giaotrinh tienganh chuyennganh congnghe thucpham phan 1 1335

35 10 0
  • Loading ...
1/35 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 02/12/2016, 08:54

Khóa học Internet Marketing thực hành hướng dẫn bạn sử dụng những công cụ TÌM KIẾM KHÁCH HÀNG hiệu quả nhất, dành cho cá nhân và doanh nghiệp đang kinh doanh online.Chương trình Internet Marketing Passport được thiết kế đặc biệt dành cho cá nhân và doanh nghiệp đang kinh doanh online, giúp bạn kinh doanh hiệu quả hơn, có nhiều khách hàng, và doanh số tăng lên.Phương pháp đào tạo Ứng dụng là số 1 lý thuyết cô đọng, tập trung vào thực hành nhằm đạt mục tiêu xây dựng hệ thống bền vững, bán hàng hiệu quả, gia tăng khách hàng, gia tăng thu nhập nhờ Internet . UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD AND NUTRITION 1 FOOD AND NUTRITION READING COMPREHENSION All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to bacteria This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that plants draw from air and water The processes that circulate these basic nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as metabolism In terms of the energy needs of humans and other animals, food consists 10 of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, along with vitamins and minerals Humans may consume a wide range of different food substances, as long as they meet nutrition requirements Otherwise nutritionaldeficiency diseases will develop Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 15 Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism It is concerned with the intake of food, digestive processes, the liberation of energy, and the elimination of wastes, as well as with all the syntheses that are essential for maintenance, growth, and reproduction These fundamental activities are 20 characteristic of all living organisms – from the simplest to the most complex plants and animals Nutrients are substances, either naturally occurring or synthesized, that are necessary for maintenance of the normal function of organisms These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals, water, and some unknown substances 25 The nutritionist, a scientist working in the field of nutrition, differs from the dietitian, who translates the science of nutrition into the skill of furnishing optimal nourishment to people Dietetics is a profession concerned with the science and art of human nutrition care, an essential component of the health sciences The treatment of disease by 30 modification of the diet lies within the province of the physician and the dietitian The foods consumed by humans must contain, in adequate amounts, about 45 to 50 highly important substances Water and oxygen are equally essential Starting only with these essential nutrients obtained 35 from food, the body makes literally thousands of substances necessary for life and physical fitness Most of these substances are far more complicated in structure than the original nutrients Energy metabolism and requirements are customarily expressed in terms of the calorie, a heat unit Adoption of the calorie by nutritionists 40 followed quite naturally from the original methods of measuring energy metabolism The magnitude of human energy metabolism, however, made it awkward to record the calorie measured, so the convention of the large calorie, or kilocalorie (kcal), was accepted Atwater factors, also called physiologic fuel factors, are based on the corrections for 45 losses of unabsorbed nutrients in the feces and for the calorie equivalent of the nitrogenous products in the urine These factors are as follows: 1g of pure protein will yield calories, 1g of pure fat will yield calories, and g of pure carbohydrate will yield calories Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is food? What are nutrient cycles? What is metabolism? How different are the nutritionist and the dietitian? What are physiologic fuel factors? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false _ The term food does not include the inorganic substances that plants draw from air and water Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD AND NUTRITION _ The intake of food, digestive processes, the liberation of energy, and the elimination of wastes are the fundamental activities of all living organisms Unless food substances humans consume meet nutrition requirements, nutritional-deficiency diseases will develop Water and oxygen are equally essential The treatment of disease by modification of the diet lies within the province of the physician and the nutritionist _ _ _ VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box diet dietetics nutrients metabolism organisms consume province nutrition synthesis nourishment 1) Improvements in ……………… have been mostly to with persuading people to eat less fatty food and more raw vegetables 2) Exercise is supposed to speed up your ……………… 3) A young baby obtains all the ……………… it needs from its mother's milk 4) If you have a balanced ………………, you are getting all the vitamins you need 5) ……………… is the scientific study of diet and its effects on health 6) Humans may ……………… a wide range of different food substances 7) The treatment of disease by modification of the diet lies within the ……………… of the physician and the dietitian 8) Plants draw minerals and other ……………… from the soil 9) All living ……………… require food for survival, growth, and reproduction 10) Plants need sunlight for the ……………… of