CHEM 1003 chemistry of food, health and drugs

23 6 0
  • Loading ...
1/23 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 01/12/2016, 23:47

CHEM 1003: Chemistry of Food, Health and Drugs • • • • • • Professor: G W Buchanan Office 116 Steacie (613)-520-3840 Email gerald_buchanan@carleton.ca Course website: PP slides will be posted http://www.carleton.ca/chemistry/ undergrad/courses/CHEM1003.htm CHEM 1003 Organization/Grades • Mid term (2 hours) 40% Weekend of June 12 • Final (3 hours) 60% : covers all material: June 30, July 2-4 • If absent from midterm for any reason, marks go on final • Problem sets will be assigned, but not marked Answers posted on website • Questions on quizzes and Final “similar” to those on problem sets • Format: Multiple Choice and Short Answer Materials • Text: “ The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things” 4th ed Carl H Snyder Wiley Publishing Problems assigned from this text Problems from May 12 class • • • • • • • • Chapt 1# 1,2 Chapt 2# 6,8,18 Chapt 3# Chapt 5#26,30 Chapt # 1,14 Chapt 12 # 1,18 May 14 class: Chapt #1,8; Chapt 8#1,21 Keep up to date!!!!! Aims of the course • Not to produce Chemists! • To show the relevance of Chemistry in Food ,Drugs and Health • To promote critical assessment of information in the media ie “Intellectual Triage” of Food, Drug and Health concerns, trends, new ideas etc • To get student participation! Class format • PP presentations • Demonstrations (mostly taped) • What’s in the news? Current topics related to course material as they appear in media/internet • We will try to intellectual triage on each: (i) immediate action (ii) follow it (iii) forget (rubbish?) Some examples • Vitamin D :link between deficiency and the risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) established (Feb 2009) • “Immediate action” • Researchers found that proteins activated by Vitamin D bind to a segment of DNA near a gene implicated in MS (degenerative neurological condition-destroys nerve cells in brain and spinal cord) • Most common in northern populations (Low sunlight ) • All Canadians should take Vitamin D (it is added to Milk) Charlatan Story :Raw food diets (Feb 2009) Statement by Natasha Kyssa (Simply Raw, Ottawa) that people feel “sluggish” when eating cooked foods because enzymes in food are destroyed when heated and the body must use its own enzymes, thus depleting it of energy • Analysis: rubbish! The enzymes used in digestion are not contained in food! Lecture topics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Class #1: atoms, elements, isotopes, origin of food, chemical arithmetic, greenhouse gases, concentrations, states of matter- “MIXED BAG” Class #2: Overview of Organic Chemistry Energy and food Class #3: Lipids: Fats and oils Class #4: Carbohydrates Class #5: Amino acids and proteins Class #6: Nucleic acids and genes; minerals -Midterm covers 1st classes material : Friday June 12 from 5-7 PM Class #7: Vitamins; Food additives Class #8: Poisons, Toxins, Hazards, risks Class #9: Acids and bases: Medicines and Drugs (part I) Class#10: Meds and Drugs part II Lifestyle Drugs: Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol Class#11: Fitness; Food production; Agricultural Chemistry Class#12: Herbal Supplements, Weight loss; Diet fads,review The units (website PP postings)! • • • • • • • May 12: Units 1-5 May 14: Units 6&7 May 19: Units 8&9 May 21: Unit 10 June 2: Units 11 & 12.1 June 4: Units 12.1 & 12.2 *** all covered on quiz #1 June 12 half of course nd • • • • • • • June : Units 12.3 &13 June 11: Units 14 &15 June 16: Units 16 &17 June 18: Units 18 &19 June 23: Units 20 &21 June 25: Final review : Q’s &A’s NB This is approximate!!! What in the world isn’t Chemistry?? An Introduction to Chemistry: let’s keep it simple (and fun) chapter Chemistry is the branch of science that studies the composition and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Elements are the fundamental substances of chemistry and are composed of atoms ~115 different elements have been identified, eg hydrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, helium, carbon, calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine Elements cannot be decomposed or converted to simpler substances or other elements by any common form of energy, eg heat, light, electricity, sound, magnetism Only neutron bombardment can induce fission of some nuclei (ie causing decay to other elements and release of energy 236 U) An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can be identified as that element Atoms, once thought to be the ultimate indivisible particles that make up all matter, are among the fundamental particles of the science of chemistry John Dalton (1776-1844) (UK) proposed that all matter was composed of atoms-he was correct! A compound is a pure substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more different elements in a specific ratio Molecules are groups of two or more atoms held together by the forces of chemical bonds H2 and O2 are molecules but not compounds An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries an electrical charge An anion is a negatively charged ion A cation is a positively charged ion Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water, or when melted if they don’t dissolve Those that don’t are