Getting to know the arabic language sept2011 final

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Getting to Know the Arabic Language © A Brief Overview Susan A Hodge September 2011 Did you know? • -Arabic is one of the official languages of the United Nations (+ English, French, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish) • -Arabic is the fourth most widely-spoken language, after English, Spanish, and Chinese • -number of native speakers: 220-280 million (Did you know?) • There are functional types of Arabic language: – Classical Arabic is the language of the Qur’an, and is used primarily for reading and reciting Islamic holy text – Spoken Arabic has regional dialects, but over 30 actual varieties of colloquial (spoken) Arabic around the world – Modern Standard Arabic is used in the news and on TV—the “common language” used by speakers of different dialects Dialect • A dialect is a different way of speaking the SAME language to say the SAME thing • A dialect is not right or wrong, just different • Can you name a dialect of English? • Do you think that Rasha, Sami, Yasmin, and Akram speak the same dialect? (Did you know?) Countries where Arabic is the primary spoken language: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Palestinian territories in Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian West Bank & Gaza, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen (Classical Arabic is read everywhere that Islam is practiced.) (Did you know?) • Speakers of colloquial Arabic from different parts of the world use dialects and may not understand each other! (They can use Modern Standard Arabic to communicate with each other.) • Native speakers of Arabic include Muslims, Christians, and people of other faiths…but Arabic is the liturgical (religious) language of Islam • Which character in Bayoumi’s book is Christian? Arabic literature • Arabic has been a highly developed literary language for over 1,500 years (including poetry) • Some writers: – Hafiz (poet) – Khalil Gibran (poet) – Mourid Barghouti – Naguib Mahfouz – living novelist from Egypt (Nobel Prize for literature, 1988) Words derived from Arabic • • • • • • • • Algebra (al Jabr) Cipher (sifr, the name for “zero”) Alcohol (al quhul) Sugar (sukkar) Cotton (qutun) Coffee (kahwa) Lemon (limon) Checkmate (shek mat, “the king is dead”) Characteristics of Arabic language • Arabic an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic group • Arabic is considered one of the “younger” Semitic languages (4th century) • As the religious language of the Qur’an (7th century), it expanded rapidly during the rise of Islam in the 8th century • Can you name another Semitic language? • … Hebrew … Aramaic (characteristics of Arabic language) • Semitic languages share this characteristic: Verbs (and related adjectives) are based on a group of consonants • • • • • For example: k-t-b : “write” ‘aktubu = I write katib = writer maktub = written kuttab = writers kitab = book maktab = office kutub = books maktabah = library An Arabic name and an American name – both written in Arabic Kareem Robert Numbers are also listed from right to lef, but a number with meaning is written lef to right: 12,345,678,910  (Characteristics of Arabic language) • 28 letters (plus variations to make the sounds for /p/ and /g/) • no distinction between capital and small letters • Only long vowels (a, i, u) • Other vowels are indicated by diacritical marks (slashes, small circles, squiggles) Arabic alphabet Letter and its name • • • • • • • • • • • ‫ا‬    aleph  ‫ب‬     ‫ت‬     ‫ث‬     ‫ج‬     ‫ ح‬heth ‫خ‬     ‫د‬     dalet ‫ذ‬    dal ‫ز‬     zayin ‫ر‬     resh bet taw ta’ gimel ha’ Letter and its name • • • • • • • • • • • ‫ز‬     zayin ‫ س‬sin ‫ش‬     ‫ص‬     ‫ض‬    ‫ط‬     ‫ظ‬    za’  ‫ ع‬ayin ‫غ‬     ‫ف‬     ‫ق‬     shin tsad daad teth ghain pe Qoph Arabic alphabet, continued • • • • • • • ‫ك‬     kaph ‫ ل‬lamedh ‫م‬   mim  ‫ن‬    nun  ‫ه‬      he ‫ و‬  waw ‫ ي‬yaa Vowels: /a/ ‫ا‬    aleph /i/ ‫ي‬ yaa /u/ ‫و‬   waw Summary of the alphabet Diacritical marks ‫حم‬ ‫ن الررحميمم‬ ‫بمسسمم ٱ ل‬ ‫ل ٱلرر ح‬ ‫م ن‬ bismi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi In the