their food from carbon dioxide and water WORD STUDY A UN-, IM-, IN-, DIS-, AND NONThe prefixes un-, im-, in-, dis-, and non- can be added to the beginning of some words These prefixes mean “not.” Look at this example: un- + healthy = unhealthy Smoking is not good for you It’s unhealthy Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Here are other words with these negative prefixes unimindisnon- unimportant, unpopular impossible incomplete, inexpensive discontinue nonfat Exercise: Choose the best word to complete each sentence 1) A person who is unfriendly is probably ………, too A unpopular B unusual C uncomfortable D unimportant 2) The service at this restaurant is very slow It’s ……… to have a quick lunch here! A impossible B important C immoral D immediate 3) The airline will ……… service to that city It is not a popular place to go A discontinue B disagree C disable D discover 4) ……… yogurt is better for you than ice cream A Nonstop B Nonfat C Nonstandard D Nonstick 5) Jaime’s homework is ……… because he felt sick last night A inexpensive B incomplete C inflexible D inevitable B MENT AND ER Some nouns and verbs have the same form We can add a special ending, or suffix, to other verbs to make noun forms Here are some examples: same form verb noun order order drink drink cost cost -ment verb govern agree noun government agreement -er verb drive own run work noun driver owner runner worker Exercise: Complete the sentences with verbs and nouns from the chart (If you need to, make the nouns plural Also, make sure that each verb agrees with its subject.) 1) Susan is the fastest ……………… She can ……………… the race in less than three minutes 2) The bus ……………… will not ……………… an unsafe bus 3) I think the two companies will ……………… to work together They will both sign the ……………… 4) – Did Saul ……………… a salad and some tea? – Yes Now he’s waiting for his ……………… 5) Joseph bought a lot of food and ……………… for the get-together He hopes that everyone will eat and ……………… a lot 6) Even though they……………… hard, most of the ……………… Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD AND NUTRITION at fast-food restaurants not make a lot of money 7) – My aunt is the ……………… of that popular take-out restaurant on Main Street – Does she ……………… the restaurant on Green Street, too? C TH AND GHT Some nouns that end in th or ght are related to similar words that are not nouns Read the following pairs of sentences and see how the words in bold print are related 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Some cities grow quickly Their growth is fast The street is five kilometers long The length is five kilometers The street is fifteen meters wide Its width is fifteen meters The lake is thirty meters deep Its depth is thirty meters Joanna is very strong She has a lot of strength How high is that building? What is its height? Anna weighs 50 kilos Her weight is 50 kilos Exercise: Now choose the best word for each sentence Use each word only once 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) depth height strength growth length weight width The flag is flying high above the ground The …………………of that flagpole is about 20 meters The …………………of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is about 1,400 meters It is a very long bridge What is the …………………of the Pacific Ocean at its deepest point? People who build houses must be very strong They must have great …………………in their arms Plants need a lot of water to grow Without it, their ……………… is slow What is the …………………of your garage? Is it wide enough to park two cars inside? David is very thin now He weighs only 49 kilos He lost a lot of ………………… STRUCTURE STUDY THE PASSIVE A sentence is often written in a passive form when the important idea is not WHO does something, but WHAT IS DONE (a) They measured the extension in the steel bar (b) The extension in the steel bar was measured Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES If the doer of the action has some importance (though less than the object), or is needed to complete the sense of the sentence, it is given, e.g ‘A knowledge of statistics is required by every type of scientists.’ Passives can be formed in the following ways: active: passive: A tense of be + past participle He cooked the food The food was cooked active: passive: Modal + be / have been + past participle He may cook the food The food may be cooked active: passive: to be / to have been + past participle He is to cook the food The food is to be cooked active: passive: being / having been + past participle Cooking / Having cooked … Being / Having been cooked … Exercise: Rewrite the following sentences in the passive : 1) People apply mathematics in many different activities 2) People use computers for many different purposes 3) People use the decimal system even in countries with nondecimalized systems of weights and measurements 4) Water covers most of the Earth’s surface 5) Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived 6) Huge ocean waves swept houses into the sea 7) They have postponed the seminar 8) A mystery is something that we can explain 9) We are going to build a new zoo next year 10) The vegetables didn’t taste very good People had cooked them for too long 11) The situation is serious We must something before it’s too late 12) When we got to the stadium, we found that they had cancelled the game 13) They are building a new ring road round the city 14) I don’t like people telling me what to 15) We gave the police the information 16) We will give you plenty of time to decide 17) They must first clean sewage in treatment plants 18) Has anybody told you about ecology? 