable foods usually hire fleets of trucks for carrying fresh products directly to their retailer customers Restaurants receive direct shipment from dairies, bakeries, and meat-packers Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 70 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box ferment stale vats commissary stockyard dairy entails raw vending machine surplus 1) Sushi is a Japanese dish made from …………… fish 2) You make wine by leaving grape juice to …………… until all the sugar has turned to alcohol 3) Farmers are feeding all their …………… wheat to pigs 4) A …………… is a place where farm animals are kept for a short time before they are sold at a market 5) The wines used to be made in deep wooden …………… 6) While we were camping we bought our milk from a nearby farm …………… 7) Coffee goes …………… within a couple of weeks so it is best to buy it in small quantities 8) A …………… is a machine from which you can buy small items such as cigarettes, drinks and sweets by putting coins into it 9) A …………… is a shop which supplies food and goods, especially to people in the army or in prison 10) Enlargement of a food business simply …………… building more or larger processing equipment WORD STUDY A WORD FORMS Study the words in the list Notice how they are related to each other Then choose the best word to complete each sentence Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Verb die decorate — describe breathe compute reserve revolt know connect Noun death decoration cruelty description breath computer / computation reservation revolution knowledge connection Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn Adjective dead — cruel descriptive — — — revolutionary — connected FOOD INDUSTRY 71 1) President John F Kennedy is ……………… He ………………… in 1963 Thousands of people went to his funeral 2) In Canada and the United States, many people …………………… a tree with lights and colorful decorations for Christmas 3) Amnesty International tries to stop …………………… to prisoners in all countries In many places, prisoners have terrible lives of pain and suffering 4) For your homework tonight, write a ……………… of your home town Tell how it looks, where you like to go, and why you like it 5) When people swim under water, they must hold their ………………… Fish can breathe under water, but humans cannot 6) If you have a small calculator, you can ………………… your grocery bill while you are in the store 7) Next month Kei is going on a trip to New York He already made his plane …………………, so he is very excited 8) Thirteen colonies participated in the …………………… war against England They became the United States of America 9) The more you study, the more your …………………… increases 10) Maria is going to Julie’s house tonight to help her ……………………… her new computer Julie doesn’t know how to it by herself B WORD FORMS This exercise is just for fun, and it is difficult See if you can figure out the meanings of these words and use the correct word in each sentence commercialized discouraged multiplicity non-warlike oversimplification undereducated programmer unrecognizable 1) Paula dressed in strange clothes and put a lot of makeup on her face for a party She was completely ……………………… No one knew who she was! 2) One student said that his native country nationalized the oil companies because people were stealing the oil This is only part of what really happened This explanation is an ……………………… of the situation 3) There is a ………………………… of problems in Third World countries, such as poor living conditions, few jobs, and very little medical care for people 4) Another problem in Third World countries is that most of the people are ……………………… because they quit school at an early age to get jobs 5) Carl is a computer ………………………… for a large company He writes programs for businesses and industries 6) Christmas has become very ………………………… in the United States Marketing experts make a lot of money because of this 7) Don’t be ………………………… if you can’t this exercise The words are very difficult! Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 72 C ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES SHIP, -OUS, -LIKE In English, we can add the suffix -ous and -like to some nouns to make adjectives Words that end in -ous mean “full of something.” Here is an example: Our classroom is very spacious (full of space) Words that end in -like mean “similar to,” or “like.” Here is an example: The painting that Simon made is very lifelike Spelling Note: If a noun ends in silent e, drop the e before adding the suffix -ous There are no spelling changes when you add the suffix -like Exercise: Add the correct suffix to each noun in the chart noun joy fame danger poison -ous adjective ……………………… ……………………… ……………………… ……………………… noun life war child -like adjective ……………………… ……………………… ……………………… Now choose the best adjective to complete each sentence 1) Some plants are very …………………… to eat In fact, if you eat a ……………………… plant, you could become sick or even die 2) Holidays are usually ………………………… times People don’t have to work, and everyone celebrates and is happy 3) Albert Einstein is a ………………………… scientist Most people in the world know who he was 4) Eskimo carvings are very ………………………… They look exactly like living animals 5) In the 1930s Germany began to take ………………………… actions Then in 1939 it attacked Poland and started a war 6) When an adult does something that a child might do, people say he or she is ………………………… STRUCTURE STUDY SUBJECT-AUXILIARY INVERSION If a negative adverb or adverbial expression is put at the beginning of a clause for emphasis, it is usually followed by auxiliary verb + subject Under no circumstances can we cash checks Not until he received her letter did he fully understand the depth of her feelings Hardly had I arrived when trouble started Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD INDUSTRY 73 Not only did we lose our money, but we were nearly killed Seldom have I seen such a remarkable creature No sooner had I closed the door than somebody knocked Exercise: Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in brackets 1) I had hardly closed my eyes when the phone rang (Hardly …) 2) We no sooner sat down in the train than I felt sick (No sooner …) 3) There has never been so much protest against land mines (Never …) 4) I realized what had happened only later (Only later …) 5) You shouldn’t answer the door when I’m out in any circumstances (In no circumstances …) 6) You shouldn’t sign the document on any account (On no account …) 7) I have never seen such a big tree (Never …) 8) We are not taking applications for that position any longer (No longer …) 9) You can hardly ever see such a spectacular sight (Hardly ever …) 10) Billy does not only sings, but he also plays the piano and writes his own songs (Not only …) In formal styles, if in an if-clause can be dropped and an auxiliary verb put before the subject This happens with were, had and should Were she my daughter, (If she were my daughter, ) Had I realized what you intended, (If I had realized ) Should you change your mind, (If you should change ) Had we not changed our reservations, (If we hadn t changed ) Exercise: Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in brackets 1) If the boss were to come in now, we would be in real trouble (Were …) 2) If he should be late, we’ll have to start without him (Should …) 3) If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam (Had …) 4) If I were rich, I would spend all my time traveling (Were …) 5) If my mother had been alive, she would have been 80 next year (Had …) 6) If you should run into Peter, tell him he owes me a letter (Should …) 7) If I hadn’t been so tired, I might have realized what was happening (Had …) 8) If her nose were a little shorter, she would be quite pretty (Were …) 9) If you should happen to finish early, give me a ring (Should …) 10) If Jane hadn’t helped me, I would have been in bad trouble (Had …) Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 74 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES CONTENTS Unit Reading Vocabulary Food and Nutrition Essential Nutrients Food Groups Food Preservation Cooking Word Study - The Prefixes UN-, IM-, IN-, - DIS-, NONThe Suffixes -MENT, -ER - The Suffixes -TH, -GTH - Compound Words The Suffixes -AL, -ABLE, - Language Focus Page - The Passive 01 - The Passive (cont.) 07 - The Causative 13 - Relative Clauses 20 - Defining and 28 FUL - The Suffix -EN - The Prefix RE- - Word Forms: Nouns (1) - Word Forms: Nouns (2) - Word Form: Noun Endings The Suffix -LESS - Word Forms: Nouns - The Prefix OVER- - The Suffix -LY Word Forms: Other Words Non-defining Relative Clauses with -LY 10 Human Diet Food Poisoning Organic Food Genetically Modified Food Food Industry - Word Forms: Adjectives (1) Word Forms: Adjectives (2) - Word Forms - The Suffix -IZE The Suffix -IVE - Word Forms - The Suffix -SHIP - The Prefix ENThe Suffix -AGE - The Suffix -IST - Word Forms - The Suffixes -Y, -ITY, -TY The Suffix -Y The Suffix -EVER - Word Forms (1) - Word Forms (2) The Suffixes -OUS, -LIKE - Reduction of Relative Clauses 35 - Adverbial Clauses 42 - Reduction of 50 Adverbial Clauses (1) - Reduction of 58 Adverbial Clauses (2) - Subject- 67 Auxiliary Inversion 74 Contents Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn
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