Self efficacy and FL education

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Self-Efficacy and Foreign Language Education Nicole Mills mills@fas.harvard.edu National Middle East Language Resource Center Brigham Young University April 19, 2013 Presentation  What is Self-Efficacy?  What does self-efficacy do?  Where does self-efficacy come from?  What are current areas of self-efficacy research?  Why would you assess self-efficacy in the foreign language classroom?  How you assess self-efficacy?  What are the results of self-efficacy research in foreign language learning?  How does current self-efficacy research link to the teaching of less commonly taught languages?  How I foster self-efficacy in the LCTL classroom? What is Self-Efficacy? Social Cognitive Theory  Individuals possess a system of self-beliefs that enables them to exercise control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions Self-Efficacy  “People’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances” (Bandura, 1997) Self-Efficacy  “What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave” (Bandura, 1986)  Self-efficacy is often a better predictor of success than actual abilities  Beginning with Graham & Weiner’s review of motivational research in 1996, we have learned that students’ self-efficacy more consistently predicts academic performance over and above other motivational constructs Great voices of self-efficacy “They are able who think they are able” – Virgil (ancient Roman poet) Great voices of self-efficacy “A man who doubts himself is like a man who would enlist in the ranks of his enemies and bear arms against himself He makes failure certain by him being the first person convinced of it.” – Alexandre Dumas (French author) Great voices of self-efficacy “Whether you think that you can or you can’t, you’re usually right.” – Henry Ford (Founder, Ford Motor Company) Great voices of self-efficacy “If I have the belief that I can it, I shall surely acquire the capacity to it even if I may not have it at the beginning.” – Mahatma Gandhi (activist) Ideas for Self-efficacy research within the LCTL context  “Learning about culture has been identified as a key motivating factor for [LCTL] students” (Stenson et al, 1998, p 7)    What are LCTL students’ self-efficacy beliefs in cultural understanding of products, practices, and perspectives in a given curriculum? What are LCTL teacher self-efficacy beliefs in their ability to effectively teach cultural products, practices, and perspectives? Students study LCTLs for both humanistic reasons (personal enjoyment and interest) and utilitarian interests (improving career prospects) (Murphy, Magnan, Back & Garrett-Rucks, 2009)   How the self-efficacy beliefs of these two groups differ? How are they similar? Do our curricular plans meet their needs? Ideas for Self-efficacy research within the LCTL context  Freedman (2004) noted that language enrollment in LCTL courses is steady at the first and second year level, but drops off at higher levels of study  How the students’ self-efficacy beliefs evolve from the beginning of the first year to the end of the second year?  What would student interviews tell us about their perceived competence and their beliefs about the perceived value of learning a LCTL at the advanced level?  What students deem important and valuable and how could this be integrated into LCTL advanced level courses? Ideas for Self-efficacy research within the LCTL context  Wang (2009) discusses a need for increased solidarity, availability of updated teaching materials, and collaboration among LCTL instructors  Do teacher self-efficacy beliefs evolve and develop from the beginning to the end of a teacher training workshop or course (ex: STARTALK)? Why or why not?  What are the teacher self-efficacy beliefs of LCTL instructors as they relate to the development of teaching materials that align with current communicative, post-communicative and literacy based teaching methodologies ?  What is the collective efficacy of LCTL instructors? Ideas for Self-efficacy research within the LCTL context  Haley & Ferro (2011) suggest that US language teacher programs are typically geared toward instruction of commonly taught languages and emphasize constructivist paradigms  How does these teacher training programs influence the teacher selfefficacy beliefs of LCTL instructors from a different cultural background with different educational paradigms?  What are the teacher self-efficacy beliefs of LCTL versus commonly taught language instructors enrolled in US teacher education programs? Where and how they differ? How could US teacher education programs revise program curricula accordingly? How I foster self-efficacy in the LCTL classroom? How I foster self-efficacy?      Foster self-directedness and pro-activity among students Allow students to exercise control of their own learning Allow students to problem-solve (inductive learning vs deductive learning) Encourage students to set goals Creation of a collaborative classroom – shared knowledge and decision making (John Barrell, “Working toward student self-direction and personal efficacy as educational goals”) Foster Mastery Experiences  Instructors could provide multiple opportunities for students to experience success in the FL classroom  Teacher guided activities and appropriate scaffolding prepare students to be successful  Provide students with multiple opportunities to exchange information, discuss opinions, and present ideas with their peers in partners before large group discussion  Teachers’ in-class presentation and modelling of effective language learning strategies Foster Vicarious Experiences  Teacher in-class presentation and modeling    Model in-class speaking activities Model texts or essays (written by native speakers, written by successful former students, etc.) Student observation of linguistically proficient peers     Inspire and enhance students’ perception of their potential Students who have studied abroad or at the advanced level Models of former student work (essays, final projects, videos, etc.) Collaborative learning experiences (blogs, presentations, discussion boards) to provide learners with opportunities to observe the successes of their peers at similar proficiency levels Foster self-efficacy through Verbal Persuasions Teachers’ appropriate verbal feedback and encouragement “the teacher’s challenge is to ensure that their students’ internal standards are…     rigorous without being debilitating realistic without being self-limiting fluid without being wishy washy consistent without being static…” – Pajares, 2002 Foster self-efficacy by encouraging positive emotional states  What causes anxiety according to FL students?        