19) In modern zoos, people can see animals in more natural habitats 20) He said that he wanted somebody to wake him up at 6.30 next morning Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ESSENRIAL NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS READING COMPREHENSION Water The human body contains 50 to 70% water, making it the most abundant compound in the body Because there is no storage of water within the body water must be replaced continually Water may be obtained from beverages, foods, and from energy metabolism within the body Water functions in temperature regulation, as a solvent, in chemical reactions, and as a body lubricant Adults must consume two to three liters of some form of water each day Proteins 10 Proteins are widely distributed in nature, and no life-forms are known without them They are made up of relatively simple organic compounds, the amino acids, which contain nitrogen and sometimes sulfur Humans and animals build the protein they need for growth and repair of tissues by breaking down the proteins obtained in food into 15 their component parts, the amino acids, and then building up these components into proteins of the type needed The protein-rich foods from animal sources contain complete proteins, which supply all the amino acids in the proper proportions necessary in the human diet Although it was formerly believed that plant proteins had to be 20 combined at each meal, research shows that a balanced diet will provide the proper combinations Vitamins and Minerals Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Most foods contain several vitamins and minerals Vitamins are organic food substances, needed only in minute quantities but essential for the 25 normal metabolism of other nutrients Many vitamins and minerals act as catalysts or help form catalysts in the body Minerals – such as calcium, iodine, and iron – are an essential part of all cells and body fluids and enter into many functions Fats and Carbohydrates 30 Fats, which are widely distributed in nature, are a concentrated food source of energy Fats are glyceryl esters of fatty acids and yield glycerol and many different fatty acids when broken down by hydrolysis Carbohydrates are the most abundant food sources of energy Important dietary carbohydrates are divided into two groups – 35 starches and sugars The starches, which may be converted into utilizable sugars in plants or in the human body, are in the grains, the pulses, the tubers, and some rhizomes and roots The sugars occur in many plants and fruits, the most important being sucrose, obtained from sugarcane or the sugar beet 40 Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber, also known as bulk and roughage, is also an essential element in the diet even though it provides no nutrients It consists of plant cellulose and other indigestible materials in foods, along with pectins and gums The chewing it requires stimulates saliva flow, and 45 the bulk it adds in the stomach and intestines during digestion provides more time for absorption of nutrients Diets with sufficient fiber produce softer, bulkier stools and help to promote bowel regularity and avoid constipation and other disorders, such as diverticulosis 50 Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads, and products made from nuts and legumes are all sources of dietary fiber A diet overly abundant in dietary fiber, however, can cut down on the absorption of important trace minerals during digestion Vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes constitute a rich source of dietary fiber Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ESSENRIAL NUTRIENTS Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) What are the essential nutrients in human diet? Where may water be obtained? What are proteins used for? Why are vitamins essential for the normal metabolism of other nutrients? 5) What are the two groups of important dietary carbohydrates? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ Water functions in temperature regulation, as a solvent, in chemical reactions, and as a body lubricant 2) _ A few life-forms not have proteins 3) _ Vitamins are inorganic food substances, needed only in minute quantities 4) _ Carbohydrates are the most abundant food sources of energy 5) _ A diet overly abundant in dietary fiber can help the absorption of important trace minerals during digestion VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box bowel beverages indigestible tuber catalysts digestion absorption constipated starches balanced 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) You should eat more fiber and fruit if you are ……………… Hot …………… include tea, coffee and hot chocolate Many vitamins and minerals help form …………… in the body Research shows that a …………… diet will provide the proper combinations Eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables can reduce the risk of cancer of the …………… A …………… the short thick round part of an underground stem or root of some plants, such as potatoes, which stores food and from which new plants grow Vegetables are usually cooked to aid …………… Vitamin D is necessary to aid the …………… of calcium from food Beans can be rather …………… …………… may be