nonelectrolytes Electrolytes in Human Cells What are we made of? • On average, about 60% Water by weight, hence O and H are major components • Muscles and fat also contain C and N • Thus H, O, C and N make up over 95% of our weight! • In terms of # of atoms, much higher % H • As we age, we lose water Other Elements in the Human Body Element ~gms/ 70kg Calcium Chlorine Cobalt Copper Iodine Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc 1500 105 trace trace trace 22 800 Where bones & teeth all cells& stomach vitamin B12 in many enzymes thyroid hemoglobin in all cells + bones in ATP & bones intracellular cation extracellular cation many enzymes Dietary Source milk products table salt meat, fish, milk nuts, shellfish seafood beef, fruits green veggies meat, eggs ‘everywhere’ table salt seafood, meat Nature of these elements • • • • • • • Many present as ions or in combination with others Chlorine is present as Cl- (chloride ion) Phosphorus is in phosphate ion (PO4) -3 Sodium & Potassium present as Na+ and K+ 2009 “sodium kills” campaign- NaCl and blood pressure Iodine present as I- (iodide ion) Calcium present as Ca+2, often in Ca3(PO4)2 Calcium phosphate in teeth and bones Trace Elements in the Body (a few of many) • Selenium : Se-in selenoproteins, acts as a peroxide scavenger Hence “anti-aging” effects (at the proper level) Toxic at higher levels • Manganese: Mn-in metalloenzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase • Molybdenum: Mo-in xanthine oxidase, also a metalloenzyme • “ase” suffix denotes an enzyme-physiological catalyst So we are full of Chemicals!! • • • • • • • • • • • • The 10 most abundant elements in our body in terms of weight % Oxygen 65 Carbon 18 Hydrogen 10 Nitrogen Calcium 1.5 Phosphorus 1.0 Potassium 25 Sulfur 25 Chlorine 15 Sodium 15 and 37 others (of known function) [...]... half of course nd • • • • • • • June 9 : Units 12.3 &13 June 11: Units 14 &15 June 16: Units 16 &17 June 18: Units 18 &19 June 23: Units 20 &21 June 25: Final review : Q’s &A’s NB This is approximate!!! What in the world isn’t Chemistry? ? An Introduction to Chemistry: let’s keep it simple (and fun) chapter 1 Chemistry is the branch of science that studies the composition and properties of matter and. .. (ie causing decay to other elements and release of energy 236 U) An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can be identified as that element Atoms, once thought to be the ultimate indivisible particles that make up all matter, are among the fundamental particles of the science of chemistry John Dalton (1776-1844) (UK) proposed that all matter was composed of atoms-he was correct! A compound... if they don’t dissolve Those that don’t are nonelectrolytes Electrolytes in Human Cells What are we made of? • On average, about 60% Water by weight, hence O and H are major components • Muscles and fat also contain C and N • Thus H, O, C and N make up over 95% of our weight! • In terms of # of atoms, much higher % H • As we age, we lose water Other Elements in the Human Body Element ~gms/ 70kg Calcium... matter was composed of atoms-he was correct! A compound is a pure substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more different elements in a specific ratio Molecules are groups of two or more atoms held together by the forces of chemical bonds H2 and O2 are molecules but not compounds An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries an electrical charge An anion is a negatively charged ion A cation... substances of chemistry and are composed of atoms ~115 different elements have been identified, eg hydrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, helium, carbon, calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine Elements cannot be decomposed or converted to simpler substances or other elements by any common form of energy, eg heat, light, electricity, sound, magnetism Only neutron bombardment can induce fission of some... table salt seafood, meat Nature of these elements • • • • • • • Many present as ions or in combination with others Chlorine is present as Cl- (chloride ion) Phosphorus is in phosphate ion (PO4) -3 Sodium & Potassium present as Na+ and K+ 2009 “sodium kills” campaign- NaCl and blood pressure Iodine present as I- (iodide ion) Calcium present as Ca+2, often in Ca3(PO4)2 Calcium phosphate in teeth and bones... Trace Elements in the Body (a few of many) • Selenium : Se-in selenoproteins, acts as a peroxide scavenger Hence “anti-aging” effects (at the proper level) Toxic at higher levels • Manganese: Mn-in metalloenzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase • Molybdenum: Mo-in xanthine oxidase, also a metalloenzyme • “ase” suffix denotes an enzyme-physiological catalyst So we are full of Chemicals!! • • • • • • • • •... enzyme-physiological catalyst So we are full of Chemicals!! • • • • • • • • • • • • The 10 most abundant elements in our body in terms of weight % Oxygen 65 Carbon 18 Hydrogen 10 Nitrogen 3 Calcium 1.5 Phosphorus 1.0 Potassium 25 Sulfur 25 Chlorine 15 Sodium 15 and 37 others (of known function)
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: CHEM 1003 chemistry of food, health and drugs , CHEM 1003 chemistry of food, health and drugs , CHEM 1003 chemistry of food, health and drugs

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập