7 ocean water chemistry

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Ocean Water Chemistry Figure 4.17a http://www.nhptv.org/ Distribution of Earth’s Water • Oceans • Ice Caps and Glaciers • Atmosphere • Rivers and Lakes • Inland Seas • Groundwater 97.2 % 2.15 % 0.001 % 0.009 % 0.008 % 0.625 % Ocean Water is SALTY • Salinity: Total amount of dissolved solids • Units: o/oo = 1/1000 • Range: 33 – 37 o/oo • Increase in salinity: – Increase in Density – Decrease in Freezing Point – Decrease in Vapor Pressure – Increase in Osmotic Pressure Origin of Salts in Oceans • Rivers (largest transport of chemicals to ocean) – Rain + CO2  H2CO3 – Si, Al, Na, K, Mg • Volcanoes – Cl, S, CO2 • Dust / Rain – Fe, Si • Anthropogenic – CO2, P Example Geochemical Cycle Concept of Steady State Example Geochemical Cycle http://www.nhptv.org/ How we measure light penetration? Secchi Disc Water Refraction Eschrichtius robustus Sound Velocity • Influenced by Salinity, Temperature and Pressure – Increases with Salinity – Increases with Temperature – Increases with Pressure • Concept of Midwater Sound Channel Study in Detail Fig 5-19! Sound Channel Humpback Whales Megaptera novaeangliae Gray Whale & Sonar Proposal Eschrichtius robustus Gray Whale Migration Acoustic Pollution [...]... 000 7 000 100 Concentration Crust (%) Ocean (mg/l) 2.4 0.013 2.3 2.1 0.026 4.1 0.5 2.4 10 77 0 19 500 1 290 380 905 412 0.0002 0.002 Dissolved Gases Gas Solubility: Decreases with Temp and Salinity Increases with Pressure Gases in Atmosphere & Oceans Percent Gas Phase by Volume Gas Atmosphere Surface Ocean Total Ocean N2 79 % 48% 11% O2 21% 36% 6% CO2 0.04% 15% 83% Seawater pH • Pure water pH = 7 • Seawater... liquids, except liquid ammonia • Latent heat of Vaporization: heat needed to evaporate a liquid – Water has the highest of all substances Seawater: Temperature and Density Seawater: Temperature and salinity Seawater: Ice Formation Electromagnetic wave penetration Open water (low productivity) Coastal and Estuarine waters (high productivity) Nuclear Missile Submarine http://www.nhptv.org/ ... 6% CO2 0.04% 15% 83% Seawater pH • Pure water pH = 7 • Seawater pH = 7. 5 – 8.1 • Seawater is very well buffered! CO2(gas)+H2OH2CO3H++HCO32H++CO32 H2O: Universal Polar Solvent H20: Temperature and Density H2O: Frozen & Liquid density H2O: Heat Capacity • Heat Capacity: heat needed to change the temperature of a substance • Water has higher heat capacity than: – All solids – All liquids, except...Residence Time (T = Ocean amount/Output rate) • Concentration of elements in seawater is determined by their removal rate • Conservative elements: – - Major Elements: Cl, Na, SO4, Mg, Ca, K Minor Elements: Br, Sr, B, C, F • Non Conservative Elements –
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