converted into utilizable sugars in plants or in the human body Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 20 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES FOOD PRESERVATION READING COMPREHENSION Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms, as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which causes rancidity Common methods of preserving food include drying, freeze drying, freezing, vacuum-packing, canning, radiation treatment and adding preservatives Other methods that not only help to preserve food, but 10 also add flavor, include pickling, salting, smoking and curing The oldest method of food preservation is by drying, which reduces water activity sufficient to delay or prevent bacterial growth Smoking is sometimes done in conjunction with drying Although not sufficient by itself to permit long term storage of food, smoking adds chemicals that 15 help inhibit the growth of micro-organisms Vacuum-packing stores food in a vacuum environment, usually in an air-tight bag or bottle The vacuum environment strips bacteria of oxygen needed for survival, hence preventing the food from spoiling Vacuum-packing is commonly used for storing nuts 20 Curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis Meat is cured with salt or sugar, or a combination of the two Nitrates and nitrites are also often used to cure meat Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD PRESERVATION 21 Method Effect on microbial growth or survival Refrigeration or chilling Low temperature to retard growth Freezing Low temperature and reduction of water activity to prevent growth Drying, curing and conserving Reduction in water activity sufficient to delay or prevent growth Vacuum and oxygen free modified atmosphere packaging Low oxygen tension in inhibit strict aerobes and delay growth of facultive anaerobes Carbon dioxide enriched modified atmosphere packaging Specific inhibition of some micro-organisms by carbon dioxide Addition of acids Reduction of pH value and sometimes additional inhibition by the particular acid Lactic fermentation Reduction of pH value in situ by microbial action and sometimes additional inhibition by the lactic and acetic acids formed and by other microbial products (e.g ethanol, bacteriocins) Emulsification Compartmentalisation and nutrient limitation within the aqueous droplets in water-in-oil emulsion foods Addition of preservatives Inhibition of specific groups of microorganisms Pasteurization and appertization Delivery of heat sufficient to inactivate target micro-organisms to the desired extent food irradation (Radurization, radicidation and radappertization) Delivery of ionising radiation Application of high hydrostatic pressure (Pascalization) Pressure-inactivation of vegetative bacteria, yeasts and moulds Main food preservation methods Pickling is a method of preserving food by placing it in either a brine (high in salt), or a solution of vinegar which is too acidic to permit 25 bacterial growth Canning involves cooking fruits or vegetables, sealing them in sterile cans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill or weaken any remaining bacteria Various foods have varying degrees of natural protection against spoilage and may require that the final step occur in a pressure 30 cooker High-acid fruits like strawberries require no preservatives to can and only a short boiling cycle, whereas marginal fruits such as tomatoes require longer boiling and addition of other acidic elements Many vegetables require pressure canning A 1950s issue of Popular Mechanics details the impending arrival of 35 "food irradiation" However, at the present time, the implications surrounding the irradiation of food are still not fully understood, and the technology is therefore still not in widespread use However, irradiation of potatoes, strawberries, and meat is common in many countries where Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 22 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES refrigerated facilities and trucks are not common In 2002, the FDA 40 permitted irradiation of meat and poultry to reduce the spread of E coli and Salmonella In the US and most of Europe irradiation of spices is common, as the only alternative (treatment with gas) has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic The process is incorrectly called "pasteurization" to avoid the reduced sales that arise from the correct 45 term of "irradiation" A tomato cannery in Modesto, California Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is the definition of food preservation? What are some common methods of preserving food? Why can vacuum-packing prevent the food from spoiling? What is pickling? Why is food irradiation still not in widespread use? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ Food preservation is aimed to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness 2) _ The oxidation of proteins causes rancidity 3) _ Pickling, salting, smoking and curing not only help to preserve food, but also add flavor 4) _ Various foods have varying degrees of natural protection against spoilage 5) _ Irradiation of spices can cause cancer Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD PRESERVATION 23 VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box osmosis carcinogenic spices preservatives pasteurization poultry bacteria implications preserved facilities 1) Olives are usually ………… in brine 2) ………… are chemicals used to keep especially food from decaying 3) Curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of ……… 4) Irradiation of potatoes, strawberries, and meat is common in many countries where refrigerated ………… and trucks are not common 5) Many people who give up eating meat and ………… carry on eating fish 6) The introduction of …………, which kills micro-organisms by heat, has been a major factor in making milk safer to drink 7) They are studying the ………… effects of some pesticides used on fruit 8) Illnesses caused by ………… can often be treated with antibiotics 9) Cinnamon, ginger and cloves are all ………… 10) At the present time, the ………… surrounding the irradiation of food are still not fully understood WORD STUDY A WORD FORMS: NOUN ENDINGS So far you have studied many common noun endings Look at the word list below and notice how the nouns are related to the other words 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) noun similarity crowd excellence payment equipment popularity weakness pleasure adjective similar crowded excellent — — popular weak pleasant Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn verb — crowd excel pay equip popularize weaken please 24 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Choose the correct word form to complete each sentence Some nouns may need to be made plural Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on 1) There are several major …………………… between life in the United States and in Canada 2) Lots of people went to the movie theater last night There was a big ……………………… waiting outside to buy tickets 3) Keiko had no mistakes on her test yesterday The teacher wrote “……………………!” on the top of her test Keiko was very happy 4) If you take a loan from the bank to buy a car, you must make a …………………… every month until you pay all the money back 5) Tennis shoes and other sports …………………… are usually very expensive 6) It’s hard to understand the …………………… of video games Many people play them, but I don’t like them 7) David is very good at speaking and reading English His major …………………… is writing, so he practices all the time 8) I was so happy when I received a letter from my best friend at home It is such a …………………… to get mail when you are far away from family and friends B - LESS The suffix less means “without” or “not having something.” Here is an example: The number of English words to learn is endless (“without end”) Exercise: Add the suffix -less to each word Then choose the best word for each sentence care hope help end ………………… ………………… ………………… ………………… change worth thought sleep ………………… ………………… ………………… ………………… 1) Babies cannot take care of themselves Someone must help them because they are …………………… 2) Stephan found an old coin He thought it was gold, but it wasn’t In fact, it had no value It was …………………… 3) You must take your time and be careful when you write If you try to hurry, you will make …………………… mistakes 4) Michael was sick last night so he could not sleep Today in class he was very tired after such a …………………… night 5) Helen said something that hurt my feelings I know she didn’t want to hurt my feelings She just wasn’t thinking She made a …………………… mistake Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD PRESERVATION 25 C WORD FORMS: NOUNS Some common noun endings are -sion, -tion, -ation, and -t Look at this list of verbs and nouns Notice how the nouns are related to the verbs verb divide introduce explore educate prevent Exercise: noun division introduction exploration education prevention verb populate complicate inform produce fly noun population complication information production flight Choose the best verb or noun from the chart to complete each sentence Remember to use the correct verb tenses and singular or plural noun forms 1) In the 19th century, parents realized that they had to take care of their children’s health and try to give them a good ……………………… Before that, most people did not go to school 2) The ……………………… of the world is increasing every year In the year 2005 there will be at least 7.2 billion people on the earth 3) When people in North America ……………………… themselves to you for the first time, they usually say, “Nice to meet you” and shake your hand 4) Some scientists think that drinking green tea is good for your health In fact, some people think it helps ……………………… diseases 5) The island of Puerto Rico ……………………… a lot of sugarcane The sugar that comes from it is sold all over the world 6) After World War II, Germany was divided into two separate countries However, this ……………………… did not last In 1990 the two Germanies united as one country again 7) Many centuries ago, people left their countries to search for new lands The ………………… of the new world brought people from many countries together in North America 8) If you have a question when you are in the library, go to the ……………………… desk and ask one of the librarians for help Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 26 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES STRUCTURE STUDY THE RELATIVE CLAUSE A noun can be modified by a clause A clause of this kind is begun by a relative pronoun and called a relative clause It always follows the noun which it modifies and which is known as its antecedent Look at the following sentences: (a) An engineer is a skilled person He designs, builds or maintains engines, machines, bridges, railways, etc (b) An engineer is a skilled