Intro to chem unit 1

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Introduction to Chemistry Chemistry The study of:   the composition (make-up) of matter the changes that matter undergoes The Traditional Branches of Chemistry      Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical Biochemistry Inorganic Chemistry  The study of chemicals that not contain carbon Organic Chemistry   The study of chemicals that contain carbon Origin: study of chemicals in living organisms Analytical Chemistry  Composition of matter; measurable, identifies compounds/components Example: Mass Spectrometer Gas Chromatograph http://besg.group.shef.ac.uk/Facilities/Images/gcms.JPG Physical Chemistry  The study of :      The mechanism The rate The energy transfer that happens when matter undergoes change Study of the interaction between two elements Study of properties and changes of matter and energy Biochemistry   Study of processes that take place in organisms Understand the structure of matter found in the human body and the chemical changes that occur in cells Science     What? Why? How? When? Science and Technology   Theoretical Chemistry-Design of new compound and new ideas; categories: pure and applied Science  Pure   Does not necessarily have an application; just knowing for knowledge’s sake; research Technology  Applied    Has practical applications in society Directed toward a practical goal/application Engineering Scientific Method The cafeteria wanted to collect data on how much milk was sold in week The table shows the results We are going to take this data and display it in different types of graphs Day Chocolate Strawberry White Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 53 72 112 33 76 78 97 73 78 47 126 87 86 143 162 Scientific Method Bar Graph     A bar graph is used to show relationships between groups The two items being compared not need to affect each other It's a fast way to show big differences Notice how easy it is to read a bar graph Often used for counting Chocolate Milk Sold 120 112 100 Amount Sold  80 76 72 60 53 40 33 20 Monday Monday Wednesday Friday Tuesday Tuesday Thursday Wednesday Day Thursday Friday Scientific Method  Circle graph (a.k.a pie chart)    Used to show how a part of something relates to the whole This kind of graph is needed to show percentages effectively Sum of parts is or 100% Chocolate Milk Sold Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Scientific Method Line Graph    A line graph is used to show continuing data; how one thing is affected by another It's clear to see how things are going by the rises and falls a line graph shows Equation of line represents the data Chocolate MIlk Sold 120 100 Amount Sold  80 60 40 20 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Day Chocolate Thursday Friday Scientific Method  Choosing the right graph for your data    Use a bar graph if you are not looking for trends (or patterns) over time; and the items (or categories) are not parts of a whole Use a pie chart if you need to compare different parts of a whole, there is no time involved and there are not too many items (or categories) Use a line graph if you need to see how a quantity has changed over time.  Line graphs enable us to find trends (or patterns) over time Scientific Method  Conclusion   Presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, the hypothesis and whether or not it was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated) Theorizes why the observed pattern is so Scientific Method  Communicate  When scientists collaborate (work together) and communicated, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome    Journals Internet Presentations/Speeches Observations vs Inferences  Observation    Something you confirm, something you have seen, a fact A piece of information about circumstances that exists or events that have occurred Inference   An abstract or general idea derived from specific instances Idea, thought, concept, notion, opinion Theory     A well tested explanation for a broad set of observations May use models May allow predictions Theories may change to explain new observations or experimental data Law    A statement that summarizes results of observations, but does not explain them Concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments Changes or is abandoned when contradicted by new experiments Note:  The order of the steps can vary and additional steps may be added “No number of experiments can prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Albert Einstein Math and Chemistry  Math- the language of Science      SI System (Metric System) Factor Label Method (Dimensional Analysis) Significant Figures Scientific Notation Manipulating Formulas Units  SI Units – International System  Basic Units Length Mass Time (meter) (kilogram) (second) abbreviation m kg s Solving Word Problems  Analyze     Calculate    List knowns and unknowns Devise a plan Write the math equation to be used If needed, rearrange the equation to solve for the unknown Substitute the knowns with units in the equation and express the answer with units Evaluate  Is the answer reasonable? [...]... Scientific Method The cafeteria wanted to collect data on how much milk was sold in 1 week The table shows the results We are going to take this data and display it in 3 different types of graphs Day Chocolate Strawberry White Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 53 72 11 2 33 76 78 97 73 78 47 12 6 87 86 14 3 16 2 Scientific Method Bar Graph     A bar graph is used to show relationships between groups... not need to affect each other It's a fast way to show big differences Notice how easy it is to read a bar graph Often used for counting Chocolate Milk Sold 12 0 11 2 10 0 Amount Sold  80 76 72 60 53 40 33 20 0 Monday Monday Wednesday Friday Tuesday Tuesday Thursday Wednesday Day Thursday Friday Scientific Method  Circle graph (a.k.a pie chart)    Used to show how a part of something relates to the...Alchemists (~300BC -16 50 AD) China, India, Arabia, Europe, Egypt •Aiming to: Change common metals to gold Develop medicines •Developed lab equipment •Mystical Antoine Lavoisier (France 17 43 -17 94)      Regarded as the Father of Chemistry Designed equipment Used observations and measurements Discovered nitrogen Law... graph is needed to show percentages effectively Sum of parts is 1 or 10 0% Chocolate Milk Sold Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Scientific Method Line Graph    A line graph is used to show continuing data; how one thing is affected by another It's clear to see how things are going by the rises and falls a line graph shows Equation of line represents the data Chocolate MIlk Sold 12 0 10 0 Amount... can prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Albert Einstein Math and Chemistry  Math- the language of Science      SI System (Metric System) Factor Label Method (Dimensional Analysis) Significant Figures Scientific Notation Manipulating Formulas Units  SI Units – International System  Basic Units Length Mass Time (meter) (kilogram) (second) abbreviation m kg s Solving Word Problems... responding variables)     Planned way to test the hypothesis and find out the answer to the problem posed Way to collect data and determine the value of the dependent variable Compares independent variable to the dependent variable Can only test one dependent variable at a time Scientific Method  3 parts to an experiment   Control-standard for comparison Variables    Independent Variable... Variable     A variable that changes depending on some other factors The variable we are trying to find out Variable whose value we do not know before we start the experiment Example: Does the amount of salt in water affect the boiling temperature of water? We do not know the boiling temperature to water once salt is added; must test to find this out Scientific Method  Constants    Does not change... patterns) over time; and the items (or categories) are not parts of a whole Use a pie chart if you need to compare different parts of a whole, there is no time involved and there are not too many items (or categories) Use a line graph if you need to see how a quantity has changed over time.  Line graphs enable us to find trends (or patterns) over time Scientific Method  Conclusion   Presents the findings... the expected answer to the problem statement (what you think the results of the experiment will show)  If you increase the amount of salt added to the water, the boiling temperature will also increase because Scientific Method  Experiment- an organized procedure used to test a hypothesis (measurement, data collection, manipulated and responding variables)     Planned way to test the hypothesis... abbreviation m kg s Solving Word Problems  Analyze     Calculate    List knowns and unknowns Devise a plan Write the math equation to be used If needed, rearrange the equation to solve for the unknown Substitute the knowns with units in the equation and express the answer with units Evaluate  Is the answer reasonable?
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