Name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful -Qur’an, (Al-Fatiha 1:1) (Characteristics of Arabic writing) • Most letters change form and look different when they appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word • Ex: hā’ h /h/ ‫ه هـ ـهـ ـه‬ • Sometimes the letters are connected, but not always – it depends “M’brook” = “congratulations!” (notice: only some letters connect) Writing as religious art – Bism’allah (“In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate”- Qur’an) Dr Bayoumi’s book title “Kaifa tashour wa ladaika ahnsas anaka mushkela” •(Mushkela = problem) Some commonly used expressions • In sha’ Allah = God willing (said seriously or even informally) • Bism’ Allah = in the name of God (said when beginning a trip, reading, walking, or even eating) • Alhamdulillah! = Praise to Allah! (said to express satisfaction, even after eating) Meeting friends, in Arabic • Please: • Thank you: • You’re welcome: fadlak (m), fadliki (f) shukran afwan • Hello! (informal) • Welcome! • Hello (peace to you): ahlan wa sahlan! Marhaba! Salaam • How are you?: • I’m very well: • And you? kheif halak? (m), haliki (f) ana bekhair Wa anta? (m), anti (f) Now, meet the person next to you! A: What is your name? ma ismuk? (m), ismuki? (f) B: My name is _ ismee _ A: I live in _ B: I am a student askun fi ana talib (m), ana taliba (f) Both: Good bye! Ma’a salaama (peace with you) Sources Contact Susan Hodge at: shodge@uscupstate.edu if you would like a list of websites for further investigation, or a copy of these slides Special thanks to my teachers: Dr Mirko Hall (Converse College) Mrs Laila Miraziz (USC Upstate) and to Mr John Miraziz Shukran jiddan! (Thank you very much!) [...]... from right to lef An Arabic name and an American name – both written in Arabic Kareem Robert Numbers are also listed from right to lef, but a number with meaning is written lef to right: 12,345,678,910  (Characteristics of Arabic language) • 28 letters (plus variations to make the sounds for /p/ and /g/) • no distinction between capital and small letters • Only 3 long vowels (a, i, u) • Other vowels... Summary of the alphabet Diacritical marks ‫حم‬ ‫ن الررحميمم‬ ‫بمسسمم ٱ ل‬ ‫ل ٱلرر ح‬ ‫م ن‬ bismi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi In the Name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful -Qur’an, (Al-Fatiha 1:1) (Characteristics of Arabic writing) • Most letters change form and look different when they appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word • Ex: hā’ h /h/ ‫ه هـ ـهـ ـه‬ • Sometimes the. .. Bism’allah (“In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate”- Qur’an) Dr Bayoumi’s book title “Kaifa tashour wa ladaika ahnsas anaka mushkela” •(Mushkela = problem) Some commonly used expressions • In sha’ Allah = God willing (said seriously or even informally) • Bism’ Allah = in the name of God (said when beginning a trip, reading, walking, or even eating) • Alhamdulillah! = Praise to Allah! (said to express... satisfaction, even after eating) Meeting friends, in Arabic • Please: • Thank you: • You’re welcome: min fadlak (m), fadliki (f) shukran afwan • Hello! (informal) • Welcome! • Hello (peace to you): ahlan wa sahlan! Marhaba! Salaam • How are you?: • I’m very well: • And you? kheif halak? (m), haliki (f) ana bekhair Wa anta? (m), anti (f) Now, meet the person next to you! A: What is your name? ma ismuk? (m),... Ma’a salaama (peace with you) Sources Contact Susan Hodge at: shodge@uscupstate.edu if you would like a list of websites for further investigation, or a copy of these slides Special thanks to my teachers: Dr Mirko Hall (Converse College) Mrs Laila Miraziz (USC Upstate) and to Mr John Miraziz Shukran jiddan! (Thank you very much!) ... circles, squiggles) Arabic alphabet Letter and its name • • • • • • • • • • • ‫ا‬    aleph  ‫ب‬     ‫ت‬     ‫ث‬     ‫ج‬     ‫ ح‬heth ‫خ‬     ‫د‬     dalet ‫ذ‬    dal ‫ز‬     zayin ‫ر‬     resh bet taw ta’ gimel ha’ Letter and its name • • • • • • • • • • • ‫ز‬     zayin ‫ س‬sin ‫ش‬     ‫ص‬     ‫ض‬    ‫ط‬     ‫ظ‬    za’  ‫ ع‬ayin ‫غ‬     ‫ف‬     ‫ق‬     shin tsad daad teth ghain pe Qoph Arabic alphabet,
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