person who designs, builds or maintains engines, machines, bridges, railways, etc The relative pronouns are: Subject: Object: Possessive Determiner: Adverbial: who, which, that, who, whom, which, that, Ø whose (+ a noun) when, where, why (when and why can be replaced by that or Ø) Exercise 1: Join each pair of sentences, making the second sentence a relative clause 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) I can’t find the envelopes I bought it this morning This is a picture of the place We’re going there for our holidays Have you found the money? You lost it His refusal to tell her the truth is the reason That’s why she is so angry with him Are these all the letters? They came in this morning’s post The factory is going to close down I work there The car has now been found It was stolen She’s the person She gives me a lift to work every day The outdoor swimming pool has now been closed down We often went there as children The man was very nice He interviewed me She’s the girl Her brother works in the post office Is there a reason? You want to leave now for that reason Is Technico the company? Sarah works for them The house is over 100 years old Sue has bought it I’m looking for the person I’ve just hit his car Most of the books are still popular today I read them as a child The woman is coming back to work soon I’m doing her job Edinburgh is the city I’d most like to live there His dishonesty is the reason That’s why I left him The early morning is the time I work best then Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD PRESERVATION 27 Exercise 2: Complete the following sentences with an appropriate relative pronoun 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) They’re the people ………………… house caught fire This is the report ………………… the president wanted The girls ………………… are in my class are all good students Is that the hospital ………………… you had your operation? Do you remember the time ………………… your car broke down on the motorway? Our teacher, ………………… is an American, speaks English perfectly The car ………………… Hernando used belongs to his uncle The teacher with ………………… I studied mathematics last year died last week They’re the people ………………… children were injured in the accident Did they tell you the reason ………………… they wanted you to that? Is this the program ………………… you always watch on TV? I don’t understand the reason ………………… he was late The movies ………………… we saw this summer were all good What’s the name of the restaurant ………………… you had lunch? These are the kinds of exercises ………………… help us learn English The lamp ………………… you broke is my brother’s She is one of the workers ………………… went on strike She was the pilot ………………… flew our 747 It is the little things in life ………………… count I can remember a time ………………… there was no television Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 28 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES COOKING READING COMPREHENSION EARLIEST TYPES OF COOKING The origins of cooking are obscure Primitive humans may first have savored roast meat by chance, when the flesh of a beast killed in a forest fire was found to be more palatable and easier to chew and digest than the customary raw meat They probably did not deliberately cook food, though, until long after they had learned to use fire for light and warmth It has been speculated that Peking man roasted meats, but no clear evidence supports the theory From whenever it began, however, roasting spitted meats over fires remained virtually the sole culinary 10 technique until the Paleolithic Period, when the Aurignacian people of southern France began to steam their food over hot embers by wrapping it in wet leaves Aside from such crude procedures as toasting wild grains on flat rocks and using shells, skulls, or hollowed stones to heat liquids, no further culinary advances were made until the introduction of 15 pottery during the Neolithic Period The earliest compound dish was a crude paste (the prototype of the pulmentum of the Roman legions and the polenta of later Italians) made by mixing water with the cracked kernels of wild grasses This paste, toasted to crustiness when dropped on a hot stone, made the first bread 20 ADVANCES IN COOKING TECHNIQUES Culinary techniques improved with the introduction of earthenware (and, more or less concomitantly, the development of settled communities), as well as the domestication of livestock and the cultivation of edible plants A more dependable supply of foodstuffs, Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn COOKING 29 25 including milk and its derivatives, was now assured The roasting spit was augmented by a variety of fired-clay vessels, and the cooking techniques of boiling, stewing, braising, and perhaps even incipient forms of pickling, frying, and oven baking were added Early cooks probably had already learned to preserve meats and fish by smoking, 30 salting, air-drying, or chilling New utensils made it possible to prepare these foods in new ways, and such dishes as bacalao la vizcaina ("dried cod") and finnan haddie (smoked haddock) are still eaten The microwave oven cooks a 20 kilo turkey in less than 1/2 hour instead of the to hours it would take in a standard oven COOKING METHODS Heat-activated cooking methods take five basic forms Food may be 35 immersed in liquids such as water, stock, or wine (boiling, poaching, stewing); immersed in fat or oil (frying); exposed to