Non-Comprehension Excessive error correction Fear of peer/ teacher evaluation Speed of the course “intimidating” teachers Comparison to native speaker performance Renée von Wörde “Students’ Perspectives on Foreign Language Anxiety” from Inquiry, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2003 Foster self-efficacy by encouraging positive Emotional States How I create a low-anxiety classroom environment?   Development of a sense of community (communality or connectedness among students & teacher)  “personal relationship” with the teacher  Teacher’s attitude toward the language  Teachers who “make the class fun to like learning” or “make the class more animated” or “teachers who make it interesting by using interesting situations” grounded in engaging cultural content Renée von Wörde “Students’ Perspectives on Foreign Language Anxiety” from Inquiry, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2003 / Mills, 2013  Foster self-efficacy by encouraging positive emotional states  How I create a low-anxiety classroom environment?  Teacher repetition/ reinforcement  Teachers’ use of appealing and relevant topics  learner-centred curricula which allow students to become active decision-makers and engage with a wide network of available resources both inside and outside the classroom  freedom, choice, and experimentation Renée von Wörde “Students’ Perspectives on Foreign Language Anxiety” from Inquiry, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2003 / Mills, 2013 Foster collective efficacy…  Fostering the sources of self-efficacy help to establish a community of learners and classroom dynamic in which learners create a shared sense of collective efficacy, or shared belief in the class community’s ability to complete foreign language tasks and communicate effectively in the target language Yes, we can…and collective efficacy Fostering, enhancing, and assessing self-efficacy … Yes, we can! Yes, you can! Further self-efficacy references  Reference list available online Upcoming chapter that could be a good future resource: Mills, N A (accepted, under review) Self-efficacy in Second Language Acquisition In Eds M Williams & S Mercer, Multiple Perspectives on the Self Multilingual Matters  Email: mills@fas.harvard.edu  http://works.bepress.com/nicole_mills/  Thank you! [...]... of self- efficacy research? Current areas of self- efficacy research          Career self- efficacy Sports self- efficacy Self- efficacy and diets Self- efficacy and pain management Parental self- efficacy Self- efficacy and Depression Gender gaps and Self- efficacy Teacher Self- efficacy Student Self- efficacy Why would you assess self- efficacy in the foreign language classroom? Why would you assess self- efficacy. ..Great Voices of Self- Efficacy “Clearly it is not simply a matter of how capable one is, but of how capable one believes oneself to be.” – Frank Pajares (Former associate professor of educational psychology, Emory University) What does self- efficacy do? What does self- efficacy do?      Influences pursued courses of action and decisions Influences the degree of expended effort Influences the level... Routard Simulation: Increasing Self- Efficacy in the Standards through Project-based Learning (Mills, 2009) Global Simulation and the Writing Self- beliefs of Intermediate French Students (Mills & Péron, 2009)* Longitudinal Perceptions of Efficacy and Value in the French Language Requirement (Mills, November 2010) * Learning strategies and self- efficacy: Learner strategies and self- efficacy: Making the connection... Highly Certain can do What are the results of self- efficacy research in foreign language learning? Self- efficacy references in foreign language learning Student self- efficacy beliefs: Self- efficacy of college intermediate French students: Relation to Motivation and Achievement (Mills, Pajares, & Herron, 2007) A Re-evaluation of the Role of Anxiety: Self- efficacy, Anxiety, & their Relation to Reading... Influences the level of perseverance and resilience to adversity in the face of obstacles Influences affective states Influences the degree of success realized -Bandura, 1997 Where does self- efficacy come from? Where does self- efficacy come from? Sources of Self- Efficacy:     Mastery Experiences Vicarious Experiences Emotional States Social/ Verbal Persuasions (Bandura, 1997) Mastery Experiences ... 2008) Teacher self- efficacy beliefs: Teacher Self- efficacy of Graduate Teaching Assistants of French (native vs non-native) (Mills & Allen, 2007) Teacher self- efficacy in literature of teaching assistants of French (Mills, 2011)* Action Research: Bridging Theory and Practice (Mills, 2013) Results from Self- Efficacy Research Three Sample Research Studies: Global Simulation and the Writing Self- beliefs... Perceptions of Efficacy and Value in the French Language Requirement (Mills, 2010) * (quantitative) Teaching assistants’ self- efficacy in teaching literature: Sources, personal assessments, and consequences (Mills, 2011)* (qualitative) How can you evaluate the influence of a new pedagogical approach or new curriculum on students’ self- efficacy? Global simulation and the development of writing self- efficacy. .. the influence of teaching learning strategy techniques (ex: reading strategies, etc.) on students’ self- efficacy  Longitudinal evaluation of self- efficacy beliefs (language requirement?)  Other reasons? How do you assess self- efficacy? How do you assess self- efficacy? (quantitatively)  Creation of self- efficacy questionnaires:  The questions should be phrased in terms of “can do” as opposed to “will... in France You will develop your own character and tell the story of his/her life in the first person.” (- Mélanie Péron) Global simulation and the development of writing self- efficacy in French  This study evaluated how global simulation influenced the development of intermediate-French students’ writing selfbeliefs (writing self- efficacy* ) “Writing self- efficacy beliefs are defined as individuals’... classroom? Why would you assess self- efficacy in the foreign language classroom?  Evaluate students’ perceived competence in the course objectives  Evaluate the influence of a new pedagogical approach on students’ selfefficacy (pre vs post)  Evaluate the influence of pedagogical interventions (ex: workshops, etc.) on students’ or teachers’ self- efficacy  Evaluate the influence of teaching learning strategy
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