vapor (steaming and, to some extent, braising); exposed to dry heat (roasting, baking, broiling); and subjected to contact with hot fats (sautéing) With minor modifications, all five methods are applicable to any type of food not 40 eaten raw, but certain treatments traditionally are rarely used to prepare particular foods Deep-fat frying, for example, is not generally thought the ideal method for preparing steaks or chops Boiled foods usually are immersed in flavored or unflavored liquids for longer periods of time than poached foods, and the cooking liquid 45 usually takes the form of a thickened sauce when foods are stewed The chief difference between frying and sautéing is that frying produces a crisp surface, sealing natural moisture inside the food, whereas in the sauté process, natural juices usually mingle with the pan fat, coating the food with a light sauce As opposed to steaming, 50 which does not place foods in direct contact with liquids, braising is accomplished by first browning food in fat and then placing it in direct contact with a small amount of liquid within an airtight pan Originally, roasted foods were exposed to the action of open fires or Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 30 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES live coals, but in contemporary cookery roasting is synonymous with 55 baking – that is, cooking by dry heat in a closed oven Broiling, whether in an oven or over an open fire or coals, exposes meats to the direct action of more intense heat, which sears their surfaces quickly to seal in their juices Questions: Answer the questions about the reading 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) How did primitive humans cook food until the Paleolithic Period? What helped to improve cooking techniques? How may primitive humans have preserved meat and fish? What are the basic cooking methods? What is the main difference between frying and sautéing? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ Primitive people cooked food long before they learned to use fire for light and warmth 2) _ Culinary advances were made only after the introduction of pottery during the Neolithic Period 3) _ Deep-fat frying is the common method for preparing steaks or chops 4) _ Boiled foods usually are immersed in liquids for longer periods of time than poached foods 5) _ Nowadays roasted foods are usually cooked over open fires or live coals VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box palatable cookery savored embers pickling foodstuffs sauté airtight immersed utensils 1) …………… the meat for a few minutes over a medium heat before adding the wine 2) It was the first chocolate he had tasted for over a year, so he …………… every mouthful 3) The shells should be …………… in boiling water for two minutes 4) The meal was barely …………… – in fact, I thought it was disgusting 5) They lack basic ……………, such as bread and milk 6) In the drawer was a selection of kitchen …………… – spoons, spatulas, knives and whisks 7) …………… onions are small onions of a type which are preserved in vinegar 8) A …………… book is a book containing recipes which tell you how to prepare and cook particular dishes Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn COOKING 31 9) They poked the glowing …………… and the fire burst into flames 10) Biscuits will stay crisp if you keep them in an …………… tin WORD STUDY A OVERThe prefix over- means “too,” “too much,” or “too many.” Look at the example: Third World cities are already overcrowded (too crowded) Exercise: Add the prefix over- to each word Then choose the best word for each sentence eat populated weight heated slept cooked 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… There are too many people on the island of Java in Indonesia Java is ……………………… We were driving in the mountains on a very hot day, and our car ……………………… We had to stop and let it cool down Toshi left the rice in the rice cooker too long Now the rice is ……………… Martin has a class at 8:00 in the morning He usually wakes up at 7:00 to get ready Today he was late for class because he didn’t wake up until 8:15 He ……………………… If you ……………………… every day, you will soon be ……………………… Eating too much can make you fat, and it’s not good for your health B -LY Sometimes we can add the suffix ly to an adjective to make an adverb Here is an example: slowly + -ly = slowly Please speak slowly so I can understand Exercise: Add the suffix -ly to each adjective Then choose the best adverb for each sentence accidental inexpensive careful silent thoughtless …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 32 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES similar …………………………………… 1) Brian …………………… told his friend that he didn’t like the color of her new car Then he was sorry for what he said He didn’t think about it before he said it 2) Always read the directions …………………… before you take a test so you don’t make any careless mistakes 3) Loud talking is not allowed in the library You must work …………………… so other people can study, too 4) Julia …………………… knocked her glass off the table, and it broke She did not mean to it 5) If you cook your meals at home and don’t go out too often, you can live…………………… You don’t have to spend too much money C WORD FORMS: OTHER WORDS WITH -LY The meanings of a few common words with the suffix -ly are different from what you might guess Look at these words and their meanings likely = probably The sky is full of gray clouds It is likely to rain soon greatly = very much Family life has changed greatly in the last two centuries largely = mostly Shopping centers have developed largely because of traffic problems in cities lately = recently I haven t seen Maria lately, have you? The last time I saw her was months ago hardly = not much, only a little, almost none There are so many cars in Bangkok that there is hardly any space to park (Note: hardly is a negative word Don’t use no or not with it.) widely = in many places, over a large area English is widely used as a second language Italian is not shortly = in a short time, very soon I will finish my homework shortly Then I will play tennis with you nearly = almost Today is November 20 It is nearly winter Exercise: Now choose the best -ly word from the above list to complete each sentence 1) We are …………………… finished with unit We have only two more exercises to 2) Nick …………………… enjoyed the jazz music festival at school last week It was excellent, and Nick loves jazz 3) The train will arrive …………………… Please wait in the waiting area It will only be a few minutes 4) Jeff …………………… ever eats in fast-food restaurants because he is a vegetarian He usually cooks for himself at home Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn COOKING 33 5) Country music is …………………… to be popular for a long time It will probably still be popular in 20 years 6) Euphorbia is not a …………………… known plant People in most places have never heard of it 7) Deserts are growing all over the world This is …………………… because of humans and their animals 8) I used to go to movies a lot, but I haven’t been to one …………… STRUCTURE STUDY DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES ‘Defining’ relative clauses identify nouns: these clauses tell us which person, thing, etc the speaker means I spoke to the woman who owns the hotel (who owns the hotel tells us which woman) The house which Sue has bought is over 100 years old (which Sue has bought tells us which house) ‘Non-defining’ relative clause not tell us which person, thing, etc the speaker means; these clauses give more information about a person or thing already identified Ken s mother, who is 69, has just passed her driving test (who is 69 does not tell us which woman; we already know that it is Ken s mother) Sue s house, which is in the centre of town, is over 100 years old (which is in the centre of town does not tell us which house; we already know that it is Sue s house) Non-defining clauses are more common in a formal style, especially in writing When we write these clauses, we put commas (,) at the beginning of the clause (and often at the end of the clause) Last weekend I met Sue, who told me she was going on holiday soon Frank Morris, who is one of my best friends, has decided to go and live in France Note that in a non-defining clause we cannot use that or Ø She gave me the key, which I put in my pocket My uncle John, who lives in Manchester, is coming to visit me next week Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 34 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Rewrite the sentences making the second sentence into a nondefining relative clause and putting it into the correct place 1) When I was in town, I met your sister She was shopping for some clothes 2) Their house needs a lot of work doing to it It is near the beach 3) Sandra’s just got a new job with Capital Insurers It’s a much better company than the last one she worked for 4) The new manager seems to be a very capable woman I met her last week 5) This case is full of books I carried it all the way from the station 6) The Games International Company has just gone bankrupt We have done business with them for many years 7) The hospital has handed out redundancy notices to all its staff It is due to close down next year 8) The prisoners are requesting more time out of their cells Their families are campaigning on their behalf 9) The new government is now facing major problems It came to power with a lot of public support 10) Her latest novel is really good I read it on holiday 11) The Home Affairs Minister is suspected of being involved in a financial scandal The opposition have accused the minister of lying 12) The Education Department is changing its policy on single sex schools Mrs Parkinson is in charge of the department 13) The Lilley and Swan department store has made reductions on most of its goods The store has a sale on at the moment 14) The principal actor could hardly speak last night due to a sore throat He normally has a wonderful voice 15) The sales manager is planning a new advertising campaign I support her ideas 16) The oldest method of food preservation is by drying reduces water activity sufficient to delay or prevent bacterial growth 17) Dr Rowan has had to all his own typing His secretary resigned two week ago 18) Meat contains cholesterol Cholesterol is believed to contribute to coronary artery disease 19) My mother knew that they were in the building She had been talking to them earlier 20) We went away in August The children were on holiday from school then Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: giaotrinh tienganh chuyennganh congnghe thucpham phan 1 1335, giaotrinh tienganh chuyennganh congnghe thucpham phan 1 1335, giaotrinh tienganh chuyennganh congnghe thucpham phan 1 1335

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập